Rules of Engagement (film)
Rules of Engagement is a 2000 American war film directed by William Friedkin, written by Stephen Gaghan from a story by Jim Webb, starring Tommy Lee Jones and Samuel L. Jackson. Jackson plays U. S. Marine Colonel Terry Childers, brought to court-martial after men under Childers' orders kill a large number of civilians outside the U. S. embassy in Yemen. In 1968, a disastrous American advance in the Vietnam War has Lieutenant Terry Childers executing an unarmed prisoner in order to intimidate a captive North Vietnamese army officer into calling off an ambush of U. S. Marines, his act thereby saves the life of the wounded Lieutenant Hayes Hodges, though many of Hodges' men die in the battle. In 1996, now a colonel, Hodges is about to retire from the Marine Corps and is reminiscing about his years in uniform; as a result of wounds he sustained during Operation Kingfisher, he was no longer able to continue serving as an infantry officer, so the Marine Corps sent him to law school and he continued his career as a JAG officer.
He subsequently enters the Camp Lejeune Officers Club, where numerous Marine officers wait to honor his service at a pre-retirement party. Hosting the event is his old friend, Colonel Terry Childers, now the commanding officer of a Marine Expeditionary Unit. Subsequently deployed to Southwest Asia as part of an Amphibious Readiness Group and his embarked MEU are called to evacuate the U. S. Ambassador to Yemen from the embassy grounds as a routine demonstration against American influence on the Arabian peninsula and in the Persian Gulf turns into rock-throwing and sporadic automatic-rifle fire by snipers from nearby rooftops. After escorting Ambassador Mourain and his family to a waiting helicopter, Childers returns to the embassy to retrieve the American flag. Childers orders his men to open fire on the crowd and "waste the motherfuckers", resulting in the deaths of 83 irregular Yemeni soldiers, most of whom were unarmed, injuries to over 100 more, saving the lives of the remaining US Marines and Embassy staff.
Back in the U. S. the U. S. National Security Advisor, Bill Sokal, pressures the military to proceed with a court-martial to try to deflect negative public opinion about the United States and salvage American relations in the Middle East, placing all the blame for the incident onto Childers. Childers subsequently approaches Hodges and asks him to be his defense attorney at the upcoming court-martial. Hodges is reluctant to accept, knowing that his record as a JAG officer is less than impressive and Childers needs a better lawyer, but Childers is adamant. With little time to prepare a defense, Hodges visits Yemen, only to find an uncooperative government and firsthand account of the serious injuries the crowd members endured. Most of the evidence is stacked against Childers the fact that no one else in his team can testify to having seen gunfire coming from the crowd, in particular Captain Lee, who hesitated to follow Childers' order. Sokal is determined for him to be convicted and is met by the overzealous prosecutor, Major Biggs, who believes Childers to be guilty.
Sokal at one point burns a videotape of security camera footage revealing that the crowd were indeed armed and firing at the Marines, evidence that would exonerate Childers. He blackmails Ambassador Mourain into lying on the stand and saying both that the crowd had been peaceful and that Childers had been violent towards him and his family during the evacuation. Colonel Hodges meets with Mourain's wife after the ambassador's testimony to hear her side of the story. Although she admits Childers had been valiant, she refuses to destroy her marriage. During the trial, Hodges presents a shipping manifest proving that a tape from an undamaged camera, looking directly into the crowd—the tape Sokal had burned—had been delivered to Sokal's office, but failed to show up at the trial, arguing that this tape would not have been damning evidence against Childers if it had, in fact, shown the crowd was armed. Captain Lee is grilled on the witness stand by Major Biggs and despite trying to give favorable testimony, leaves doubt of Childers' innocence.
Childers himself takes the stand and engages in a fierce verbal battle with Biggs. Biggs produces a tape which contains the recording of Childers' poor choice of words when giving his order. While defending his actions, Childers loses his temper while stating that he would not sacrifice the lives of his men to appease the likes of Biggs. Hodges is left at a loss for words, knowing that this could doom Childers because they do not have any credible evidence to defend Childers's claims that the crowd was armed, his poor choice of words can be interpreted by the jury as being prejudiced towards Yemenis, or having a gung-ho/cowboy attitude. At an advantage, the prosecution presents the Vietnamese colonel who witnessed Childers execute a POW in Vietnam, Colonel Cao, as a rebuttal witness, trying to drive home the idea that Childers is malicious. Hodges cross-examines him and gets him to testify that had the circumstances been reversed, Cao would have done the same thing. After the trial, Hodges asks him what happened to the tape.
