Matthew Abraham Groening is an American cartoonist, producer and voice actor. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell and the television series The Simpsons and Disenchantment; the Simpsons is the longest-running U. S. primetime-television series in history and the longest-running U. S. animated sitcom. Groening made his first professional cartoon sale of Life in Hell to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. At its peak, the cartoon was carried in 250 weekly newspapers. Life in Hell caught the attention of James L. Brooks. In 1985, Brooks contacted Groening with the proposition of working in animation for the Fox variety show The Tracey Ullman Show. Brooks wanted Groening to adapt his Life in Hell characters for the show. Fearing the loss of ownership rights, Groening decided to create something new and came up with a cartoon family, the Simpson family, named the members after his own parents and sisters—while Bart was an anagram of the word "brat"; the shorts would be spun off into their own series The Simpsons.
In 1997, Groening and former Simpsons writer David X. Cohen developed Futurama, an animated series about life in the year 3000, which premiered in 1999, running for four years on Fox picked up by Comedy Central for additional seasons. Groening developed a new series for Netflix titled Disenchantment, which premiered in August 2018. Groening has won 12 Primetime Emmy Awards, ten for The Simpsons and two for Futurama as well as a British Comedy Award for "outstanding contribution to comedy" in 2004. In 2002, he won the National Cartoonist Society Reuben Award for his work on Life in Hell, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 14, 2012. Groening was born on February 15, 1954 in Portland, the middle of five children, his Norwegian American mother, Margaret Ruth, was once a teacher, his German Canadian father, Homer Philip Groening, was a filmmaker, advertiser and cartoonist. Homer, born in Main Centre, Canada, grew up in a Mennonite, Plautdietsch-speaking family. Matt's grandfather, Abraham Groening, was a professor at Tabor College, a Mennonite Brethren liberal arts college in Hillsboro, Kansas before moving to Albany College in Oregon in 1930.
Groening grew up in Portland, attended Ainsworth Elementary School and Lincoln High School. From 1972 to 1977, Groening attended The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, a liberal arts school that he described as "a hippie college, with no grades or required classes, that drew every weirdo in the Northwest." He served as the editor of the campus newspaper, The Cooper Point Journal, for which he wrote articles and drew cartoons. He befriended fellow cartoonist Lynda Barry after discovering that she had written a fan letter to Joseph Heller, one of Groening's favorite authors, had received a reply. Groening has credited Barry with being "probably biggest inspiration." He first became interested in cartoons after watching the Disney animated film One Hundred and One Dalmatians, he has cited Robert Crumb, Ernie Bushmiller, Ronald Searle and Charles M. Schulz as inspirations. In 1977, at the age of 23, Groening moved to Los Angeles to become a writer, he went through what he described as "a series of lousy jobs," including being an extra in the television movie When Every Day Was the Fourth of July, busing tables, washing dishes at a nursing home, clerking at the Hollywood Licorice Pizza record store, landscaping in a sewage treatment plant, chauffeuring and ghostwriting for a retired Western director.
Groening described life in Los Angeles to his friends in the form of the self-published comic book Life in Hell, loosely inspired by the chapter "How to Go to Hell" in Walter Kaufmann's book Critique of Religion and Philosophy. Groening distributed the comic book in the book corner of Licorice Pizza, a record store in which he worked, he made his first professional cartoon sale to the avant-garde Wet magazine in 1978. The strip, titled "Forbidden Words," appeared in the September/October issue of that year. Groening had gained employment at the Los Angeles Reader, a newly formed alternative newspaper, delivering papers, typesetting and answering phones, he showed his cartoons to the editor, James Vowell, impressed and gave him a spot in the paper. Life in Hell made its official debut as a comic strip in the Reader on April 25, 1980. Vowell gave Groening his own weekly music column, "Sound Mix," in 1982. However, the column would actually be about music, as he would write about his "various enthusiasms, pet peeves and problems" instead.
