A wash bottle is a squeeze bottle with a nozzle, used to rinse various pieces of laboratory glassware, such as test tubes and round bottom flasks. Wash bottles are sealed with a screw-top lid; when hand pressure is applied to the bottle, the liquid inside becomes pressurized and is forced out of the nozzle into a narrow stream of liquid. Most wash bottles are made up of polyethylene, a flexible solvent-resistant petroleum-based plastic. Most bottles contain an internal dip tube allowing upright use. Wash bottles may be filled with a range of common laboratory solvents and reagents, according to the work to be undertaken; these include deionized water, detergent solutions and rinse solvents such as acetone, isopropanol or ethanol. In biological labs it is common to keep sodium hypochlorite solution in a wash bottle to disinfect unneeded cultures. There are a consistent set of colour codes and markings used to identify the contents of wash bottles. Red is used for acetone, White for ethanol or sodium hypochlorite, green for Methanol is yellow for isopropanol and blue for distilled water.
Safety warning labels are used to identify potential hazards. Where reagents with high vapour pressure are used such as ethanol or methanol, small pressure release holes are incorporated into the cap to release and excess vapour pressure and avoid material being ejected through the nozzle when not in use; the use of wash bottles helps rusers measure the precise amount of liquid used. In addition, unwanted substances or particles cannot pass through wash bottles; the use of wash bottles is more convenient than using graduated cylinders. Wash bottles are kept on the laboratory bench in a secure way so that they can be located and so that they do not interfere with other work taking place; such containment may be by the use of two ring clamps which have similar size attached to a lattice rod. Different types of wash bottles are suitable with different types of substances. A spiral gas-lift wash bottle, for example, is suitable for eliminating gas with the liquid system having two phases like bromide and water.
In addition, a Simple graduated. A type of strong solvent and a type of destructive substance can be dealt with Nalgene Teflon FEP wash bottles since the special type of plastic is used to produce this type of wash bottles. Squeeze bottle
A retort stand, sometimes called a clamp stand or a ring stand, is a piece of scientific equipment, to which clamps can be attached to hold other pieces of equipment. For instance, burettes used for titration experiments, test tubes and flasks; the retort stand a general piece of lab equipment that can be used to help with holding other pieces of equipment and glassware. Furthermore, pieces of metalware such as ring clamps, versatile clamps, 3-prong clamps, burette clamps can be attached to retort stands to better hold certain types of glassware.. The basic retort stand consists of two main pieces of metalware: the retort metallic base and the retort. There are two different models for the retort stand. In the first model, the base size is 200 x 125 mm with a rod of 600 x 12.5 mm. For the second model, the base is 250 x 160 mm with a rod of size 750 x 12.5 mm. The bases always have a swirling hole of 10 mm x 1.5 mm. The rod itself, to which clamps may be attached with bases, is 400-600 mm high in total and sufficient for most experiment to fit within the fume hoods and glove boxes.
The rod is made of aluminium. If a taller rod is required, the solid base is replaced by three metal legs for stability when supporting larger apparatuses, such as large tubes, bulk chemical bottles etc; the height can be adjusted by moving the attached point of the test tube. The base is heavy so that the centre of gravity is lowered. Retort stands are used in the chemistry laboratory. For instance, it is used for carrying out distillation experiments which includes distillation of organic solvents, it is used to support in filtering. The sits are made of a chemically impervious metal and may be covered with aluminium foil to further protect the base, on which may sit a hot plate, magnetic stirrer, heating mantle, or some other apparatus. In titration experiments, it can be used to hold a burette
Shale oil extraction
Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production. This process converts kerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution; the resultant shale oil is used as fuel oil or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Shale oil extraction is performed above ground by mining the oil shale and treating it in processing facilities. Other modern technologies perform the processing underground by applying heat and extracting the oil via oil wells; the earliest description of the process dates to the 10th century. In 1684, Great Britain granted the first formal extraction process patent. Extraction industries and innovations became widespread during the 19th century; the industry shrank in the mid-20th century following the discovery of large reserves of conventional oil, but high petroleum prices at the beginning of the 21st century have led to renewed interest, accompanied by the development and testing of newer technologies.
As of 2010, major long-standing extraction industries are operating in Estonia and China. Its economic viability requires a lack of locally available crude oil. National energy security issues have played a role in its development. Critics of shale oil extraction pose questions about environmental management issues, such as waste disposal, extensive water use, waste water management, air pollution. In the 10th century, the Arabian physician Masawaih al-Mardini wrote of his experiments in extracting oil from "some kind of bituminous shale"; the first shale oil extraction patent was granted by the British Crown in 1684 to three people who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch and oyle out of a sort of stone". Modern industrial extraction of shale oil originated in France with the implementation of a process invented by Alexander Selligue in 1838, improved upon a decade in Scotland using a process invented by James Young. During the late 19th century, plants were built in Australia, Brazil and the United States.
