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A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to differentiate between two types, whereas no clarification was required. Advances in technology are responsible for the coinage of retronyms. For example, the term "acoustic guitar" was coined at the advent of electric guitars; the first bicycles with two wheels of equal size were called "safety bicycles" because they were easier to handle than the then-dominant style that had one large wheel and one small wheel, which became known as an "ordinary" bicycle. Since the end of the 19th century, most bicycles have been expected to have two equal sized wheels, the other type has been renamed "penny-farthing" or "high-wheeler" bicycle; the Atari Video Computer System platform was rebranded the "Atari 2600" in 1982 following the launch of its successor, the Atari 5200, all hardware and software related to the platform were released under this new branding from that point on.

The original Game Boy was referred to as "Game Boy Classic" after the release of Game Boy Color. Another game console example is the original Xbox being referred to as the "Xbox 1" prior to the release of the Xbox One. After the Xbox One release, the first Xbox has been referred to as the "original Xbox" instead; the term retronym, a neologism composed of the combining forms retro- + -nym, was coined by Frank Mankiewicz in 1980 and popularized by William Safire in The New York Times Magazine. In 2000 The American Heritage Dictionary became the first major dictionary to include the word retronym. Back-formation Backronym Contrastive focus reduplication Markedness -onym Protologism

John Louis Nayar

John Louis Nayar was a Physician, freedom fighter and social reformer who served as chairman for CBM High School, Main road, Visakhapatnam. J L Nayar was born to K. K. Raman Nair of Palghat and Prantoshini Nayar of Berhampur on 18 April 1924, Nayar had his early education at Berhampur. Latter J. L Nayar had graduated from the Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, in 1949; when he was 13, his friend Uma Charan Patnaik introduced him to Subhas Chandra Bose in Cuttack in 1939. With his inspiration J. L Nayar inducted himself into the Seva Samithi Scout movement, formed by Netaji in Berhampur despite of his tender age. J. L. Nayar used to sing the Telugu songs to ignite the young minds in Subash Chandra Bose public meetings at the Berhampur Barracks at the Old Bus Stand organised by Seva Samithi Scout movement. Being a great fan of the immortal singer, Kundan Lal Saigal, Dr. Nayar, himself is a gifted singer. Being fluent in Hindi, Bengali or Urdu, Dr. Nayar used to sing every song of Saigal, gave several stage performances, a majority of which were held in Vizag and a few were organised in cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore and Bhubaneswar.

Dr. Nayar is an innovative dancer and choreographer, he is a Kathakali exponent and choreographed some dance features like Dance of the seasons, Temple dances and a dance ballet Prakrithi-Purushudu with the help of his wife, Shakuntala Nayar, a dancer. Dr. Nayar gave his last special performance in aid of Kargil war heroes at Kalabharati auditorium and sent the audience into raptures; the donations collected were Rs.1.20 lakh and the amount was sent to the Central Army Welfare Fund through the District Collector. Dr. Nayar apart from being a medical consultant to many public sector industries in and around Visakhapatnam, he had a non profit making private practice in slum areas of Visakhapatnam creating awareness about Sexually Transmitted Diseases and public hygiene. After assuming the charge as Chairman of Canadian Baptist Mission High School from Padma Sri Hilda Mary Lazarus he dedicated most of his time for strengthening primary education in Uttarandhra, he practiced it throughout his life.

In 1999, he was honored with the title "Abhinava Saigal" award by Andhra Medical College. Dr. Nayar died on 3 May 2011 after a prolonged illness in his residence at Visakhapatnam

Asbestos Mountains

The Asbestos Mountains is a range of hills in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, stretching south-southwest from Kuruman, where the range is known as the Kuruman Hills, to Prieska. It passes Boetsap, Lime Acres and Griekwastad; the range rises from the Ghaap Plateau. The mountains were named for the asbestos, mined in the 20th century and is found as a variety of amphibole called crocidolite. Veins occur in slaty rocks, are associated with jasper and quartzite rich in magnetite and brown iron-ore. Geologically it belongs to the Griquatown series; the Griquas, for whom Griquatown was named, were a Khoikhoi people who in 1800 were led by a freed slave, Adam Kok, from Piketberg in the western Cape to the foothills of the Asbestos Mountains where they settled at a place called Klaarwater. John Campbell, a Scottish missionary in South Africa, renamed it Griquatown in 1813; the mission station became a staging post for expeditions to the interior - here David Livingstone met his future wife, Mary Moffat, daughter of the missionary Robert Moffat - William Burchell visited here in 1811.

