States of the German Confederation
The states of the German Confederation were those member states that from 20 June 1815 were part of the German Confederation, which lasted, with some changes in the member states, until 24 August 1866, under the presidency of the Austrian imperial House of Habsburg, represented by an Austrian presidential envoy to the Federal diet in Frankfurt. On the whole, its territory nearly coincided with that remaining in the Holy Roman Empire at the outbreak of the French Revolution, with the notable exception of Belgium. Except for the two rival major powers and Prussia, the western left bank of the Rhine, the other member states or their precursors, making up most of present Germany, had been within Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine; the Austrian Empire, excluding the Kingdom of Hungary, the Principality of Transylvania, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, the Duchy of Bukovina, the kingdoms of Dalmatia and Galicia Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of Bohemia Margraviate of Moravia Grand Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Duchy of Styria Littoral County of Tyrol Vorarlberg The Kingdom of Prussia Brandenburg Pomerania Rhine Province Saxony Silesia Westphalia The Kingdom of Bavaria Upper Bavaria Upper Franconia Swabia Upper Palatinate Middle Franconia Lower Bavaria Lower Franconia Palatinate The Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Württemberg The Electorate of Hesse The Grand Duchy of Baden The Grand Duchy of Hesse The Duchy of Holstein The Duchy of Schleswig (a fief of Denmark and together with the Duchy of Holstein in personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark, was not a former member of either the Holy Roman Empire or the Confederation of the Rhine.
The secessionist government of Schleswig-Holstein joined Schleswig to the Confederation. This was not recognized by the Confederation and the Danish government, the peace settlement in 1851 specified that Schleswig was not a member; the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg The Duchy of Limburg The Duchy of Brunswick The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin The Duchy of Nassau The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach The Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen The Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz The Duchy of Oldenburg The Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau The Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg The Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen The Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen The Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt The Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen The Principality of Liechtenstein The Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen The Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont The Principality of Reuss Senior Line The Principality of Reuss Junior Line The Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe The Principality of Lippe The Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg The Duchy of Lauenburg The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck The Free City of Frankfurt upon Main The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen The Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg The four free cities were republics by constitution, while all the others were monarchies, some constitutional and some absolutist.
Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte WorldStatesmen
Western Pomerania called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means "land by the sea"; the adjective for the region is Pomeranian, inhabitants are called Pomeranians. Forming part of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Western Pomerania's boundaries have changed through the centuries and it belonged to countries such as Poland, Sweden and Prussia. Before 1945, it embraced the whole area of Pomerania west of the Oder River. Today the cities of Szczecin, Świnoujście and Police are part of Poland, with the remainder of the region staying part of Germany. German Vorpommern now forms about one-third of the present-day north-eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. German Western Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 - while the Polish districts of the region had a population of about 520,000 in 2012.
So overall, about 1 million people live in the historical region of Western Pomerania today, while the Szczecin agglomeration reaches further. Towns on the German side include Damgarten, Anklam, Demmin, Grimmen, Ueckermünde and Barth; the German prefix Vor- denotes a location closer to the speaker, is the equivalent of "Hither" in English and Citerior/Cis- in Latin. The name "Hither Pomerania" has been used, but in modern English the German region is more called "Western Pomerania" or by its native name; the local dialect term is Low German: Vörpommern. The toponym Pomerania comes from Slavic po more; the Polish name for this region is Pomorze Przednie or Przedpomorze – corresponding to German Vorpommern – though from the Polish capital's point of view the region is more distant than the rest of Pomerania. Poland has both a historic and geographic term Western Pomerania as well as a province called West Pomerania, which comprises the western half of the Polish part of Pomerania; the major feature of Western Pomerania is its long Baltic Sea and lagoons coastline.
Typical is a distinct "double coast", whereby offshore islands separate lagoons from the open sea, forming a unique landscape. The islands Rügen and Usedom are located in Western Pomerania The largest town in Western Pomerania is Szczecin on the Polish side and Stralsund on the German side. Today it is still an important town economically; the towns of Stralsund and Greifswald together, after Rostock, are the second largest centres of population in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In addition the region has the highest population density of the four planning regions in the state. Western Pomerania has two national parks: Jasmund National Park West Pomeranian Lagoon Area National ParkAnother region in Western Pomerania under extensive conservation protection is the Peene Valley. Vorpommern today is understood as comprising the islands of Rügen and Usedom and the nearby mainland matching the administrative districts of Vorpommern-Rügen and Vorpommern-Greifswald, though those districts' boundaries with Mecklenburg proper do not match the pre-1945 demarcation.
