Michael Dorn is an American actor and voice artist, known for his role as the Klingon Worf in the Star Trek franchise. From his first appearance in the series premiere episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, "Encounter at Farpoint", in 1987 to his last in Star Trek: Nemesis in 2002, Dorn has appeared more times as a regular cast member than any other Star Trek actor in the franchise's history, spanning five films and 272 television episodes, he appeared as Worf's ancestor, Colonel Worf, in the 1991 film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Following the end of his Star Trek career, Dorn had supporting roles in a number of independent feature films, including Shadow Hours, Lessons for an Assassin, the Santa Clause trilogy, in which he appeared in a cameo role as the Sandman. Dorn was born in Luling, the son of Allie Lee and Fentress Dorn, Jr, he grew up in California. He studied television production at Pasadena City College. From there, he pursued a career in music as a performer with several different rock music bands, traveling to San Francisco and back to Los Angeles.
Dorn first appeared in Rocky as Apollo Creed's bodyguard. He appeared as a guest on the television show W. E. B. in 1978. The producer was impressed with his work, so he introduced Dorn to an agent who introduced him to acting teacher Charles Conrad to study acting for six months, he landed a regular role on the television series CHiPs. Dorn's most famous role to date is that of the Klingon Starfleet officer Lieutenant Worf in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. "If what happened to the first cast is called being typecast," Dorn says, "then I want to be typecast. Of course, they didn't get the jobs after'Trek.' But they are making their sixth movie. Name me someone else in television who has made six movies!"Dorn has appeared on-screen in more Star Trek episodes and movies as the same character than anyone else: he appeared in 175 episodes of Star Trek: The Next Generation, 102 episodes of Deep Space Nine and four Star Trek movies, bringing his total to 281 appearances as Worf.
Dorn is one of six actors to lend his voice to Star Trek: Captain's Chair, reprising his role of Lieutenant Commander Worf. Dorn's appearance in the film Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country was as Colonel Worf, representing Captain James T. Kirk and Dr. Leonard McCoy at their trial on Qo'noS and unmasking the real assassin, Colonel West. Dorn directed the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episodes "In the Cards", "Inquisition" and "When It Rains...", the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Two Days and Two Nights". In 2012, Dorn announced a desire to return to his Klingon role in a television series tentatively titled Star Trek: Captain Worf, he said: I had come up with the idea because I love and I think he's a character that hasn't been developed and hasn't been realized. Once I started thinking about it, it became obvious to me that I wanted to at least put it out there, which I have, the response has been pretty amazing. We've been contacted by different individuals–I can't say who and all that–about wanting to come on board and be part of this.
In 2014, Dorn participated in the fan produced Star Trek episode "Fairest of Them All", giving his voice to the computer of the Mirror Universe Enterprise. Dorn has appeared in a number of TV shows and video games, he has been the spokesman for Neutrogena T-Gel Shampoo, has appeared in a Dodge Dart car commercial. Dorn has appeared as Worf on Webster and Family Guy, the latter along with fellow Star Trek: The Next Generation stars, he had a recurring role on the television series Castle, playing the therapist of NYPD police detective Kate Beckett. Dorn appeared in a 2012 tongue-in-cheek television commercial for Chrysler as "Future Guy", a time traveler sent from the future to assist development of the 2013 Dodge Dart, he plays the role of General Thain in the "Castlevania: Hymn of Blood" web series. A member of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Dorn is an accomplished pilot, he has flown with the Blue Angels as well as the Thunderbirds. Dorn has owned several jet aircraft, including a Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, which he jokingly refers to as his "starship", a North American F-86 Sabre, owns a North American Sabreliner.
Dorn serves on several aviation organizations, one of, the Air Force Aviation Heritage Foundation, where he is on the advisory board. He has done interviews for the "Private Jets" episode of Modern Marvels on The History Channel. Dorn stated in an interview that he was once diagnosed with an "early early" stage of prostate cancer, which led him to become a vegan. Michael Dorn on IMDb Michael Dorn at the TCM Movie Database Michael Dorn at AllMovie Michael Dorn: A Trek Worth Remembering
The Romulans are an extraterrestrial humanoid species in the science fiction franchise Star Trek. First appearing in the original Star Trek series in the 1966 episode "Balance of Terror", they have since made appearances in all the Star Trek series: The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine and Enterprise. In addition, they have appeared in various spin-off media, prominently in the two feature films Star Trek: Nemesis and Star Trek. Throughout the series, they are depicted as antagonists, are at war with or in a tenuous truce with the United Federation of Planets. On rare occasions, they have allied with the Federation, they do not get along with Klingons either, whom they consider to be a savage race, while the Klingons consider Romulans dishonorable. The Romulans act as a counterpoint to the logical Vulcan race, whom they resemble and with whom they share a common ancestry; as such, the Romulans are characterized as passionate and opportunistic — in every way the opposite of the logical and "cold" Vulcans.
