Pintoricchio or Pinturicchio whose formal name was Bernardino di Betto known as Benetto di Biagio or Sordicchio, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance. Born in Perugia in 1454 and dying in Siena in 1513, Pintoricchio acquired his nickname, because of his small stature, he used it to sign some of his 15th and 16th century artworks. Pinturicchio was born the son of Betto di Blagio, in Perugia. In his career, he may have trained under lesser known Perugian painters such as Bonfigli and Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. According to Vasari, Pinturicchio was a paid assistant of Perugino; the works of the Perugian Renaissance school are similar. In the execution of large frescoes and assistants had a large share in the work, either in enlarging the master's sketch to the full-sized cartoon, in transferring the cartoon to the wall, or in painting backgrounds or accessories, his assignment in Rome, to decorate the Sistine Chapel, was an experience fraught with learning from prominent artists of the time, including: Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Vanucci, Luca Signorelli.
The Sistine Chapel was where it is believed that Pinturicchio was collaborating with Perugino to some extent. After assisting Perugino in his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, Pinturicchio was employed by various members of the Della Rovere family to decorate the Semi-Gods Ceiling of Palazzo dei Penitenzieri and a series of chapels in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo, where he appears to have worked from 1484, or earlier, to 1492. "Would be, if it had been left with all its original decorations, one of the finest monuments to Pintoricchio’s art in Italy. A great deal still remains, but much has been swept away", sums up his work in that basilica Evelyn March Phillipps; the earliest of his works is an altarpiece of the Adoration of the Shepherds, in the Della Rovere Chapel, the first chapel on the south, built by Cardinal Domenico della Rovere. In the lunettes under the vault Pinturicchio painted small scenes from the life of St Jerome; the polychrome grotesque wall decoration on yellow-gold background were inspired by the paintings of the Domus Aurea, belong the earliest and highest quality of their kind in Rome.
The frescos which he painted in the Cybo Chapel, built by Cardinal Lorenzo Cybo de Mari in the beginning of the 16th century, were destroyed in 1682, when the chapel was rebuilt by Cardinal Alderano Cybo. The old fresco of the Virgin and the Child by Pinturicchio was detached from the wall and sent by the cardinal to Massa in 1687; the fragment was re-used as the altarpiece of the Ducal Chapel of the Cathedral of Massa. The third chapel on the south is that of Girolamo Basso della Rovere, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, bishop of Recanati; the Basso Della Rovere Chapel contains a fine altarpiece of the Madonna enthroned between Four Saints, on the east side a nobly composed fresco of the Assumption of the Virgin. The vault and its lunettes are richly decorated with small pictures of the Life of the Virgin, surrounded by graceful arabesques. In the Costa Chapel, Pinturicchio or one of his helpers painted the Four Latin Doctors in the lunettes of the vault. Most of these frescoes are injured by moisture and have suffered little from restoration.
The last paintings completed by Pinturicchio in this church are found on the vault behind the choir, where he painted decorative frescoes, with main lines arranged to suit their surroundings in a skilful way. In the centre is an octagonal panel of the Coronation of the Virgin, surrounding it, are medallions of the Four Evangelists; the spaces between them are filled by reclining figures of the Four Sibyls. On each pendentive is a figure of one of the Four Doctors enthroned under a niched canopy; the bands which separate these pictures have elaborate arabesques on a gold ground, the whole is painted with broad and effective touches telling when seen from a considerable distance below. No finer specimen of the decoration of a simple quadripartite vault can be seen anywhere. In 1492, Pinturicchio was summoned to Orvieto Cathedral, he was employed by Pope Alexander VI to decorate a completed suite of six rooms, the Borgia Apartments in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican. These rooms now form part of the Vatican Library, five still retain a series of Pinturicchio frescoes.