The 1894 invention of the Pumpherston retort, much less reliant on coal heat than its predecessors, marked the separation of the oil shale industry from the coal industry. China, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain and Switzerland began extracting shale oil in the early 20th century. However, crude oil discoveries in Texas during the 1920s and in the Middle East in the mid 20th century brought most oil shale industries to a halt. In 1944, the US recommenced shale oil extraction as part of its Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program; these industries continued until oil prices fell in the 1980s. The last oil shale retort in the US, operated by Unocal Corporation, closed in 1991; the US program was restarted in 2003, followed by a commercial leasing program in 2005 permitting the extraction of oil shale and oil sands on federal lands in accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 2005. As of 2010, shale oil extraction is in operation in Estonia and China. In 2008, their industries produced about 930,000 metric tonnes of shale oil.
Australia, the US, Canada have tested shale oil extraction techniques via demonstration projects and are planning commercial implementation. Only four processes are in commercial use: Kiviter, Galoter and Petrosix. Shale oil extraction process decomposes oil shale and converts its kerogen into shale oil—a petroleum-like synthetic crude oil; the process is conducted by hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. The efficiencies of extraction processes are evaluated by comparing their yields to the results of a Fischer Assay performed on a sample of the shale; the oldest and the most common extraction method involves pyrolysis. In this process, oil shale is heated in the absence of oxygen until its kerogen decomposes into condensable shale oil vapors and non-condensable combustible oil shale gas. Oil vapors and oil shale gas are collected and cooled, causing the shale oil to condense. In addition, oil shale processing produces spent oil shale, a solid residue. Spent shale consists of inorganic compounds and char—a carbonaceous residue formed from kerogen.
Burning the char off the spent shale produces oil shale ash. Spent shale and shale ash can be used as ingredients in brick manufacture; the composition of the oil shale may lend added value to the extraction process through the recovery of by-products, including ammonia, aromatic compounds, pitch and waxes. Heating the oil shale to pyrolysis temperature and completing the endothermic kerogen decomposition reactions require a source of energy; some technologies burn other fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, or coal to generate this heat and experimental methods have used electricity, radio waves, microwaves, or reactive fluids for this purpose. Two strategies are used to reduce, eliminate, external heat energy requirements: the oil shale gas and char by-products generated by pyrolysis may be burned as a source of energy, the heat contained in hot spent oil shale and oil shale ash may be used to pre-heat the raw oil shale. For ex situ processing, oil shale is crushed into smaller pieces, increasing surface area for better extraction.
The temperature at which decomposition of oil shale occurs depends on the time-scale of the process. In ex situ retorting processes, it begins at 300 °C and proceeds more and at higher temperatures; the amount of oil produced is the highest when the temperatu
Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle are implements used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder in the kitchen and pharmacy. The mortar is a bowl made of hard wood, ceramic, or hard stone, such as granite; the pestle is a blunt club-shaped object. The substance to be ground, which may be wet or dry, is placed in the mortar, where the pestle is pressed and rotated onto it until the desired texture is achieved. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to 35000 BC; the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, "receptacle for pounding" and "product of grinding or pounding". The classical Latin pistillum, meaning "pounder", led to English pestle; the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary. The antiquity of these tools is well documented in early writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BC and the Old Testament.
Mortars and pestles were traditionally used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Green Cross, others, is one of the most pervasive symbols of pharmacology, along with the show globe. For pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood; this is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759. Today the act of reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested, or in preparation for insufflation. To finely ground drugs, not available in liquid dosage form is used if patients need artificial nutrition such as parenteral nutrition or by nasogastric tube. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare wet or oily ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, as well as grinding spices into powder.
The molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to other nuts. Many such depressions can be found in their territories. In Japan large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi. A regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as India. In India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and pestle has decreased, it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung. Large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha.
In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and pestle is known as Ulekan or Oelekan. It is used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle, it is used to grind peanut and other ingredients to make peanut sauce for gado-gado. Large mortars and pestles are used in developing countries to husk and dehull grain; these are made of wood, operated by one or more persons. Good mortar and pestle-making materials must be hard enough to crush the substance rather than be worn away by it, they can not be too brittle either. The material should be cohesive, so that small bits of the mortar or pestle do not mix in with the ingredients. Smooth and non-porous materials are trap the substances being ground. In food preparation, a rough or absorbent material may cause the strong flavour of a past ingredient to be tasted in food prepared later; the food particles left in the mortar and on the pestle may support the growth of microorganisms.