John Campbell described the mountains in his book "Travels in South Africa: Undertaken at the request of the Missionary Society": Daylight discovered the beauty of the scenery that surrounded Hardcastle. It lies in a valley not above three miles in circumference surrounded by the Asbestos Mountains of diversified shapes. There are four long passes between the mountains, leading from it in different directions, which not only increase the convenience of the situation, but add to the grandeur of the prospect around; some of us walked after breakfast to examine the asbestos rocks, where we found plenty of that rare mineral between strata of rocks. That which becomes, by a little beating, soft as cotton, is all of Prussian blue; when ascending a mountain alone, I found some of the colour of gold, but not soft, or of a cotton texture like the blue. Had this land been known to the ancients in the days of imperial Rome, many a mercantile pilgrimage would have been made to the Asbestos Mountains in Griqualand.

Were the ladies' gowns in England woven of this substance, many lives would annually be saved, that are lost by their dress catching fire. The coloured variants, which Campbell found, are named because of their chatoyance: tiger's eye, hawk's eye, cat's eye by lapidaries, are silicified crocidolite. Wonderwerk Cave is located in the range near Kuruman and was occupied by man during the Later Stone Age, while much earlier manuports, introduced by hominins in the terminal Acheulean, have been found at the back of the cave. Serious mining of crocidolite in these mountains started in 1893 when open-cast quarrying produced 100 tons of material. By 1918, underground mining had started and scattered mines were to be found from Prieska to Kuruman along the length of the range, mills were constructed at both of these towns. Between 1950 and 1960 production had risen to 100,000 tons, each mine was doing its own milling and the tailings dumps had grown in size. At the time of Campbell's writing the health hazards of asbestos were unknown.

Tens of thousands of mine workers were exposed to the fibres at their workplaces, when winds blew across the wastedumps, at their homes. By the mid-1950s the medical profession were still diagnosing asbestosis as "metastatic carcinomas from an unknown primary site"; the resulting increase in cases of asbestosis and mesothelioma became alarming. Records revealed that pleural endothelioma had first been reported in 1917, but had been considered as metastatic. Substitutes for asbestos now include ceramic, carbon and Aramid fibers, such as Twaron or Kevlar. David Goldblatt from the University of the Witwatersrand wrote: Companies that mined asbestos in Western Australia and in South Africa were utterly contemptuous of the health of those who took the material out of the ground, those who milled and transported it, those who lived anywhere near these operations, of the land from which they took it. Long after the connections between asbestos and its related diseases were established, some as early as the 1920s, they continued their old methods of production and handling with hardly any change.

Furthermore, they kept their workforces in ignorance of the dangers to which they were exposed and they suppressed research that harmed their own interests. When they had either worked out the ore or lost their markets because the world got wise to asbestos, they ceased operations and walked away, leaving suffering and death and vast quantities of lethal asbestos tailings and spillage to blow in the wind; the governments of the day were the other factor. From inertia for political and strategic reasons, the governments of Western Australia and South Africa were neither diligent in applying available knowledge to making asbestos mining safer, nor energetic in enforcing such regulations as they had. Indeed they were complicit in the perpetuation of conditions inimical to health and life in the mining of asbestos; the Green Mountains, for which Vermont was named, were produced by the same geologic processes that produced the Asbestos Mountains - they produced an abundance of serpentine, the source of chrysotile asbestos.

List of mountain ranges of South Africa Mining industry of South Africa Asbestos and the law

Helmut Zemo

Helmut J. Zemo is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most as an adversary of the superhero Captain America and the Avengers, he is the son of Baron Heinrich Zemo. The character first appeared in Captain America #168 and was created by Roy Thomas, Tony Isabella and Sal Buscema. In 2009, Helmut Zemo was ranked as IGN's 40th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time. Daniel Brühl portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Captain America: Civil War and will return to portray the role in the upcoming Disney+ series The Falcon and the Winter Soldier. Helmut Zemo is Heinrich Zemo's son, born in Leipzig, Germany, his father taught him. Helmut was an engineer until he became enraged when reading a report about the return of Captain America and his father's death. Helmut would follow in his father's footsteps as a supervillain using his family's money and his own scientific know-how to recreate his father's work, he first surfaced under the alias of the Phoenix, captured Captain America to get revenge upon him for the death of his father.

He was presumed deceased when he fell into a vat of boiling, specially-treated Adhesive X. As he had not been wearing his mask when he fell into the vat, his face was hideously scarred by the boiling Adhesive X, giving his face the appearance of molten wax, he resurfaced years as Baron Zemo, first allied with Arnim Zola's mutates. He allied with Primus I and the half-rat/half human mutate Vermin, kidnapped Captain America's childhood friend Arnold Roth in order to lure Captain America into a trap, he forced the Captain to battle hordes of mutates before revealing that he knew Captain America's secret identity. Zemo encountered Mother Superior and the Red Skull. Zemo underwent tutelage by Mother Superior and Red Skull, kidnapped Captain America's friend David Cox and brainwashed him to battle Captain America. Zemo kidnapped Roth again, directed a shared mental reenactment of Heinrich Zemo's last World War II encounter with Captain America. Zemo battled Mother Superior, but was psychically overpowered.