Childers is found guilty of the minor charge of breach of the peace, but not guilty of the more serious charges of conduct unbecoming an officer and murder. A final title card reveals that no further charges were brought against Childers and that he retired honorably from the Marine Corps. The
Lincoln Park Zoo
Lincoln Park Zoo is a 35-acre zoo located in Lincoln Park in Chicago, Illinois. The zoo was founded in 1868, it is one of a few free admission zoos in the United States. The zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Aquariums. Lincoln Park Zoo is home to a wide variety of animals; the zoo's exhibits include big cats, polar bears, gorillas, reptiles and other species totalling about 1,100 animals from some 200 species. Located in Lincoln Park Zoo is a burr oak tree which dates to 1830, three years before the city was founded; the zoo was founded in 1868, when the Lincoln Park Commissioners were given a gift of two pairs of swans by Central Park's Board of Commissioners in New York City. Other animals were soon donated to the park, including, a puma, two elk, three wolves, four eagles, eight peacock. In 1874, a bear cub from the Philadelphia Zoo was the first animal purchased by the zoo; the bear became quite adept at escaping from its home and could be found roaming Lincoln Park at night.
In 1884 the first American bison born in captivity was born at the Lincoln Park Zoo. At this time, the species had been hunted to extinction in the wild—in 1896, the United States government purchased one bull and seven cows from the Zoo's bison herd to send to Yellowstone National Park to assist in the species' revival. From 1888 to 1919 the director of the Lincoln Park Zoo was the flamboyant Cy DeVry, who organized the collection, built many new structures, obtained the zoo's first elephant and monkeys. A new Lion House opened in 1912, it was renovated and reopened in 1990. The Primate House opened in 1927, was known for housing a popular gorilla named Bushman, one of the only gorillas in a U. S. zoo at the time. The zoo's great apes were moved to the Lester E. Fisher Great Ape House in 1976, named for the zoo's outgoing director, the original Primate House was renovated and reopened in 1992 as the Helen Brach Primate House, featuring more naturalistic settings. Marlin Perkins, who gained fame as the host of the television program Zoo Parade and Wild Kingdom, was director of the zoo from 1944 until 1962.
He created and recruited a citizens group to support the Zoo's mission, the Lincoln Park Zoological Society. The facility underwent a dramatic transformation in the 1970s and 1980s, with the additions of many new, naturalistic exhibits. In 1995, the Zoological Society assumed management of the zoo from the Chicago Park District, which remains the owner. Zoo administration is housed in the nearby building used by the Chicago Academy of Sciences, which moved to a new facility in 1999; the Kovler Sea Lion Pool opened the same year after an extensive renovation, is now home to the zoo's harbor seals. Regenstein African Journey, a renovation of the zoo's former Large Mammal House, opened in 2003, turning the zoo's largest building from concrete showcases for a few large mammals into a series of naturalistic settings that tell the story of the wildlife of the African continent, welcoming the return of the zoo's African elephants and giraffes as well as new additions such as the aardvark and African wild dog.
Two years the zoo renovated its Great Ape House, opening the Regenstein Center for African Apes, which focused on the zoo's troops of common chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas, putting a special emphasis on researching the behaviors of both species and creating new, naturalistic habitats. In 2010, Lincoln Park Zoo transformed the adjacent South Pond to create the Nature Boardwalk, an ecological habitat designed by Studio Gang Architects that features native plants and wildlife. In December 2011, the Kovler Penguin-Seabird House, home to rockhopper, king penguins, common murres and puffins closed down after thirty years at the zoo due to worries about the deteriorating condition of the building, prompting outcry from some Chicago residents, it was soon announced it would be replaced with a newly renovated West Gate, featuring a children's train and an all-new exhibit, Regenstein Macaque Forest, featuring Japanese macaques, or "snow monkeys", in a state-of-the-art exhibit with a hot spring, set to open in fall 2014.