The region is mentioned in the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern state constitution as one of the two constituating regions of the state with the right to form a Landschaftsverband, an administrative entity subordinate only to the state level. Consideration was given during an unsuccessful district reform project in 1994 to restoring the old boundary, but this was not implemented; the Ribnitz and Fischland area of Vorpommern-Rügen were part of Mecklenburg. The old western boundary line is preserved in the division between the two Protestant church bodies of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Mecklenburg and the Pomeranian Evangelical Church. Major cities and towns in Vorpommern include Stralsund, Bergen auf Rügen, Anklam, Wolgast and Barth. Heringsdorf is a semi-urban center. With Polish entry into the European Union and the opening of borders, Stettin has resumed its place as a dominant city for southern and eastern parts of the region. You can sort the table of the 20 largest towns by clicking one of the upper columns.
Popular tourist resorts can be found all along the Baltic beaches of the Fischland-Darß-Zingst peninsula and the islands of Hiddensee, Rügen and Usedom. The old Haneseatic towns are popular tourist destinations due to their brick gothic medieval architecture, downtown Stralsund is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Stralsund and Wolgast have a shipyard industry, the Volkswerft in Stralsund and the Peenewerft in Wolgast produce large ships, while the HanseYacht shipyard in Greifswald is specialized in building yachts. In Mukran near Sassnitz on Rügen, there is an international ferry terminal linking Western Pomerania to Sweden, Denmark and other oversee countries. An industrial complex northeast of Lubmin near Greifswald includes a shut-down nuclear power plant, being deconstructed, the Nord Stream gas pipeline which come ashore at this site. In Gr
Imperial County of Reuss
Reuss was the name of several historical states located in present-day Thuringia, Germany. Its rulers, the House of Reuss, named all of their male children Heinrich after the end of the 12th century in honour of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, to whom they owed the estates of Weida and Gera; the head of each branch of the family bore the German title Fürst. Several different principalities of the House of Reuss which had existed had by the time of the formation of the German Confederation become part of the two remaining lines. Before they had been part first of the Holy Roman Empire, the Confederation of the Rhine; the region including what would become the Principality of Reuss was inhabited in early medieval times by Slavic people who were converted to Christianity by the German Emperor Otto I. In church matters the region was under the Diocese of Zeitz. On account of the frequent inroads of the Slavs, the residence of the Bishop of Zeitz was removed to Naumburg in 1028, after which the See was called Naumburg-Zeitz.
Upon its subjection to German authority, the whole province was allotted to the March of Zeitz. As early as the year 1000, Emperor Otto III permitted the entire part lying on the eastern boundary of Thuringia to be administered by imperial vogts, or bailiffs, whence this territory received the name of Vogtland, a designation that has remained to this day a geographical summary for Reuss that part on the Saxon borders; the position of vogt soon became hereditary. The princes of Reuss are descended from the vogts of Weida. Erkenbert I is proved by documentary evidence to have been their ancestor, his successors acquired the whole Vogtland by feuds or marriage settlement, although in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries they lost the greater part of their possessions, most of which fell to the Electorate of Saxony. In 1244 Henry IV entered a German monastery, his sons divided his possessions, their seats being at Weida and Plauen. In 1306 the Plauen branch was subdivided into an elder line that died out in 1572, a younger line called Plauen at Greiz.
Henry, the founder of the Plauen line, on account of his marriage with a granddaughter of King Daniel of Galicia received the surname of "der Reusse", whence the name passed to the country. On account of the close relations of Reuss with the neighbouring Saxon states, Lutheranism speedily gained a foothold in Reuss; the rulers joined the Schmalkaldic League against the German emperor, forfeited their possessions, but afterwards recovered them. All the males of the House of Reuss are named Heinrich plus a number. In the elder line the numbering covers all male children of the elder House, the numbers increase until 100 is reached and start again at 1. In the younger line the system is similar but the numbers increase until the end of the century before starting again at 1; this odd regulation was formulated as a Family Law in 1688, but the tradition of the uniformity of name was in practice as early as 1200. It was seen as a way of honoring the Hohenstaufen Emperor Heinrich/Henry VI, who raised Heinrich der Reiche/Henry the Rich to the office of provost of the Cloister in Quedlinburg.