When dealing with medications, the prepared drugs may interact or mix, contaminating the used ingredients. Rough ceramic mortar and pestle sets can be used to reduce substances to fine powders, but stain and are brittle. Porcelain mortars are sometimes conditioned for use by grinding some sand to give them a rougher surface which helps to reduce the particle size. Glass mortars and pestles are fragile, but suitable for use with liquids. However, they do not grind as finely as the ceramic type. Other materials used include stone marble or agate, bamboo, steel and basalt. Mortar and pestle sets made from the wood of old grape vines have proved reliable for grinding salt and pepper at the dinner table. Uncooked rice is sometimes ground in mortars to clean them; this process must be repeated until the rice comes out white. Some stones, such as molcajete, need to be seasoned first before use. Metal mortars are kept oiled. Since the results obtained with hand grinding are neither reproducible nor reliable, most laboratories work with automatic mortar grinders.
Grinding time and pressure of the mortar can be adjusted and fixed, saving time and labor. The first automatic Mortar Grinder was invented by F. Kurt
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in complete separation, or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction. Distillation has many applications. For example: Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value. Distillation is an traditional method of desalination. In the fossil fuel industry, oil stabilization is a form of partial distillation that reduces vapor pressure of crude oil, thereby making it safe for storage and transport as well as reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile hydrocarbons.
In midstream operations at oil refineries, distillation is a major class of operation for transforming crude oil into fuels and chemical feed stocks. Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air into its components – notably oxygen and argon – for industrial use. In the field of industrial chemistry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials. An installation used for distillation of distilled beverages, is called a distillery; the distillation equipment at a distillery is a still. In 1975 Paolo Rovesti a chemist and pharmacist who became known as"father of Phytocosmetics" discovered a terracota distillation apparatus in the Indus valley in West Pakistan which dates from around 3000 BC. Early evidence of distillation was found on Akkadian tablets dated circa 1200 BC describing perfumery operations; the tablets provided textual evidence that an early primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia.
Early evidence of distillation was found related to alchemists working in Alexandria in Roman Egypt in the 1st century. Distilled water has been in use since at least c. 200, when Alexander of Aphrodisias described the process. Work on distilling other liquids continued in early Byzantine Egypt under Zosimus of Panopolis in the 3rd century. Distillation was practiced in the ancient Indian subcontinent, evident from baked clay retorts and receivers found at Taxila and Charsadda in modern Pakistan, dating back to the early centuries of the Common Era; these "Gandhara stills" were only capable of producing weak liquor, as there was no efficient means of collecting the vapors at low heat. Distillation in China may have begun during the Eastern Han dynasty, but the distillation of beverages began in the Jin and Southern Song dynasties, according to archaeological evidence. Clear evidence of the distillation of alcohol comes from the Arab chemist Al-Kindi in 9th-century Iraq; the process spread to Italy, where it was described by the School of Salerno in the 12th century.
Fractional distillation was developed by Tadeo Alderotti in the 13th century. A still was found in an archaeological site in Qinglong, Hebei province, in China, dating back to the 12th century. Distilled beverages were common during the Yuan dynasty. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi, the first book dedicated to the subject of distillation, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation, the first major English compendium on the practice, but it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work; this includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle to act as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection.
Copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour; these alembics featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water, for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols, such as cognac, Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials are used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are sold for use in the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. Early forms of distillation involved batch processes using one condensation. Purity was improved by further distillation of the condensate. Greater volumes were processed by repeating the distillation. Chemists carried out as many as 500 to 600 distillations in order to obtain a pure compound.
In the early 19th century, the basics of modern techniques, including pre-heating and reflux, were developed. In 1822, Anthony Perrier developed one of the first continuous stills, in 1826, Robert Stein improved that design to make his patent still. In 1830, Aeneas Coffey got a patent for improving the design f
A hot plate is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance cooktop that features one, two or more electric heating elements or gas burners. A hot plate can be used as a stand-alone appliance, but is used as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range or a kitchen stove. Hot plates are used for food preparation in locations where a full kitchen stove would not be convenient or practical. A hot plate can have a flat round surface. Hot plates can be used in areas without electricity; this type of cooking equipment is powered by electricity. In laboratory settings, hot plates are used to heat glassware or its contents; some hot plates contain a magnetic stirrer, allowing the heated liquid to be stirred automatically. In a student laboratory, hot plates are used because baths can be hazards if they spill, overheat or ignite because they have high thermal inertia and mantles can be expensive and are designed for specific flask volumes. Two alternative methods for heating glassware using a hotplate are available.