It was announced in March 2014 that the zoo's Robert R. McCormick Bear Habitat, or "Bear Line", would be torn down and rebuilt with a large and improved habitat for the zoo's lone polar bear, with much more land area for the bears and a behind-the-scenes den for breeding; the new exhibit would feature a new African penguin habitat, a new species for the zoo from the tropical coasts of Africa, enabling them to stand the zoo's harsh summers as well as its cold winters. This exhibit would be outdoors and equipped for over a dozen penguins with a behind-the-scenes breeding area. Construction began after the opening of Regenstein Macaque Forest in fall 2014, with Robert and Mayari Pritzker Penguin Cove opening in late 2016. In 2016, The zoo announced the Pride of Chicago fundraising campaign, which sought $125 million in funding, lead to the construction of Regenstein Macaque Forest and Mayari Pritzker Penguin Cove and Walter Family Acrctic Tundra, would conclude with a long-awaited $30 million renovation of the aging Kovler Lion House as part of the Pride of Chicago fundraising campaign, acknowledging the public perception problems with the exhibit, constrained by its Historic Landmark status during previous renovations, most in 1992.
The new exhibit would focus squarely on lions as opposed to other big cat species it had held, such as tigers. An exact date for the exhibit's reopening has not been set; the zoo together with technological help from the Adler Planetari
Life with Bonnie
Life with Bonnie is an ABC television sitcom that aired from 2002 to 2004. The show outlined the life of character Bonnie Malloy, who juggled her personal life and her job as a daytime TV talk show host; the series was created by Bonnie Hunt and Don Lake and produced by Bob & Alice Productions, in association with Touchstone Television The series had fair ratings in the first season, but struggled in the second season, resulting in its cancellation. Life With Bonnie was shown on Living TV during ABC's airings. Bonnie Hunt as Bonnie Malloy, the mother of two children, a loving wife, host of a local talk show. Bonnie tries to maintain a public image of the perfect wife and mother, but in reality her life is chaotic. Mark Derwin as Mark Malloy, a doctor, Bonnie's husband, the father of their children, he looks on. Mark is much less concerned about what other people think than Bonnie is, which causes problems on occasion, he has a more professional demeanor, sometimes does not understand why Bonnie continues to put up with annoying people in her life.
Charlie Stewart as Charlie Malloy, Bonnie's son. Charlie shares most of his scenes with his friend Frankie, his role is small and unscripted, although he adds comedy to the show. Samantha Browne-Walters as Samantha Malloy, Bonnie's eldest child, yet another ingredient in Bonnie's hectic life, she was removed without explanation from the cast. Marianne Muellerleile as Gloria, Bonnie's live-in housekeeper/nanny, she was only intended to stay there until Charlie started school, but despite the fact that she provided little help, they could not let her leave because they had grown attached to her. David Alan Grier as David Bellows, the producer of the Morning Chicago show. David is most seen yelling and frantically rushing to get things for the show in order while pushing his lectern around the studio. Anthony Russell as Tony Russo, Bonnie's affable piano player on Morning Chicago. Bonnie's housekeeper, has a crush on Tony. Holly Wortell as Holly, Bonnie's make-up artist on Morning Chicago, she gives advice on Bonnie's marriage issues and seems to date many men.