In an effort to add more music to the column, he "just made stuff up," concocting and reviewing fictional bands and nonexistent records. In the following week's column, he would confess to fabricating everything in the previous column and swear that everything in the new column was true, he was asked to give up the "music" column. Among the fans of the column was Harry Shearer, who would become a voice on The Simpsons. Life in Hell became popular immediately. In November 1984, Deborah Caplan, Groening's then-girlfriend and co-worker at the Reader, offered to publish "Love is Hell", a series of relationship-themed Life in Hell strips, in book form. Released a month the book was an underground success, selling 22,000 copies in its first two printin
Alfred Ernest Jean III is an American screenwriter and producer. Jean is well known for his work on The Simpsons, he was born and raised near Detroit and graduated from Harvard University in 1981. Jean began his writing career in the 1980s with fellow Harvard alum Mike Reiss. Together, they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF and It's Garry Shandling's Show. Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons in 1989, alongside Reiss, together they became the first members of the original writing staff of the show, they served as showrunners during the show's third and fourth seasons, though they left The Simpsons after season four to create The Critic, an animated show about film critic Jay Sherman. It was first broadcast on ABC in January 1994 and was well received by critics, but did not catch on with viewers and only lasted for two seasons. In 1994, Jean and Reiss signed a three-year deal with The Walt Disney Company to produce other television shows for ABC, the duo created and executive-produced Teen Angel, canceled in its first season.
Jean returned full-time to The Simpsons during the tenth season. He became showrunner again with the start of the thirteenth season in 2001, without Reiss, has held that position since. Jean was one of the writers and producers who worked on The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film based on the series, released in 2007. Al Jean was born Alfred Ernest Jean III on January 9, 1961, he was born and raised in Farmington Hills, graduated from Farmington Hills Harrison High School, is of Irish ancestry. Jean arrived at Harvard University when he was sixteen years old and graduated in 1981 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. Daryl Libow, one of Jean's freshman roommates, said he was a "math whiz" when he arrived at Harvard but "soon blossomed and found his comedic feet." In Holworthy Hall at Harvard, Jean met fellow freshman Mike Reiss. Jeff Martin, another writer for the Lampoon, said "they loomed large around the magazine, they were funny guys and unusually polished comedy writers for that age.
We were never surprised that they went on to success." Jean has stated that the duo spent most of their time at the Lampoon, adding that "it was my second dorm room." He became vice-president of the publication. Jean lives in Los Angeles, California with his wife, television writer Stephanie Gillis; the two were wed in Enniskerry, Ireland in 2002. Jean has two daughters; the humor magazine National Lampoon hired Jean and Reiss after they graduated in 1981. During the 1980s, the duo began collaborating on various television material. During this period they worked as writers and producers on television shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, ALF, Sledge Hammer! and It's Garry Shandling's Show. In 1989, Jean was offered a job as a writer on the animated sitcom The Simpsons, a show created by Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon that continues to air today. Many of Jean's friends were not interested in working on The Simpsons because it was a cartoon and they did not think it would last long.
Jean, was a fan of the work of Groening and Simon, therefore took the job together with Reiss. The duo became the first members of the original writing staff of The Simpsons and worked on the thirteen episodes of the show's first season. While watching the first episode of the show, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", premiering on television in December 1989, Jean opined to himself that the series was the greatest project he had been involved with and desired to continue working on it for the rest of his professional career. What he enjoyed most about The Simpsons at the time was something he recognized from Brooks' previous work: although the show was based on humor, it had depth and warmth. Although Jean has been credited as the sole writer of several episodes of the show, he considers the process to be collaborative: "the principal writer has, at most, written 40% of the script. It's a real team effort." The person, credited as the writer in the episode's opening credits is the person that came up with the idea for the episode and wrote the first draft if he or she only contributed to a small part of the final script.