The Umbrian painter worked in these rooms till around 1494, assisted by his pupils, not without interruption. It was not until Pope Alexander VI died that Pinturicchio left Rome for Umbria, leaving much of the work in Rome to be completed by Michelangelo and company, his other chief frescoes in Rome, still existing in good condition, are in the Bufalini Chapel in the southwest sector of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli executed around 1484-1486. On the altar wall is a grand painting of St. Bernardino of Siena between two other saints, crowned by angels. One group of three females, the central figure with a child at her breast, recalls the grace of Raphael's second manner; the composition of the main group round the saint's corpse appears to have been suggested by Giotto's painting of St
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Portrait of a Man (Raphael)
The Portrait of a Man is an early work by the Italian Renaissance painter Raphael. It has been attributed to Hans Holbein and Perugino
Melozzo da Forlì
Melozzo da Forlì was an Italian Renaissance painter and architect. His fresco paintings are notable for the use of foreshortening, he was the most important member of the Forlì painting school. Melozzo was from a wealthy family named Ambrosi from Forlì. Nothing is known about his early years, it is only a hypothesis that he was formed by the Forlivese school of art dominated by Ansuino da Forlì. It has been said without confirmation, that he became a journeyman and color-grinder to master painters, his presence was first mentioned in his birthplace in 1460 and again in 1464. Around this period, together with Antoniazzo Romano, he painted frescoes in the Bessarione chapel in the Basilica dei Santi Apostoli in Rome. Melozzo moved to Urbino between 1465 and 1474. There he met Piero della Francesca, who profoundly influenced Melozzo's style and use of perspective, he would have studied architecture by Bramante and the work of Flemish painters working for duke Federico da Montefeltro. Melozzo may have worked with Justus of Ghent and Pedro Berruguete to decorate the studiolo of the city's famous Ducal Palace.
Around 1472-74, Melozzo transferred to Rome, although some authorities claim his presence in Rome five or ten years earlier for work in the Basilica di San Marco. In 1477 he finished his first major work in the new seat, a fresco now transferred to canvas and placed in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, representing Sixtus IV Appointing Platina as Librarian of the Vatican Library. In the same year Girolamo Riario built his palace in Rome, now known as Palazzo Altemps, with designs by Melozzo. In 1478 he was one of the original members of the Academy of St Luke, founded by Sixtus IV to unite the chief painters working in the city. In about 1472-74, Melozzo was commissioned by Pietro Riario to paint the vault of the apse in the basilica dei Santi Apostoli in Rome, his subject being the Ascension of Christ. In this work, Christ is boldly and foreshortened; this fresco was taken down in 1711. The figure of Christ is now in the Quirinal Palace. A hall in the Vatican Museums, with designs of angels and apostles by Melozzo, was taken from the same fresco.
Another work of the Roman period is an Annunciation. Melozzo's last work in Rome was a chapel, now destroyed, in the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere. After the death of Sixtus IV in 1484, Melozzo moved from Rome to Loreto. There he painted the fresco in the cupola of the sacristy of San Marco in the Basilica della Santa Casa, commissioned by cardinal Girolamo Basso della Rovere, it is one of the first examples of a cupola decorated both with figures. In 1489 Melozzo returned to Rome. During this period he drew some cartoons for the mosaics of Jesus blessing in the Chapel of St Helena of the basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. Melozzo painted the cupola of the Capuchin church at Forlì, destroyed in 1651, it has been said that he executed at Urbino some of the portraits of great men which are now divided between the Barberini Palace and the Campana collection in Paris. In 1493 he worked on some ceilings, now lost, of the Palazzo Comunale of Ancona. Melozzo returned to Forlì, together with his pupil Marco Palmezzano, he decorated the Feo Chapel in the church of San Biagio, destroyed during World War II.
