Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall: cued recall and serial recall. Psychologists test these forms of recall as a way to study the memory processes of humans and animals. Two main theories of the process of recall are the two-stage theory and the theory of encoding specificity; the two-stage theory states that the process of recall begins with a search and retrieval process, a decision or recognition process where the correct information is chosen from what has been retrieved. In this theory, recognition only involves the latter of these two stages, or processes, this is thought to account for the superiority of the recognition process over recall. Recognition only involves one process in which error or failure may occur, while recall involves two. However, recall has been found to be superior to recognition in some cases, such as a failure to recognize words that can be recalled.
Another two stage theory holds that free recall of a list of items begins with the content in working memory and moves to an associative search The theory of encoding specificity finds similarities between the process of recognition and that of recall. The encoding specificity principle states that memory utilizes information from the memory trace, or the situation in which it was learned, from the environment in which it is retrieved. In other words, memory is improved when information available at encoding is available at retrieval. For example, if one is to learn about a topic and study it in a specific location, but take their exam in a different setting, they would not have had as much of a successful memory recall as if they were in the location that they learned and studied the topic in. Encoding specificity helps to take into account context cues because of its focus on the retrieval environment, it accounts for the fact recognition may not always be superior to recall. Philosophical questions regarding how people acquire knowledge about their world spurred the study of memory and learning.
Recall is a major part of the study of memory and comes into play in all research. For this reason, the main studies on memory in general will provide a history to the study of recall. In 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus created nonsense syllables, combinations of letters that do not follow grammatical rules and have no meaning, to test his own memory, he would memorize a list of nonsense syllables and test his recall of that list over varying time periods. He discovered that memory loss occurred over the first few hours or days, but showed a more steady, gradual decline over subsequent days and months. Furthermore, Ebbinghaus discovered that multiple learning, over-learning, spacing study times increased retention of information. Ebbinghaus' research influenced much of the research conducted on memory and recall throughout the twentieth century. Frederic Bartlett was a prominent researcher in the field of memory during the mid-twentieth century, he was a British experimental psychologist who focused on the mistakes people made when recalling new information.
One of his well-known works was Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology, which he published in 1932. He is well known for his use including The War of the Ghosts, he would provide participants in his study with an excerpt from a story and asked them to recall it as as they could. Retention intervals would vary from directly after reading the story to days later. Bartlett found that people strive for meaning, by attempting to understand the overall meaning of the story. Since the folk tale included supernatural elements, people would rationalize them to make them fit better with their own culture. Bartlett argued that the mistakes that the participants made could be attributed to schematic intrusions, their current sets of knowledge intruded on their recalling the folk tale. In the 1950s there was a change in the overall study of memory that has come to be known as the cognitive revolution; this included new theories on how to view memory likening it to a computer processing model.
Two important books influenced the revolution: Plans and Structures of Behavior by George Miller, Eugene Galanter, Karl H. Pribram in 1960 and Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967. Both provided arguments for an information-processing view of the human mind. Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon constructed computer programs that simulated the thought processes people go through when solving different kinds of problems. In the 1960s, interest in short-term memory increased. Before the 1960s, there was little research that studied the workings of short-term memory and rapid memory loss. Lloyd and Margaret Peterson observed that when people are given a short list of words or letters and are distracted and occupied with another task for few seconds, their memory for the list is decreased. Atkinson and Shiffrin created the short term memory model, which became the popular model for studying short term memory; the next major development in the study of memory recall was Endel Tulving's proposition of two kinds of memory: episodic and semantic.
Tulving described episodic memory as a memory about a specific event that occurred at a particular time and place, for example what you got for your 10th birthday. Semantic memories are abstract words and rules stored in long-term memory. Furthermore, Endel Tulving devised the encoding specificity principle in 1983, which explains the importance of the relation between the encoding of information and recalling that information. To expl
A retention basin, sometimes called a wet pond, wet detention basin or stormwater management pond, is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, includes a permanent pool of water in its design. It is used to manage stormwater runoff to prevent flooding and downstream erosion, improve water quality in an adjacent river, lake or bay, it is distinguished from a detention basin, sometimes called a "dry pond", which temporarily stores water after a storm, but empties out at a controlled rate to a downstream water body. It differs from an infiltration basin, designed to direct stormwater to groundwater through permeable soils. Wet ponds are used for water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, flood protection, aesthetic improvement or any combination of these. Sometimes they act as a replacement for the natural absorption of a forest or other natural process, lost when an area is developed; as such, these structures are viewed as an amenity. In urban areas, impervious surfaces reduce the time spent by rainfall before entering into the stormwater drainage system.
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