Chris Barnes as Marv, the cue-card guy on Morning Chicago. Marv is protective of Holly, who does not return his interest. Frankie Ryan Manriquez as Frankie, Charlie's best friend who spends most of his time at the Malloy home, he contributes many funny anecdotes about his screwed-up family. Rip Taylor as "Rappin' Rip" Carl Reiner as Mr. Portinbody David Duchovny as Johnny Volcano Martin Mull as Le Nord Tom Hanks as himself Teri Garr as Mrs. Portinbody Jack LaLanne as himself The Smothers Brothers as contractors Jonathan Winters as Q. T. Marlens, a writer with multiple personalities Robin Williams as Kevin Powalski Morgan York as Christine Harris Life with Bonnie on IMDb Life with Bonnie at TV.com
Carmen Lombardo was the younger brother of bandleader Guy Lombardo. He was a composer. Lombardo was born in London, Canada; as a child, he took flute lessons, learned to play saxophone. Lombardo's compositions included the 1928 classic "Sweethearts on Parade", number one for three weeks in 1929 on the U. S. pop charts, "Ridin' Around in the Rain", written with Gene Austin in 1934, the jazz and pop standards "Coquette", "Boo Hoo", "Some Rainy Day", "Powder Your Face With Sunshine", written with Stanley Rochinski in 1948-49. In 1927, Carmen Lombardo was the vocalist of the 1927 hit record, performed by the Guy Lombardo Orchestra; as a young man played in the Lombardo Brothers Concert Company with Guy on violin and another brother, Lebert, on trumpet or piano. As the band grew, Guy became conductor, the band developed into The Royal Canadians in 1923, in which Carmen both sang and wrote music, he collaborated with American composers and his music was recorded by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, others.
Many of his compositions have been used in Woody Allen films. When singing songs like "Alone at a Table for Two" he would allow his voice to tremble, seem nearly to break into tears- he was caricatured in Warner Brothers cartoons as "Cryman" Lombardo. Lombardo wrote the words and music with John Jacob Loeb for Guy Lombardo's stage productions of Arabian Nights, Paradise Island, Mardi Gras at Jones Beach Marine Theater, New York. In the late 1960s, actor-raconteur Tony Randall made several TV appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in which he sang songs written by Carmen Lombardo in a voice imitating Lombardo's style. On one appearance and Randall performed a duet of Lombardo's "Boo Hoo", one of the songs that Randall included in his Lombardo routine. Lombardo died of cancer in Miami in 1971, aged 67. Lombardo's compositions included the number one jazz and pop standard "Sweethearts on Parade", "Powder Your Face with Sunshine", "A Lane in Spain", "Some Rainy Day", "Boo Hoo", "A Sailboat in the Moonlight" with John Jacob Loeb, "Coquette", written with Johnny Green and Gus Kahn, recorded by Paul Whiteman, Louis Armstrong, Jimmie Lunceford, Bud Freeman, Bob Crosby, The Ink Spots, Fats Domino, "Seems Like Old Times", "Oahu", "Get Out Those Old Records", "Ridin' Around in the Rain" with Gene Austin, "Return to Me" with Danny Di Minno, "You're Beautiful To-Night, My Dear".
He wrote five songs for the 1934 film Many Happy Returns. Guy Lombardo Lebert Lombardo Victor Lombardo Carmen Lombardo at Find a Grave
Summer Scent is a 2003 South Korean television series starring Song Seung-heon, Son Ye-jin, Ryu Jin, Han Ji-hye. It aired on KBS2 from July 7 to September 2003 on Mondays and Tuesdays at 21:55 for 20 episodes; the series is the third installment of season-themed tetralogy Endless Love drama series directed by Yoon Seok-ho. It had an average viewership rating of 10.7% and reached a peak viewership of 11.6%. Yoo Min-woo's first love was Seo Eun-hye. However, Eun-hye dies. Without Min-woo's knowledge, her parents decide to donate her organs. Shim Hye-won has suffered from a fatal heart disease since childhood. Miraculously, she finds that she will be obtaining a heart from the deceased Eun-hye. Suffering from the pain of losing his girlfriend, Min-woo goes to Italy to study, with the memories of Eun-hye still lingering in his heart; when he returns to Korea, fate brings Hye-won and Min-woo together. When the two first meet at the airport, Hye-won's heart oddly beats faster when she is around Min-woo.
Park Jung-jae is Hye-won's fiance. Jung-jae's younger sister, Park Jung-ah falls for him. Meanwhile, Min-woo feels guilt towards Eun-hye, because his feelings of love are stirred once again as he keeps being around Hye-won. Coincidentally, Min-woo ends up being hired as the art director for Jung-jae's project "Summer Scent," with Hye-won as their florist. Hiding their prior encounter in the forest, they awkwardly greet each other. During the project, their fondness deepens, Min-woo begins to "recognize" similarities between Eun-hye and Hye-won. Hye-won, on the other hand, believes it to be fate that her heart beats faster whenever Min-woo is near, their fondness for each other soon triggers Jung-ah's and shortly thereafter, Jung-jae's suspicions. Jung-jae, chooses to turn a blind eye as he loves Hye-won, it is Hye-won's turn to be confused as to whether her feelings for Min-woo are true, or a physiological result of Eun-hye's past feelings for him. As a result, she decides to leave Min-woo, trying to cover up her feelings of guilt towards Jung-jae and Jung-ah.