One method is to suspend glassware above the surface of the plate with no direct contact. This not only reduces the temperature of the glass, but it slows down the rate of heat exchange and encourages heating; this works well for low boiling point operations or when a heat source's minimum temperature is high. Another method, called a teepee setup because it looks a little like a tipi, is to suspend glassware above a plate and surround the flask by a skirt of tinfoil; the skirt should start at the neck of the flask and drape down to the surface of the plate, not touching the sides of the flask, but covering the majority of the plates surface. This method is for glassware to be heated at higher temperatures because the flask is warmed indirectly by the hot air collecting under the skirt and unlike suspending the glassware, this method is better protected from drafts. Both these methods are useful in a student laboratory as they are cheaper, effective and the user does not have to wait for a bath to cool down after use.
Hot plates are used for many industrial applications. These hot plates vary in size from 2 to over 300 square centimetres. Typical operating temperatures vary from 100 to 750°C and power requirements are in the 120 to 480 volt range. Most industrial hot plates will withstand loads more than 150 pounds. Industrial hot plates which incorporate a porous heated plate are referred to as heated chucks; these plates are used to heat thin films evenly by drawing the film on the plate with a vacuum. These plates are used in the process of manufacturing semiconductors. Hot plates using special material and protective coatings are used in mining and related industries to heat samples of toxic chemicals; such hot plates are referred to as corrosion-resistant hot plates. Hot plates are used in the electronics industry as a method of soldering and desoldering components onto circuit boards. Hot plates with two heating surfaces are used to fuse plastic pipes. Many of these pipes are over 90-centimeter diameter.
The two pipes to be fused are pressed against the plate. The plate is removed and the two pipes are pressed together and bonded; this process is called butt fusion. Bachelor griller Blech, a sheet of metal that may be placed over cooking burners to help in the observation of the Jewish Sabbath Griddle, a flat heated cooking surface, maybe a pan, a gas powered version or in table-top electrical appliance form Heating element, a material that converts electrical energy to heat through resistance List of stoves Portable stove, a portable cooking device that may burn liquid or gas fuel Definitions: Hot plate Important notes.
A condenser is an apparatus or item of equipment used to condense. In the laboratory, condensers are used in procedures involving organic liquids brought into the gaseous state through heating, with or without lowering the pressure —though applications in inorganic and other chemistry areas exist. While condensers can be applied at various scales, in the research, training, or discovery laboratory, one most uses glassware designed to pass a vapor flow over an adjacent cooled chamber. In simplest form, such a condenser consists of a single glass tube with outside air providing cooling. A further simple form, the Liebig-type of condenser, involves concentric glass tubes, an inner one through which the hot gases pass, an outer, "ported" chamber through which a cooling fluid passes, to reduce the gas temperature in the inner, to afford the condensation. Depending on the application and the scale of the process, different types of condensers and means of cooling are used. Alongside the temperature differential and heat capacities of the cooling fluids, the size of the cooling surface and the way in which gas and condensing liquid states come into contact are critical in the choice or design of a condenser system.
Since at least the 19th century, scientists have sought creative designs to maximize the surface area of vapor-liquid contact and heat exchange. Many types of laboratory condensers—simpler Liebig and Allihn, coiled Graham types and Dimroth types of cold finger condensers, etc.—now common, have evolved to meet the practical need of larger cooling surfaces and controlled boiling and condensation in various procedures involving distillation, a further wide array of materials for packing simpler condensers to increase surface area have been studied and applied. The configurations of laboratory apparatus involving condensers are many and varied, to cover low and high boiling solvents and complex separations, etc. Several common process types based on the change of physical state provided by condensers can be described, including simple evaporations or solvent stripping, reflux operations, separation/distillation operations; the direction of vapor and condensate flows in the laboratory condenser chosen for each of these may vary, as do the optimal flow direction for the cooling fluid, etc.
In all processes, condenser selection/design requires that the heat of entering vapor never overwhelm the condenser and cooling mechanism. A condenser is a piece of apparatus or equipment that can be used to condense, that is, to change the physical state of a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state. Condensers can be applied at various scales, from micro-scale to process-scale, using laboratory glassware and metalware that accomplishes the cooling of the vapor generated by boiling. In simplest form, a condenser can consist of a single tube of glass or metal, where the flow of outside air produces the cooling. In a further simple form, condensers consist of concentric glass tubes, with the tube through which the hot gases begin to pass running the length of the apparatus; the second tube defines an outer chamber through which air, water, or other cooling fluids can pass to reduce the temperature of the gasses to afford the condensation. The specific requirement that components in the solution being fractionated have differing boiling points, the varying demands of heat exchange for the various chemical processes using condensers have led to design of wide varieties of types, with a general design theme being creative ways in which: the surface area for vapor-liquid interaction and heat exchange can be increased, ways in which to control common difficulties experienced in real distillations.
The combination of these has taken the simple condenser concept through simple changes, on to many unique condenser co