Retroflex approximant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Retroflex approximant
IPA number 152
Entity (decimal) ɻ
Unicode (hex) U+027B
Kirshenbaum r.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɻ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`. The IPA symbol is a turned lowercase letter r with a rightward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter.


Features of the retroflex approximant:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arrernte [example needed]
Chinese Mandarin ròu [ɻoʊ̯˥˩] 'meat' Can be a fricative [ʐ] for some speakers. See Standard Chinese phonology
Derung Tvrung [tə˧˩ɻuŋ˥˧] 'Derung'
Dutch Some Netherlandic speakers[1] eerst [ɪːɻst] 'first' Tongue bunched and root retracted. Occurs only in syllable coda. See Dutch phonology
English Some American dialects red [ɻʷɛd] 'red' Labialized (pronounced with lips rounded). See English phonology
Some Hiberno-English dialects
Some West Country English
Enindhilyagwa angwura [aŋwuɻa] 'fire'
Faroese[2] hoyrdi [hɔiɻʈɛ] 'heard' Allophone of /r/.[2] Sometimes voiceless [ɻ̊].[2] See Faroese phonology
Greek Cretan Greek (Sfakia and Mylopotamos variations) region[3] γάλα la [ˈɣaɻa] 'milk' Intervocalic allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. Recessive. See Modern Greek phonology
Kannada Some dialects [ಕೊೞೆ] error: {{lang}}: unrecognized script: kanl for code: ka (help) [kɒɻe] 'to rot'
Malayalam വഴി [ʋɐɻi] 'way'
Mapudungun[4] ['rayen] error: {{lang}}: text has malformed markup (help) [ɻɜˈjën] 'flower' Possible realization of /ʐ/; may be [ʐ] or [ɭ] instead.[4]
Pashto سوړ [soɻ] 'cold' Allophone of retroflex lateral flap /ɭ̆/. See Pashto phonology
Portuguese Many Centro-Sul registers cartas [ˈkaɻtə̥̆s] 'letters' Allophone of rhotic consonants (and sometimes /l/) in the syllable coda. Mainly[5] found in rural São Paulo, Paraná, south of Minas Gerais and surrounding areas, with the more common and prestigious realization in metropolitan areas being [ɹ] and/or rhotic vowel instead. As with [ɽ], it appeared as a mutation of [ɾ].[6][7][8] See Portuguese phonology.
Caipira temporal [tẽɪ̯̃pʊˈɾaɻ] 'rainstorm'
Conservative piracicabano grato [ˈgɻatʊ̥] 'thankful' (m.)
Tamil[9] தமிழ் Tamiḻ About this sound [t̪əˈmɨɻ]  'Tamil' See Tamil phonology
Western Desert Pitjantjatjara dialect Uluu [ʊlʊɻʊ] 'Uluru'
Yaghan rho [ˈwaɻo] 'cave'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sebregts, Koen (2014). The Sociophonetics of and Phonology of Dutch r (PDF). : LOT. ISBN 978-94-6093-161-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  3. ^ Trudgill (1989:18–19)
  4. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 90.
  5. ^ Nas trilhas do -r retroflexo Silvia Figueiredo Brandão. December 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
  6. ^ (in Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
  7. ^ (in Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
  8. ^ (in Portuguese) Callou, Dinah. Leite, Yonne. "Iniciação à Fonética e à Fonologia". Jorge Zahar Editora 2001, p. 24
  9. ^ Keane (2004:111)


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369 
  • Trudgill, Peter (1989), "The Sociophonetics of /l/ in the Greek of Sphakiá", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 15 (2): 18–22, doi:10.1017/S0025100300002942