She agrees to marry him. To forget Hye-won, Min-woo decides to leave for Italy indefinitely, but only after seeing her one last time. At Hye-won's wedding, Min-woo casts one last glance at her and leaves. With Min-woo near, Hye-won's heart once more signals his presence, thus alerted, she sees Min-woo leaving. Trying to catch Min-woo, Hye-won collapses. Min-woo rushes Hye-won to the hospital with Jung-jae arriving a little later. Jung-jae, angry at Min-woo for having caused Hye-won's collapse, tells him to leave for Italy but Min-woo agrees to leave only after Hye-won has regained consciousness. Soon, Hye-won wakes up and a angered Jung-jae forbids Min-woo to see her, ordering him to leave on the spot. However, Min-woo agrees to leave only after Hye-won promises him to undergo heart surgery, for not having the operation would mean her certain demise. Soon after his arrival in Italy, Min-woo receives a letter notifying him that Hye-won died during the operation. Three years with memories of Hye-won in his heart, Min-woo returns to Korea as the manager of an Art Centre.
During his absence, Hye-won has undergone a heart transplant after the initial surgery, traveled to the United States for another transplant. On his way up the steps to the Art Centre and on her way down after her delivery, they meet again; the abnormal beating of Hye-won's new heart signals Min-woo's presence to her, thus once and for all, confirms their love for each other to be authentic. Song Seung-heon as Yoo Min-woo Son Ye-jin as Shim Hye-won Ryu Jin as Park Jung-jae Han Ji-hye as Park Jung-Ah Shin Ae as Seo Eun-hye Jo Eun-sook as Oh Jang-mi Ahn Jung-hoon as Ji Dae-poong Kim Hae-sook as Min-woo's mother Kim Yong-gun as Min-woo's father Ha Jae-young Kang Ji-hwan as Jung-ah's husband The following filming locations were featured in the series: Boseong Tea Gardens Korea Botanical Garden Deogyusan National Park Muju Resort Released: August 5, 2003 Label: Yedang EntertainmentMain Title 비밀 - Jung In-ho Missing U - Seo Jin-young 어쩌면 - Seo Jin-young 여름향기 - Jung In-ho Serenade Instrumental Second Romance - Seo Jin-young 여름향기 2 Instrumental 두 번째 사랑 - Seo Jin-young 어쩌면 Instrumental Serenade - Yoo Mi-sook 비밀 Inst.
두 번째 사랑 Inst. Love - Seo Jin-young 비밀 Instrumental 사랑한다면 - Jung In-ho & Seo Jin-young 여우비 Instrumental Love Instrumental It first aired in Japan on satellite channel WOWOW in June 2004; this was followed by reruns on cable channel LaLa TV in May 2004, terrestrial network TBS in September 2005, Hallyu cable channel KNTV from August 7 to October 2, 2005. It aired in the Philippines on GMA Network under the title Endless Love III: Summer Scent in 2004, it first aired in Thailand on Channel 7 from April 20 to June 9, 2009. Heart Organ transplant Cellular memory List of Korea-related topics List of Korean television shows Contemporary culture of South Korea Summer Scent official KBS website Summer Scent at HanCinema Summer Scent on IMDb
David Alan Grier
David Alan Grier is an American actor and comedian. He is best known for his work on the sketch comedy television show In Living Color. One of three children, Grier was born in Detroit, the son of mother Aretas Ruth, a school teacher, father William Henry Grier, a psychiatrist and writer who co-wrote the book Black Rage. Grier graduated from Detroit's magnet high school, Cass Tech, received a B. A. in Radio and Film from the University of Michigan, an M. F. A. from the Yale School of Drama in 1981. When Grier was young, his family marched with Martin Luther King, Jr. in a March on Poverty in Detroit, where King gave an early version of the "I Have A Dream" speech. After graduating from Yale, Grier landed the role of Jackie Robinson in the short-lived Broadway musical The First, directed by Martin Charnin and written by Joel Siegel. Grier got his start on the National Public Radio radio drama adaptation of Star Wars in 1981, he was the voice of a nameless X-wing fighter pilot during the Battle of Yavin.