Jean has stated. She is the character he relates to the most because of their similar childhoods and the fact that he has a daughter. Jean became show runner of The Simpsons at the start of the third season together with Reiss. A show runner has the ultimate responsibility of all the processes that an episode goes through before completion, including the writing, the animation, the voice acting, the music; when Jean began his tenure as show runner, the only thing he thought to himself every day was "Don't blow it and screw up this thing everyone loves." The first episode Jean and Reiss ran was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", they felt a lot of pressure on them to make it good, they were so pressured that they did six to seven rewrites of the script in order to improve its humor. Jean said. It's not good enough.'" Reiss added that "we were scared. We had never run anything before, they dumped us on this."Jean and Reiss served as show runners until the end of the fourth season in 1993. Since the show had established itself in the first two seasons, they were able to give it more depth during their tenur
The last rites, in Roman Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to an individual of the faith, when possible, shortly before death. The last rites go by various names, they may be terminally ill. What in the judgment of the Roman Catholic Church are properly described as the Last Rites are Viaticum, the ritual prayers of Commendation of the Dying, Prayers for the Dead. Of these, only Viaticum is a sacrament; the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has been postponed until someone is near death, so much so that, in spite of the fact that in all celebrations of this sacrament, the liturgy prays for recovery of the health of the sick person if that would be conducive to his salvation, Anointing of the Sick has been thought to be for the dying and has been called Extreme Unction. If administered to someone, not just ill but near death, Anointing of the Sick is accompanied by celebration of the sacraments of Penance and Viaticum. In such cases, the normal order of administration is: first Penance Anointing Viaticum.
Although these three sacraments are not, in the proper sense, the Last Rites, they are sometimes mistakenly spoken of as such. The Eucharist given as Viaticum is the only sacrament associated with dying: "The celebration of the Eucharist as Viaticum is the sacrament proper to the dying Christian". In the Roman Ritual's Pastoral Care of the Sick: Rites of Anointing and Viaticum, Viaticum is the only sacrament dealt with in Part II: Pastoral Care of the Dying. Within that part, the chapter on Viaticum is followed by two more chapters, one on Commendation of the Dying, with short texts from the Bible, a special form of the litany of the saints, other prayers, the other on Prayers for the Dead. A final chapter provides Rites for Exceptional Circumstances, the Continuous Rite of Penance and Viaticum, Rite for Emergencies, Christian Initiation for the Dying; the last of these concerns the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation to those who have not received them. In addition, the priest has authority to bestow a blessing in the name of the Pope on the dying person, to which a plenary indulgence is attached.
People awaiting execution would receive Confession and Viaticum, but not Anointing of the Sick, since their impending death is not on account of an illness. In the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, the last rites consist of the Sacred Mysteries of Confession and the reception of Holy Communion. Following these sacraments, when a person dies, there are a series of prayers known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul From the Body; this consists of a blessing by the priest, the usual beginning, after the Lord's Prayer, Psalm 50. A Canon to the Theotokos is chanted, entitled, "On behalf of a man whose soul is departing, who cannot speak"; this is an elongated poem speaking in the person of the one, dying, asking for forgiveness of sin, the mercy of God, the intercession of the saints. The rite is concluded by three prayers said by the priest, the last one being said "at the departure of the soul."There is an alternative rite known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul from the Body When a Man has Suffered for a Long Time.
The outline of this rite is the same as above, except that Psalm 70 and Psalm 143 precede Psalm 50, the words of the canon and the prayers are different. The rubric in the Book of Needs states, "With respect to the Services said at the parting of the soul, we note that if time does not permit to read the whole Canon customarily just one of the prayers, found at the end of the Canon, is read by the Priest at the moment of the parting of the soul from the body."As soon as the person has died the priest begins The Office After the Departure of the Soul From the Body. In the Orthodox Church Holy Unction is not considered to be a part of a person's preparation for death, but is administered to any Orthodox Christian, ill, physically or spiritually, to ask for God's mercy and forgiveness of sin. There is an abbreviated form of Holy Unction to be performed for a person in imminent danger of death, which does not replace the full rite in other cases. Anointing Deathbed confession Excommunication http://www.usccb.org/beliefs-and-teachings/how-we-teach/catechesis/upload/Sacramental-Catechesis-11-19-12.pdf Extreme Unction article in The Catholic Encyclopedia Preparation for Death article in The Catholic Encyclopedia Higgins, Jethro.