The Romulans are the dominant race of the Romulan Star Empire. Although Star Trek star charts place the Romulan Empire's territory in the Beta Quadrant of the galaxy, in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine they are referred to as an Alpha Quadrant power; the Romulans were created by Paul Schneider, who said "it was a matter of developing a good Romanesque set of admirable antagonists... an extension of the Roman civilization to the point of space travel". There are some differences in their history and the way they are portrayed on television, in the motion pictures and in non-canonical media; the Romulans began as a group of Vulcan revolutionaries who refused to accept the Vulcan philosopher Surak's teachings of the complete suppression of emotions. At some point in their shared history, this group left the planet Vulcan settling on the planets Romulus and Remus. In the original series episode "Balance of Terror", Spock notes that while the events during the period of Surak are well documented, he is uncertain about their connections to the Romulans.
He does state that he thinks them a offshoot of Vulcan. The Next Generation episode "The Chase" implies that Romulans, Cardassians and humans share a common ancestry. Like Vulcans, Romulans have pointed ears, upswept eyebrows, copper-based blood, green when oxygenated in the arteries and copper or rust-colored when deoxygenated in the veins. In the original series, Romulans were indistinguishable from Vulcans in appearance, but subsequent series and films introduced a V-shaped ridge above the bridge of their nose, a similar prosthetic make-up development to that of the Klingons. Like Vulcans, Romulans are always depicted as having dark or black hair. Romulans share the longevity common to their Vulcan cousins. In "Unification", the Romulan Senator Pardek shared a friendship with Ambassador Spock lasting at least 80 years. However, the similarities end when it comes to Vulcans' mental or physical abilities, which the Romulans do not share, or lost after their arrival on Romulus. Vulcans developed greater physical strength than humans due to the higher gravity of their home planet, whereas Romulus' gravity is analogous to that of Earth.
Romulan ale is a fictional popular blue alcoholic beverage, illegal because of a Federation trade embargo in the late 23rd century through the late 24th century. Despite this, it is traded and consumed openly. During the alliance with the Federation during the Dominion War, Romulan ale was legalized though it was outlawed again after the war, as stated by Geordi La Forge in Star Trek: Nemesis. Other Romulan drinks include Kali-fal, a blue drink with an aroma that should "forcibly open one's frontal sinuses before the first sip." Romulan fashion of the late 24th century had distinctive squared shoulders. Hair is cut straight across the brow close to the eyebrows, with longer locks framing the face, cut following the cheekbones, a style reminiscent of a helmet. In Star Trek: The Original Series, Romulan military uniforms consisted of a gray tunic with varying kinds of decorative sashes. Commanders wore red sashes, senior officers wore blue sashes, most soldiers wore no sash at all. In subsequent series, such as Star Trek: The Next Generation, Romulan uniforms were of a different style, with varying kinds of patterns and colors.
The dominant uniform style thereafter was gray under a pattern of squares. The rank insignia on the Next Generation-era Romulan uniform consisted of a series of diamond and crescent shapes, worn on the left collar, their uniforms tend to fit rather loosely, feature large phaser holsters that allow the entire weapon to be'dropped in', hiding most of it from view. As of Star Trek: Nemesis, Romulan uniforms were more standardized. Episodes of the fourth season of Star Trek: Enterprise depicted the 22nd century Romulans wearing the same uniforms as those of the 24th century Nemesis. Romulan military uniforms follow a distinct pattern through the 24th centuries. Male hairstyles do not appear to change although 24th century hairstyles seem more distinct from Vulcan hairstyles. Females in the 23rd century wore long hair in a variety of styles. By the 24th century, females wear a style similar to males; the emblem of the Romulan Star Empire depicts a large bird of prey clutching the worlds of Romulus and Remus.
The avian motif appears on their warbird starships. Those who rejected the teachings of Surak were said to be "beneath the raptor's wi
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Forensic science is a combination of two different Latin words: science; the former, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation.
The second is science, derived from the Latin word for ‘knowledge’ and is today tied to the scientific method, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. Taken together forensic science can be seen as the use of the scientific methods and processes in crime solving; the word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story; the case would be decided in favor of the individual with delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is a synonym for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.
The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later; the first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu, written in China by Song Ci in 1248, a director of justice and supervision, during the Song dynasty. Gunhegarancha Kardankal authored by Dr. Vasudha Apte in Marathi provides information about 130 different methods of forensic investigations in detail. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality, he concluded methods on how to make antiseptic and to reappear the hidden injury from dead bodies and bones. At that time, the book had given methods to distinguish pretending suicide.
In one of Song Ci's accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book described how to distinguish between a drowning and strangulation, along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India, some suspects were made to spit it back out. In ancient China, those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths. In ancient middle-eastern cultures, the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly, it is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth.