The Pinacoteca of Forlì houses a fresco by Melozzo, known as the "Pestapepe," or Pepper-grinder, now much damaged. Painted as a grocer's sign, it is an energetic example of rather coarse realism and is Melozzo's only secular subject. Melozzo is buried in the Church of the Santissima Trinita. While few of Melozzo's works are still preserved, critics agree that he contributed to the progress of pictorial art. Without being remarkable as a colorist, he painted with care and finish, creating fine and dignified figures, his use of perspective influenced other painters. Melozzo's works bear a certain resemblance to those of his contemporary Andrea Mantegna. Marco Palmezzano was a pupil of Melozzo; the signature "Marcus de Melotius" on some of Palmezzano's works, along with a general affinity of style, has led to their being ascribed to Melozzo and to the latter being incorrectly named "Marco Melozzo". The paintings of Melozzo influenced Michelangelo and Donato Bramante. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Melozzo da Forlí".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Bryan, Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical, London: George Bell and Sons, p. 505 Clark, Melozzo Da Forli, London: Sotheby's Publications, ISBN 978-0-85667-371-9 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Melozzo da Forlì". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
The Marriage of the Virgin (Raphael)
The Marriage of the Virgin known as Lo Sposalizio, is an oil painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael. Completed in 1504 for the Franciscan church of San Francesco, Città di Castello, the painting depicts a marriage ceremony between Mary and Joseph, it changed hands several times before settling in 1806 at the Pinacoteca di Brera. In the years of the 15th century, patrons in Citta di Castello sent three commissions to Raphael's teacher Pietro Perugino which, in Perugino's absence, were completed by Raphael; the Marriage of the Virgin was the last of these. Evidently inspired by one of Perugino's paintings known as Marriage of the Virgin, Raphael finished his own work, according to the date placed next to his signature, in 1504. There have been several historians who have disputed that Perugino's painting preceded Raphael's and some who have suggested the painting was not Perugino's at all but instead produced after Raphael's by one of Perugino's followers, but 16th century documentary evidence supports the conclusion that Perugino had begun working on the painting in 1499, though it was not completed until some point after December 26, 1503.
This particular piece was commissioned by one Filippo degli Albezzini to hang in a church dedicated to Saint Francis. It remained in its original home until General Giuseppe Lechi led forces to Città di Castello to liberate it from Austrian occupation, when the painting was gifted to the general. "Restoring Raphael" in the Cambridge Companion to Raphael reports that the painting remained with Lechi to his death in 1804, but Lechi died in 1836. The Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings states rather that Lechi sold the piece in 1801 to one Giacomo Sannazaro, who himself sold the piece in 1804 to the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan. By whatever means it arrived there, it was in the possession of the hospital for a short time, as in 1806 the hospital sold it to the Italian state for 53,000 francs, it has since been displayed in the Pinacoteca di Brera, in spite of an 1859 proposal to donate the image to France after that country's army had entered Milan. Through these various relocations, the painting was damaged.
The panel had several cracks in the upper half, while there was bowing throughout. Italian artist Giuseppe Molteni, retained to repair it in November 1857, chose to preserve the panel rather than transfer the painting to canvas and spent months flattening the panel and hydrating it to overcome the damage of desiccation; this decision on the part of Molteni has permitted 20th-century art historians to use infrared reflectography to study the underdrawing beneath the completed art work. Molteni undertook to clean the surface of the painting, subjected to restoration before, he did not clean aggressively, as he wanted to be sure that elements of the original painting were preserved. The Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings indicates that the painting is "somewhat discoloured." Although Raphael was inspired by Perugino in painting the piece, differences of the two were remarked upon within decades of the painting's completion by 16th-century Italian artist and art biographer Giorgio Vasari, who said that in the piece "may be distinctly seen the progress of excellence of Raphael's style, which becomes much more subtle and refined, surpasses the manner of Pietro.