Most notably, he formed a new incarnation of the Masters of Evil. This fourth Masters of Evil was formed to strike at Captain America through the Avengers. Zemo captured the Black Knight. Zemo fell off the mansion roof. Zemo hired Batroc's Brigade and psychic detective Tristram Micawber to help him locate the five fragments of the Bloodstone in hopes of restoring his father to life. Fighting Captain America and Diamondback, Zemo's plan backfired, as he instead turned his father's corpse into a vessel for the demonic forces that lurk inside of the Bloodstone; the reanimated corpse was destroyed by Crossbones and a distraught Zemo fell down an inactive volcano in Japan trying to retrieve it. Zemo survived the fall, though his right hand was horrifically mangled. Driven insane by the destruction of his father's body, Helmut took control of an army of mutates and tried to re-enslave Vermin, he was defeated by Spider-Man and Vermin was freed. Broken and beaten, Zemo was taken in by a female scientist calling herself "The Baroness" who modeled herself after Heinrich.

The two began kidnapping abused, neglected children to serve as their children. Zemo's sanity returned and he created a new realistic face mask to hide his disfigured face from his adopted children, whom he nurtured and swore to protect from those who might return them to their abusive foster homes; the couple's peaceful life was shattered when Captain America discovered their home, while searching for the evil super-scientist Superia. Superia and the Baroness mocked Helmut and his newfound domestic househusband status as they plotted to kill him. Zemo turned on his wife and Superia, before turning his attention to dropping Captain America into a vat of Adhesive X; the plan failed and Zemo fell into the container instead, with the Baroness, falling in after him. The two were rescued by Captain America and Helmut bemoaned that like his father, his face now was permanently hidden by his mask. Captain America responded by revealing that the Avengers had since found a way to dissolve Adhesive X and would use it to free Zemo from his costume and hood, a fact that drove him further into a rage due to Captain America never offering to share this adhesive remover with his father.

Zemo escaped prison, though his wife the Baroness died shortly after being sentenced to prison for her role in the abduction of the children they were raising. During this time, Zemo discovered that Goliath was imprisoned in the Microverse and formed a new version of Masters of Evil to free Goliath, but after rescuing Goliath, the Avengers and The Fantastic Four disappeared during the Onslaught crisis and were presumed dead. After overhearing the Beetle and Goliath talk about who would replace the Avengers and The Fantastic Four, a distraught Zemo soon found a new purpose for his team: the Masters of Evil would take on new heroic identities as the Thunderbolts. Zemo would lead the group under the alias Citizen V and planned to have the Thunderbolts gain the world's trust in order to conquer it; the pub

One Night in Miami (film)

One Night in Miami is an upcoming American drama film directed by Regina King in her directorial debut, from a screenplay by Kemp Powers based upon play of the same name by Powers. It stars Kingsley Ben-Adir, Eli Goree, Aldis Hodge, Leslie Odom Jr. Kingsley Ben-Adir as Malcolm X Eli Goree as Cassius Clay Aldis Hodge as Jim Brown Leslie Odom Jr. as Sam Cooke Lance Reddick as Brother Kareem Jasmine Cephas Jones as Barbara Cooke Michael Imperioli as Angelo Dunne Beau Bridges as Mr. Carlton In July 2019, it was announced Regina King would direct the film and serve as an executive producer, from a screenplay by Kemp Powers based upon play of the same name. In January 2020, it was announced Kingsley Ben-Adir, Eli Goree, Aldis Hodge, Leslie Odom Jr. and Lance Reddick had joined the cast of the film. Principal photography began in New Orleans. One Night in Miami on IMDb

Grand Prix d'Automne

The Grand Prix d'Automne is a Group 1 hurdle race in France, open to horses aged five years or older. It is run at Auteuil over a distance of 4,800 metres, it is scheduled to take place each year in late October or early November; the race was first run in 1929 as an autumn counterpart to the Grand Prix du Printemps, a handicap race run at the same course in spring. The Grand Prix d'Automne, was a weight-for-age event until becoming a handicap in 1940 before reverting to weight-for-age in 1990. Run over 3,800 metres race has been run over a variety of distances; the race was run over 4100 metres between 1930 and 1938, 4000 metres from 1940 to 1942, 4500 metres from 1943 to 1967, 4600 metres in 1968, 4300 metres in 1969, 4100 metres from 1970 to 1990 and 4800 metres since 1991. The race was open to four-year-olds until 1989; the race was not run in 1939. – A Brief History: Grand Prix d'Automne. – Grand Prix d'Automne – Auteuil. List of French jump horse races France Galop / Racing Post: 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018