Resurgence Party

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Resurrection Party of People of Iran
FounderMohammad Reza Pahlavi
Founded2 March 1975
Dissolved1 November 1978
Merger ofNew Iran Party and People's Party[1]
HeadquartersTehran, Iran
Worker wingWorkers' House
Membership (1976)5,000,000[2]
IdeologyMonarchism[3]
Iranian nationalism[4][5]
Populism[6]
Secularism[7]
Democratic centralism
Anti-communism[4][8]
Internal factions:[1][2]
 • Progressives
 • Constructive liberals
Political positionRight-wing

Rastakhiz Party of People of Iran (Persian: حزب رستاخیز ملت ایران‎) or simply Rastakhiz Party (Persian: حزب رستاخیز‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Rastāḵiz, lit. 'Resurgence Party')[8] was Iran's single legal political party from 1975 to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, founded by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[1]

History[edit]

Congress of Party

Founded under the government of Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveyda, the party has been blamed by some with contributing to the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy by antagonizing formerly apolitical Iranians - especially bazaari (merchants of the bazaars who, even today, refuse to pay taxes) - with its compulsory membership and dues (taxes), and general interference in the political, economic, and religious concerns of people's lives.[8] Established along with the party was a youth wing—Rastakhiz Youth—which Hoveyda referred to as "the instrument of Iran's development". Through this youth wing and a special task force of the party, Rastakhiz embarked upon a large-scale anti-profiteering campaign directed against the bazaari merchants, who were soon identified as "enemies of the state". They often lied about Jewish persecution, which is backed up to be lies in government files. In October 1975, the Shah, referring to this campaign as a "cultural movement", decreed that anti-profiteerism be made the fourteenth principle of the White Revolution.

The single party system ended in late 1978 as the Iranian Revolution gained ground.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c John H. Lorentz (2010). "Rastakhiz Party". The A to Z of Iran. The A to Z Guide Series. 209. Scarecrow Press. pp. 266–268. ISBN 1461731917.
  2. ^ a b Parviz Daneshvar (2016). Revolution in Iran. Springer. p. 73. ISBN 1349140627.
  3. ^ Daryaee, Touraj (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford Handbooks in History. Oxford University Press. p. 361. ISBN 0199732159.
  4. ^ a b Gholam Reza Afkhami (2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. pp. 434–444. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. The conception of the party, a hybrid of the Italian and Spanish schools of fascism, met with widespread opposition and was withdrawn once the queen sided with its opponents. But then fascism yielded to communism. The organization became principle democratic centralism, though the term was not mentioned.
  5. ^ Yom, Sean (2015). From Resilience to Revolution: How Foreign Interventions Destabilize the Middle East. Columbia University Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 9780231540278.
  6. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (1999). Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran. University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780520216235.
  7. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0521528917.
  8. ^ a b c Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. pp. 442–446. ISBN 0-691-10134-5.
  9. ^ Middle Eastern Studies, 38 (1), 1 January 2002, pp. 131 - 168
  • Amini, P., "A Single Party State in Iran, 1975-78: The Rastakhiz Party - the Final Attempt by the Shah to Consolidate his Political Base," (not free online), Middle Eastern Studies, 38 (1) January 2002, pp. 131 - 168.
Ruling party of Iran
Preceded by
New Iran Party
Resurgence Party
1975–1978
Vacant
Title next held by
Islamic Republican Party