Grier was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical and won the Theatre World Award for The First. He starred as James "Thunder" Early in the hit Broadway musical Dreamgirls. Grier made his film debut in 1983 in Streamers, directed by Robert Altman, he won the Golden Lion for Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival for the film. He appeared in the Negro Ensemble Company production A Soldier's Play and reprised his role in the film version A Soldier's Story. Grier appeared as a geology professor at the fictitious Hillman College in the show A Different World where he was a crush of several of the girls on the show including lead character Denise Huxtable played by actress Lisa Bonet. Although known for his dramatic work, Grier began to shift towards comedy, making memorable appearances in the cult films Amazon Women on the Moon and I'm Gonna Git You Sucka. Keenen Ivory Wayans, the director of Sucka, cast Grier in his new variety show In Living Color, it became a ratings won an Emmy for Outstanding Variety Series.
Grier became a popular cast member through his characters, which ranged from hyperactive children to crotchety old men. Among his prominent characters were obnoxious, megaphone-blaring shop teacher Al MacAfee, he played Rev. Leon Lonnie Love on the TV series Martin. After his success on the show, Grier began appearing in comedies such as Boomerang, Blankman, In the Army Now along with Pauly Shore and Andy Dick in 1994, as a policeman whose car is memorably crushed and eaten by a giant pod in Jumanji. Grier appeared with Tom Arnold in the 1997 comedy McHale's Navy as Ensign Charles Parker. In 1999, he made a guest appearance as himself in the "Aw, Here it Goes to Hollywood" episode of Nickelodeon's sitcom, Kenan & Kel. After the cancellation of In Living Color, Grier starred in the short-lived sitcoms The Preston Episodes, DAG. Grier had a cameo in the Robert De Edward Burns movie 15 Minutes as a Central Park mugger. In a departure from the childlike roles he played on In Living Color, he portrayed an abusive father in Rusty Cundieff's anthology film Tales from the Hood.
He began hosting the Comedy Central series Premium Blend. He was ranked no. 94 on Comedy Central 100 Greatest Stand-Ups. Grier returned to Broadway to perform in the musical A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum. In 2002, Grier joined the cast of the improv-based ABC sitcom and Bonnie Hunt vehicle Life with Bonnie which ran only two seasons. During this time, he continued to appear in comedy films but returned to drama in the films Baadasssss! and The Woodsman. He starred in his own Comedy Central stand-up special The Book of David: The Cult Figure's Manifesto, he is a frequent guest on the Comedy Central show Crank Yankers. Grier was the host of the NBC show Thank God, he appeared in the revival production of The Wiz at the La Jolla Playhouse directed by Des McAnuff. In 1998, he played as himself in Sesame Street special Elmopalooza as the show's director, he scolds Elmo and Telly after realizing what happened to the rest of the cast. Grier starred in Gym Teacher: The Movie playing the villain, Shelly Bragg.
He appeared as Uncle Henry in the ABC 2005 television movie The Muppets' Wizard of Oz. In October 2008, Grier hosted a Comedy Central spoof of a TV news magazine show. Comedy Central did not renew the show for a second season. Grier appeared as Sugar Bear in the 2009 movie Dance Flick, he provided the voice for Kobe Bryant in the Nike puppet commercials. He returned to Broadway for the premiere of Race and directed by David Mamet, opposite James Spader, Kerry Washington, Richard Thomas, which opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre on December 6, 2009. Grier received his second Tony Award nomination for his role. Grier most appeared on Broadway as Sportin' Life in the Gershwins' Porgy and Bess, which opened at the Richard Rodgers Theatre on January 12, 2012, alongside Norm Lewis and Audra McDonald, he was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical for this role. In addition to his Tony Award nomination, Grier received a 2013 Grammy nomination for Best Musical Theater Album
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t