"Last Rites and the Anointing of the Sick". Oregon Catholic Press. Retrieved 2018-07-27
Springfield (The Simpsons)
Springfield is a fictional town in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which serves as its main setting. A mid-sized town in an undetermined state of the United States, Springfield acts as a complete universe in which characters can explore the issues faced by modern society; the geography of the town and its surroundings are flexible, changing to address whatever an episode's plot calls for. Springfield's location is impossible to determine, the show is deliberately evasive on the subject, providing contradictory clues and information about its location. Springfield is intended to represent "anytown, USA" and not be a specific real town, although the producers acknowledge basing the town on numerous locations including The Simpsons creator Matt Groening's hometown of Portland and Mike Scully's hometown, Massachusetts. Groening named Springfield after Springfield and took inspiration from Springfield being the fictitious setting of the series Father Knows Best, he said, "I figured out that Springfield was one of the most common names for a city in the U.
S. In anticipation of the success of the show, I thought,'This will be cool, and they do." Groening liked Second City Television's use of Melonville, a town with a large cast of recurring characters that serves as a mini-universe for the show, based The Simpsons on it. Because of the many contradictory statements regarding Springfield, it is impossible for the town to exist in a specific state. In The Simpsons Movie, Ned Flanders tells Bart that the state where Springfield is located is bordered by the states of Ohio, Nevada and Kentucky - of which only Ohio and Kentucky are real neighboring states; the city's unknown and unknowable geography is a recurring joke in the series. But if you look at the clues, you can figure it out." Episodes make fun of the fact that Springfield's state is unidentifiable by adding further conflicting descriptions, obscuring onscreen map representations, interrupting conversational references. The 2012 episode "Beware My Cheating Bart" played upon the unidentifiability of the state in its opening chalkboard gag, which stated that "The true location of Springfield is in any state but yours".
David Silverman, who directed the movie and various episodes of the series, joked that Springfield is located in the fictional state of "North Takoma". This is substantiated by the state abbreviations TA used within the show; the telephone area codes for Springfield are 636 and 939. To promote The Simpsons Movie, various actual towns and cities across the U. S. called. The town of Springfield, was chosen. In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that "of all the Springfields in America, is most popular in Springfields in Virginia and New Jersey, least popular in Springfields in Louisiana and Georgia". Springfield was founded in 1796 by a group led by Jebediah Springfield who, after misinterpreting a passage in the Bible, left Maryland trying to find "New Sodom." After he refused to found a town where men were free to marry their cousins, half of the group left. The dissenters founded the nearby town of Shelbyville, after fellow pioneer Shelbyville Manhattan, the two cities remain rivals after centuries.
Springfield reached its pinnacle in the mid-20th century, when it became the home of the world's first Aquacar factory. S. was said to wear Springfield galoshes and Springfield's streets were paved with gold. The town's prosperity faded. Springfield's geography is varied, including forests, mountain ranges, a desert, a gorge, a glacier, badlands, swamps, a harbor and waterways. Major named geographical features include Springfield Gorge, Springfield National Forest, the volcanic Mt. Springfield, the West Springfield Desert, the Springfield Badlands, the gigantic Murderhorn Mountain, Springfield Glacier, Mt. Useful National Park, Springfield Mesa, Springfield Monument Park, Springfield National Park; the town's climate is dry and sunny, with a bright blue sky. However, it has been subject to many natural disasters, including heat waves, avalanches, acid rain, hurricanes, lightning strikes and volcanic eruptions. Springfield's environment is unusually polluted. Overflowing garbage forced the whole town – both population and structures — to move five miles away from the massive dump that the old town of Springfield had become.