In this work," he continued, "there is a temple drawn in perspective with such evident care that it is marvellous to behold the difficulty of the problems which he has there set himself to solve."Franz Liszt wrote a composition for solo piano based on Raphael's painting with the title "Sposalizio" in his Années de pèlerinage. Sprezzatura The Marriage of the Virgin Raffaello e Brera, exh. cat. Ed. by C. Bertelli and M. Olivari, Milan 1984 Raffaello. Lo Sposalizio della Vergine restaurato, exh. cat. Ed. by E. Daffra and M. Ceriana, Milan 2009 Champlin, John Denison. Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings. C. Scribner's sons. Retrieved 5 July 2010. Hoeniger, Cathleen Sara; the Cambridge Companion to Raphael. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276–306. ISBN 978-0-521-80809-5. Retrieved 5 July 2010. Masters in Art: a series of illustrated monographs. Bates and Guild Co. 1900. Retrieved 5 July 2010. Mazzucchelli, Francesco. Caro figlio, stimato padre: famiglia, educazione e società nobiliare nel carteggio tra Francesco e Luigi Mazzuchelli.
Grafo. ISBN 978-88-7385-405-0. Retrieved 5 July 2010. McCurdy, Edward. Raphael Santi. Hodder and Stoughton. Retrieved 5 July 2010. Rogov, Mikhail. Antique Numismatics In Raphael's Creativity: Marriage Of The Virgin. Articult —2016.—October.—pp.26-33.— ISSN 2227-6165. Retrieved 12 April 2017
St. Michael (Raphael)
St. Michael is an oil painting by Italian artist Raphael. Called the Little St. Michael to distinguish it from a larger treatment of the same theme, St. Michael Vanquishing Satan, it is housed in the Louvre in Paris; the work depicts the Archangel Michael in combat with the demons of Hell, while the damned suffer behind him. Along with St. George, it represents the first of Raphael's works on martial subjects. An early work of the artist, the painting was executed for Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, in 1504 or 1505 on the back of a draughtboard commissioned to express appreciation to Louis XII of France for conferring the Order of Saint Michael on Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Guidobaldo's nephew and heir. Whatever the impetus for its creation, by 1548 it hung in the collection at the Palace of Fontainebleau. In 2006's Early Work of Raphael, Julia Cartwright suggests it may betray the influence of Timoteo Viti in the gold tinting to the green wings of Michael, while the sinners in the background suggest that Raphael may have consulted an illustrated volume of Dante's Inferno.
The punishments depicted reflect Dante's treatment of thieves. A little more than a decade after completing the little St. Michael, Raphael was commissioned to revisit the theme, producing St. Michael Vanquishing Satan for Pope Leo X in 1518. Media related to Saint Michael with the Dragon by Raffaello Sanzio at Wikimedia Commons
Young Woman with Unicorn
Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn is a painting by Raphael, which art historians date to 1505 or 1506. It is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome; the painting was oil on panel, was transferred to canvas during conservation work in 1934. It was in the course of this work that overpainting was removed, revealing the unicorn, removing the wheel and palm frond, added by an unknown painter during the mid-17th century; the composition of the picture--placing the figure in a loggia opening out onto a landscape, the three-quarter length format-- was inspired by the Mona Lisa, painted by Leonardo between 1503 and 1506. Christof Thoenes observes: "However unabashedly Raphael adopts the pose, compositional framework and spatial organization of the Leonardo portrait...the cool watchfulness in the young woman's gaze is different" from the "enigmatic ambiguity" of Mona Lisa. The work was of uncertain attribution until recent times. In the 1760 inventory of the Gallery, the subject of the painting was identified as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino.
A restoration of the painting in 1934–36 confirmed art historian Roberto Longhi's attribution of the work to Raphael, the removal of heavy repainting revealed the unicorn, traditionally a symbol of chastity in medieval romance, in place of a Saint Catherine wheel. Restoration work on the painting in 1959 revealed through radiography the image of a small dog, a symbol of conjugal fidelity, under the unicorn; this alteration is believed to have been made by Raphael. Giulia Farnese Barchiesi and Marina # Minozzi, The Galleria Borghese: The Masterpieces, Galleria Borghese, Rome, n.d. Thoenes, Raphael 1483-1520: The Invention of the High Renaissance, Koln: Taschen, 2012