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear; these included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Francois Immanuele Fodéré and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Frank. As the rational values of the Enlightenment era increasingly
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Gowron, son of M'Rel, is a fictional character who appeared in the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Portrayed by Robert O'Reilly, he is the leader of the Klingon Empire, known as the Chancellor. O'Reilly had appeared earlier in The Next Generation as Scarface in the second season episode "Manhunt", was cast as Gowron due to his comedic ability and his piercing and unsettling gaze, or what O'Reilly himself humorously referred to as "that crazy loon eyeball thing". Appearing first in "Reunion", where he was named Chancellor, Gowron went on to cement his position against the challenge of the Duras family in the two-part episode "Redemption". Following the advice of Lt. Worf in "Rightful Heir", he incorporated the clone of Kahless into the Klingon government without disrupting his own leadership. In Deep Space Nine, he brought the Klingons into a conflict with the Federation over fears that the Cardassians had been infiltrated by the Founders.
After Cardassia sides with the Dominion, he allies with Starfleet throughout the rest of the war. However, he grows jealous of the success of General Martok, puts the war effort at risk, resulting in his death at the hands of Worf. O'Reilly appeared as the character in video games, such as Star Trek: Klingon and Star Trek: The Next Generation: Klingon Honor Guard. Critics responded positively to the appearances of the character, equating his actions to those of a politician, he listed in 20th place of a list of the best characters in the franchise by IGN, while Keith DeCandido called him one of the "more memorable characters". Prior to his casting as Gowron, Robert O'Reilly appeared in the Star Trek: The Next Generation first season episode "Manhunt" as a character referred to as Scarface; when casting was underway for the Jonathan Frakes directed episode "Reunion", Frakes was looking for an actor who could portray a Klingon with a sense of humour. O'Reilly remarked that he was considered because of what he called "that crazy loon eyeball thing".
He went directly from a performance of King Lear where he portrayed the character Edmund, introduced elements of that character into the Klingon. O'Reilly described Gowron's initial appearances as being "the only one with honor, he was sort of a crazed warrior who did not want to be anywhere near'hew-mons'", he felt. He said that they were "very similar in nature", said that this set the character apart from the other Klingons who had appeared on the show until that point. Michael Westmore was in charge of designing the prosthetics for O'Reilly's performances as Gowron, describing it as one of his favourites of all the Klingons he's worked on because of the beard that comes down the side of his face. O'Reilly made his first appearance in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine in the third season episode "The House of Quark". Writer Ronald D. Moore explained that his work on the episode came about because of his previous work on the Klingon-centric The Next Generation episode Sins of the Father, was pleased to bring over elements from his previous series – including Gowron.
O'Reilly felt lucky to appear in the episode, as it was the expectation of many actors who played recurring characters in The Next Generation that they wouldn't transition to Deep Space Nine. Outside of Star Trek, O'Reilly appeared in character for an advert for Hallmark Cards to promote a Klingon Bird of Prey starship Christmas ornament; when he discovered that Michael Dorn would be returning to Star Trek on television in Deep Space Nine, he hoped that it might be an opening for more Klingons on the show, including the return of Gowron. O'Reilly said that "When I got the script for'The Way of the Warrior', I was thrilled to get the job, to work with Michael again and to see Gowron and Worf together", he praised the relationship between the characters of Worf and Gowron, saying " always reminding Gowron about honor, but we're on two different sides when it comes to honor. It makes for great drama." At the time he was confident that this wouldn't be Gowron's last appearance, but hoped that the character wouldn't be overused so that he would continue to have an impact when he did.
Gowron's final appearance in Star Trek was in the Deep Space Nine seventh season episode "Tacking into the Wind" where he is killed by Worf after the Klingon Chancellor displays some dishonourable tactics towards Martok. However, in the original draft it was not intended for the character to die, it was Michael Piller's suggestion that Gowron should die, this idea made its way into the episode via Moore's screenplay. O'Reilly described Gowron at the end saying that "He went out as this bad, terrible Klingon, which I disagreed with but that’s fine."Following the death of Gowron on screen, O'Reilly continued to attend Star Trek conventions in character appearing on stage alongside J. G. Hertzler as Martok. One of their trademarks is a song about Klingons, O'Reilly has had a Bat'leth created to look like a stringed guitar, he explained in an interview. For me, it was a dream come true, it was nice to come back to it, and the fans just love it. We tried it once and the fans just went crazy." The pair debuted the in-makeup appearances at a convention in the late 2000s in Germany, after generating the longest photo op queue at the event, they decided to take it to the stage.