Springfield is unfortunately, home to the state's largest self-sustaining tire fire, burning continuously for many decades. Lake Springfield's pollution led to the town's destruction by an Environmental Protection Agency bomb, pollution from the nuclear power plant has mutated the fish in the river, with the Nuclear Power Plant's mascot being Blinky, with three eyes, its atmosphere proved to have such a thick and acidic pollution layer that it once reduced a comet to a tiny rock the size of a chihuahua's head. In politics, the mayor of Springfield is Joe Quimby, while the town's represe
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
Rail transport modelling
Railway modelling or model railroading is a hobby in which rail transport systems are modelled at a reduced scale. The scale models include locomotives, rolling stock, tracks and landscapes including: countryside, bridges, vehicles, urban landscape, model figures and features such as rivers, hills and canyons; the earliest model railways were the'carpet railways' in the 1840s. Electric trains appeared around the start of the 20th century. Model trains today are more realistic, in addition to being much more technologically advanced. Today modellers create model railway layouts recreating real locations and periods throughout history; the world’s oldest working model railway is a model designed to train signalmen on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. It is located in the National Railway Museum, York and dates back to 1912, it remained in use until 1995. The model was built as a training exercise by apprentices of the company’s Horwich works and supplied with rolling stock by Bassett-Lowke. Involvement ranges from possession of a train set to spending hours and large sums of money on a large and exacting model of a railroad and the scenery through which it passes, called a "layout".
Hobbyists, called "railway modellers" or "model railroaders", may maintain models large enough to ride. Modellers may collect model trains, they may operate their own railroad in miniature. For some modellers, the goal of building a layout is to run it as if it were a real railroad or as the real railroad did. If modellers choose to model a prototype, they may reproduce track-by-track reproductions of the real railroad in miniature using prototype track diagrams and historic maps. Layouts vary from a circle or oval of track to realistic reproductions of real places modelled to scale; the largest model landscape in the UK is in the Pendon Museum in Oxfordshire, UK, where an EM gauge model of the Vale of White Horse in the 1930s is under construction. The museum houses one of the earliest scenic models – the Madder Valley layout built by John Ahern; this was built in the late 1930s to late 1950s and brought in realistic modelling, receiving coverage on both sides of the Atlantic in the magazines Model Railway News and Model Railroader.
Bekonscot in Buckinghamshire is the oldest model village and includes a model railway, dating from the 1930s. The world's largest model railroad in H0 scale is the Miniatur Wunderland in Germany; the largest live steam layout, with 25 miles of track is'Train Mountain' in Chiloquin, Oregon, U. S. Operations form an important aspect of rail transport modelling with many layouts being dedicated to emulating the operational aspects of a working railway; these layouts can become complex with multiple routes, movement patterns and timetabled operation. The British outline model railway of Banbury Connections is one of the world's most complicated model railways. Model railroad clubs exist. Clubs display models for the public. One specialist branch concentrates on larger scales and gauges using track gauges from 3.5 to 7.5 inches. Models in these scales are hand-built and powered by live steam, or diesel-hydraulic, the engines are powerful enough to haul dozens of human passengers; the Tech Model Railroad Club at MIT in the 1950s pioneered automatic control of track-switching by using telephone relays.
The oldest society is'The Model Railway Club', near Kings Cross, London, UK. As well as building model railways, it has 5,000 periodicals. Similarly,'The Historical Model Railway Society' at Butterley, near Ripley, Derbyshire specialises in historical matters and has archives available to members and non-members; the words scale and gauge seem at first interchangeable but their meanings are different. Scale is the model's measurement as a proportion to the original, while gauge is the measurement between the rails; the size of engines depends on the scale and can vary from 700 mm tall for the largest ridable live steam scales such as 1:4, down to matchbox size for the smallest: Z-scale or T scale. A typical HO engine is 50 mm tall, 100 to 300 mm long; the most popular scales are: G scale, Gauge 1, O scale, S scale, HO scale, TT scale, N scale. HO and OO are the most popular. Popular narrow-gauge scales include Sn3, HOn3 and Nn3, which are the same in scale as S, HO and N except with a narrower spacing between the tracks.
The largest common scale is 1:8, with 1:4 sometimes used for park rides. G scale is most popular for backyard modelling, it is easier to keep scenery proportional to the trains. Gauge 1 and Gauge 3 are popular for gardens. O, S, HO, N scale are more used indoors. At first, model railways were not to scale. Aided by trade associations such as the National Model Railroad Association and Normen Europäischer Modellbahnen and hobbyists soon arrived at de facto standards for interchangeability, such as gauge, but trains were only a rough approximation to the real thing. Official scales for the gauges were drawn up but not at first rigidly foll