In 1564 the sons of Henry XIII of Reuss at Greiz divided the estates into Reuss at Lower Greiz, descendants of Henry XIV the Elder Reuss at Upper Greiz, descendants of Henry XV the Middle Reuss at Gera, descendants of Henry XVI the Younger. While the Middle Reuss became extinct in 1616, the Older and Younger lines were divided again several times until in 1778 Count Henry XI united the possessions of Upper and Lower Greiz to the Principality of Reuss Elder Line. In return the remaining estates of Gera larger though, became the Principality of Reuss Younger Line in 1806; the two remaining Reuss principalities went on to join in turn the German Confederation. Henry XXII of Reuss Elder line is notable among the more modern princes of this house for his enmity to Prussia, which he opposed in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, when the Prussian troops occupied his domain. Henry joined the new German Empire, he alone of all the confederate princes remained until his death an implacable enemy of Prince Bismarck and of the conditions created in Germany by the foundation of the empire.
His daughter Hermine Reuss of Greiz however became the second wife of the exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II later. His son, Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss of Greiz, being incapable of ruling, the regency passed to the ruling prince of the younger line of Reuss. Both lines lost their thrones in German Revolution of 1918–19. Of both lines, only the Köstritz side branch of the Younger Line still exists today. After World War I, the Reuss territories were unified in 1919 as the People's State of Reuss, incorporated into the new state of Thuringia in 1920. A young Reuss Count, sent to the 1815 Congress of Vienna, is the protagonist of the 1899 operetta Wiener Blut and the 1942 film based on it. Burgraves of Meissen "Reuss". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Héraldique européenne
Duchy of Pomerania
The Duchy of Pomerania was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania. The duchy originated from the realm of Wartislaw I, a Slavic Pomeranian duke, was extended by the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp in 1317, the Principality of Rügen in 1325, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land in 1455. During the High Middle Ages, it comprised the northern Neumark and Uckermark areas as well as Circipania and Mecklenburg-Strelitz; the Dukes of Pomerania were vassals of Poland from 1122 to 1138. Most of the time, the duchy was ruled by several "Griffin" dukes in common, resulting in various internal partitions. After the last Griffin duke had died during the Thirty Years' War in 1637, the duchy was partitioned between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden; the Kings of Sweden and the Margraves of Brandenburg Kings of Prussia, became members as Dukes of Pomerania in the List of Reichstag participants. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more. In the 12th century, the Holy Roman Empire's Duchy of Saxony and Denmark variously conquered Pomerania, ending the tribal era.
The Stolp and Schlawe areas were ruled by Ratibor I and his descendants until the Danish occupation and extinction of the Ratiboride branch in 1227. The areas stretching from Kolberg to Stettin were ruled by Ratibor's brother Wartislaw I and his descendants until the 1630s; the terms of surrender after the Polish conquest were that Wartislaw had to accept Polish sovereignty, convert his people to Christianity, pay an annual tribute to the Polish duke. In several expeditions mounted between 1102 and 1121, most of Pomerania had been invaded by the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. From 1102 to 1109, Boleslaw campaigned in the Persante area; the Pomeranian residence in Belgard was taken in 1102. From 1112 to 1116, Boleslaw subdued all of Pomerelia. From 1119 to 1122, the area towards the Oder were subdued. Stettin was taken in the winter of 1121–1122; the conquest resulted in a high death toll and devastation of vast areas of Pomerania, the Pomeranian dukes were forced to become vassals of Boleslaw III, King of Poland.
Poland's influence vanished in the next decade. In 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief. Wartislaw I accepted the Emperor as his overlord. With Boleslaw's death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. In the meantime, Wartislaw managed to conquer vast territories west of the Oder river, an area inhabited by Lutici tribes weakened by past warfare, included these territories into his Duchy of Pomerania. In 1120, he had expanded west into the areas near the Oder Lagoon and Peene river. Most notably Demmin, the Principality of Gützkow and Wolgast were conquered in the following years; the major stage of the westward expansion into Lutici territory occurred between Otto of Bamberg's two missions, 1124 and 1128. In 1128, the County of Gützkow and Wolgast were incorporated into Wartislaw I's realm, yet warfare was still going on.
Captured Lutici and other war loot, including livestock and clothes were apportioned among the victorious. After Wartislaw's Lutician conquests, his duchy lay between the Bay of Greifswald to the north, including Güstrow, to the west, Kolobrzeg in the east, as far as the Havel and Spree rivers in the south; these gains were not subject to Polish over lordship, but were placed under over lordship of Nordmark margrave Albrecht the Bear a dedicated enemy of Slavs, by Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor. Thus, the western territories contributed to making Wartislaw independent from the Polish dukes. Wartislaw was not the only one campaigning in these areas; the Polish Duke Boleslaw III, during his Pomeranian campaign launched an expedition into the Müritz area in 1120–21, before he turned back to subdue Wartislaw. The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III in 1114 initiated massive campaigns against the local Lutici tribes resulting in their final defeat in 1228; the territories were invaded by Danish forces multiple times, coming from the Baltic Sea, used the rivers Peene and Uecker to advance to a line Demmin–Pasewalk.