Larry Nemecek praised their convention appearances, saying "They are fan favourites because they are big, gre
Suzie Plakson is an American actress, writer, poet and coach. Born Susan Plaksin in Buffalo, New York, she was raised in Pennsylvania, she attended Northwestern University. She began her career on the stage, played four characters opposite Anthony Newley in the national revival tour of Stop the World, I Want to Get Off, she played Marquise Theresa Du Parc in the Broadway production of La Bête. Plakson was War, playing sportswriter Mary Margaret "Meg" Tynan, she played four characters on various Star Trek series: a Vulcan, Doctor Selar, in "The Schizoid Man". She played the blue brontosaurus real estate agent Monica de Vertebrae on Dinosaurs, as well as many other guest voices. Plakson has had various recurring roles in sitcoms such as Mad About You, Everybody Loves Raymond, How I Met Your Mother, she has acted in movies such as Disclosure, Red Eye, Wag the Dog. She performed an allegorical solo show, An Evening with Eve. Plakson penned and performed the alternative country rock album DidnWannaDoIt! produced by Jay Ferguson, released the video of the title song on YouTube.
She recorded the audiobook/e-book, The Return of King Lillian, a mythic allegory. Suzie Plakson on IMDb Suzie Plakson at StarTrek.com
Science fiction on television
Science fiction first appeared in television programming in the late 1930s, during what is called the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an imaginary world not limited by the constraints of reality; the need to portray imaginary settings or characters with properties and abilities beyond the reach of current reality obliges producers to make extensive use of specialized techniques of television production. Through most of the 20th century, many of these techniques were expensive and involved a small number of dedicated craft practitioners, while the reusability of props, effects, or animation techniques made it easier to keep using them; the combination of high initial cost and lower maintenance cost pushed producers into building these techniques into the basic concept of a series, influencing all the artistic choices. By the late 1990s, improved technology and more training and cross-training within the industry made all of these techniques easier to use, so that directors of individual episodes could make decisions to use one or more methods, so such artistic choices no longer needed to be baked into the series concept.
Special effects have been an essential tool throughout the history of science fiction on television: small explosives to simulate the effects of various rayguns, squibs of blood and gruesome prosthetics to simulate the monsters and victims in horror series, the wire-flying entrances and exits of George Reeves as Superman. The broad term "special effects" includes all the techniques here, but more there are two categories of effects. Visual effects involve photographic or digital manipulation of the onscreen image done in post-production. Mechanical or physical effects involve props and other physical methods used during principal photography itself; some effects involved a combination of techniques. Stunts are another important category of physical effects. In general, all kinds of special effects must be planned during pre-production. Babylon 5 was the first series to use computer-generated imagery, or "CGI", for all exterior space scenes those with characters in space suits; the technology has made this more practical, so that today models are used.
In the 1990s, CGI required expensive processors and customized applications, but by the 2000s, computing power has pushed capabilities down to personal laptops running a wide array of software. Models have been an essential tool in science fiction television since the beginning, when Buck Rogers took flight in spark-scattering spaceships wheeling across a matte backdrop sky; the original Star Trek required a staggering array of models. Models fell out of use in filming in the 1990s as CGI became more affordable and practical, but today, designers sometimes construct scale models which are digitized for use in animation software. Models of characters are puppets. Gerry Anderson created a series of shows using puppets living in a universe of models and miniature sets, notably Thunderbirds. ALF depicted an alien living in a family. In Stargate SG-1, the Asgard characters are puppets in scenes where they are sitting, standing, or lying down. In Mystery Science Theater 3000, the characters of Crow T.
Robot and Tom Servo, two of the show's main characters, are puppets constructed from random household items. As animation is free of the constraints of gravity and physical reality, it is an ideal technique for science fiction and fantasy on television. In a sense all animated series allow characters and objects to perform in unrealistic ways, so they are all considered to fit within the broadest category of speculative fiction The artistic affinity of animation to comic books has led to a large amount of superhero-themed animation, much of this adapted from comics series, while the impossible characters and settings allowed in animation made this a preferred medium for both fantasy and for series aimed at young audiences. Animation was all hand-drawn by artists, though in the 1980s, beginning with Captain Power, computers began to automate the task of creating repeated images. In recent years as technology has improved, this has become more common, notably since the development of the Massive software application permits producers to include hordes of non-human characters to storm a city or space station.
The robotic Cylons in the new version of Battlestar Galactica are animated characters, while the Asgard in Stargate SG-1 are animated when they are shown walking around or more than one is on screen at once. In general, science fiction series are subject to the same financial constraints as other television shows. However, high production costs increase the financial risk, while limited audiences further complicate the business case for continuing production. Star Trek was the first television series to cost more than $100,000 per episode, while Star Trek: The Next Generation was the first to cost more than $1 million per episode; the innovative nature of science fiction means that new shows cannot rely on predictable market-tested formulas like legal dramas or sitcoms. In the past, science fiction television shows have maintained a family friendly format that rend