At different times, Pomeranians and Danes were either allies or opponents. The Pomeranian dukes consolidated their power in the course of the 12th century, yet the preceding warfare had left these territories devastated. A first attempt to convert the Pomeranians was made following the subjugation of Pomerania by Boleslaw III of Poland. In 1122, Spanish monk Bernard travelled to Jumne, accompanied only by his chaplain and an interpreter; the Pomeranians however were not impressed by his missionary efforts and threw him out of town. Bernard was made bishop of Lebus. After Bernard's misfortune, Boleslaw III asked Otto of Bamberg to convert Pomerania to Christianity, which he accomplished in his first visit in 1124–25. Otto's strategy differed from the one Bernard used: While Bernard trav
Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf
Heinrich XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf, was ruler of the German county Reuss-Ebersdorf from 1747 till his death. He was the eldest son of the thirteen children of Heinrich XXIX, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf and Sophie Theodora of Castell-Remlingen, he was the grandfather of the great-grandfather of Queen Victoria. Heinrich XXIV succeeded his father as Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf in 1747. In Thurnau on 28 June 1754 Heinrich XXIV married Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg, they had seven children: Heinrich XLVI. Augusta, Princess of Reuss-Ebersdorf on 9 April 1806. Luise, crowned Princess of Reuss-Ebersdorf on 9 April 1806. Heinrich LI, crowned Prince of Reuss-Ebersdorf on 9 April 1806. Ernestine Ferdinande. Heinrich LIII. Henriette, married on 4 July 1787 to Prince Karl of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg. Thomas Gehrlein: "Das Haus Reuss: Älterer und Jüngerer Linie", August 2006
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
A prince-bishop is a bishop, the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop. A prince-bishop is considered an elected monarch. In the West, with the decline of imperial power from the 4th century onwards in the face of the barbarian invasions, sometimes Christian bishops of cities took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial; as cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared themselves independent of the secular territorial magnates, friction intensified between burghers and bishops.
In the Byzantine Empire, the still autocratic Emperors passed general legal measures assigning all bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, but, part of a caesaropapist development putting the Eastern Church in the service of the Empire, with its Ecumenical Patriarch reduced to the Emperor's minister of religious affairs. Bishops had been involved in the government of the Frankish realm and subsequent Carolingian Empire as the clerical member of a duo of envoys styled Missus dominicus, but, an individual mandate, not attached to the see. Prince-bishoprics were most common in the feudally fragmented Holy Roman Empire, where many were formally awarded the rank of an Imperial Prince Reichsfürst, granting them the immediate power over a certain territory and a representation in the Imperial Diet; the stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes, always looking out more for their duchy's "national interest" than for the Empire's.
In turn the first Ottonian king Henry the Fowler and more so his son, Emperor Otto I, intended to weaken the power of the dukes by granting loyal bishops Imperial lands and vest them with regalia privileges. Unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary lands to any descendants. Instead the Emperors reserved the implementation of the bishops of their proprietary church for themselves, defying the fact that according to canon law they were part of the transnational Catholic Church; this met with increasing opposition by the Popes, culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076. The Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important bishops; the immediate territory attached to the episcopal see became a prince-diocese or bishopric. The German term Hochstift was used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics. Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the privileged status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz and Trier as members of the electoral college.
At the eve of the Protestant Reformation, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities. They were secularized in the 1803 German Mediatization upon the territorial losses to France in the Treaty of Lunéville, except for the Mainz prince-archbishop and German archchancellor Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, who continued to rule as Prince of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title became defunct. However, in some countries outside of French control, such as in the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, the institution nominally continued, in some cases was revived. No less than three of the prince-electors, the highest order of Reichsfürsten, were prince-archbishops, each holding the title of Archchancellor for a part of the Empire; the bishops of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt didn't control any territory, nor did they claim a princely title. Upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Order's State corresponded with the Diocese of Riga.
Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, whereby Albert had to cede large parts of the episcopal territory to the Livonian Order. Albert proceeded tactically in the conflict between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick II: in 1225 he reached the acknowledgement of his status as a Prince-Bishop of the Empire, though the Roman Curia insisted on the fact that the Christianized Baltic territories were under the suzerainty of the Holy See. By the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the continued dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop and the Teutonic Knigh