A review aggregator is a system that collects reviews of products and services. This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users can view the reviews, selling information to third parties about consumer tendencies, creating databases for companies to learn about their actual and potential customers; the system enables users to compare many different reviews of the same work. Many of these systems calculate an approximate average assessment based on assigning a numeric value to each review related to its degree of positive rating of the work. Review aggregation sites have begun to have economic effects on the companies that create or manufacture items under review in certain categories such as electronic games, which are expensive to purchase; some companies have tied royalty payment rates and employee bonuses to aggregate scores, stock prices have been seen to reflect ratings, as related to potential sales. It is accepted in the literature that there is a strong correlation between sales and aggregated scores.
Due to the influence reviews have over sales decisions, manufacturers are interested in measuring these reviews for their own products. This is done using a business-facing product review aggregator. In the film industry, according to Reuters, big studios pay attention to aggregators but "they don’t always like to assign much importance to them". Book Marks iDreamBooks Epinions TestFreaks TestSeek Metacritic Movie Review Query Engine Rotten Tomatoes Flickmetrix Acclaimed Music AnyDecentMusic? Last.fm Metacritic Album of the Year Rate Your Music GameRankings Metacritic OpenCritic FeedCheck Channel Signal Graphiq Rating site Review site Needleman, Rafe. "Wize: tallies user feedback". Cnet.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 18 July 2010. Needleman, Rafe. "Still more reviews aggregators: Retrevo, DigitalAdvisor, TheFind". Cnet.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 18 July 2010
Watcher in the Attic aka Stroller in the Attic, Edogawa Rampo Theater: Walker in the Attic and Walker in the Attic is a 1976 Japanese film in Nikkatsu's Roman porno series, directed by Noboru Tanaka and starring Junko Miyashita. In 1923 Tokyo Lady Minako is the owner of a shabby boarding house with a collection of bizarre characters for tenants. Gōda, one of her tenants, spends most of his time in the attic spying on the other tenants through holes he has drilled into the ceiling. During one of his peeping sessions, Gōda witnesses the murder of one of the tenants at the hand of Lady Minako. Gōda becomes obsessed with Lady Minako, determines to commit a grotesque murder in order to prove to her that he is her soul mate, he kills another tenant - a priest - by dripping poison into his mouth through the ceiling. A series of grotesque murders follow; the film ends apocalyptically with the Great Kantō earthquake which kills both of them during their intercourse. Junko Miyashita: Minako Kiyomiya Hiroshi Osa: Kōichirō Kiyomiya Renji Ishibashi: Gōda Saburō Tokuko Watanabe: Miyuki Tomita Kōji Yashiro: Endō Haruka Tajima: Ginko Toshihiko Oda: Hiruta Shirō Yumemura: Pierrot Reiko Akitsu: Model Aoi Nakajima: Prostitute Kyōichi Mizuki: Druggist This film was the middle entry in director Tanaka's "Showa Era Trilogy", which includes A Woman Called Sada Abe and Beauty's Exotic Dance: Torture!.
All three films star Junko Miyashita. The story was based on a novel by Edogawa Rampo, it had been filmed as a pink film in 1970 by director Akitaka Kimata, Akio Jissoji remade Watcher in the Attic in 1995 in one of the earliest un-fogged pink films. The uncensored version of Jissoji's film was released internationally, though the Japanese theatrical release of this film was fogged. Lead actress Junko Miyashita had joined Nikkatsu with the third entry in the Apartment Wife series, Apartment Wife: Unforgettable Night, she starred in several of Nikkatsu's greatest Roman Porno successes, became known as the second "Queen" of Roman Porno after the retirement of Kazuko Shirakawa. A skillful and versatile actress, her career benefitted by appearing in films by Nikkatsu's best directors. Besides Tanaka, she was associated with the films of Tatsumi Kumashiro. Lead actor Renji Ishibashi had background in the live theater, made a name for himself in Roman porno for psychologically unbalanced characters.
Besides Watcher in the Attic, another of his major roles is in Tatsumi Kumashiro's Woman with Red Hair starring Junko Miyashita. He regularly appeared in old yakuza roles in the films of Takashi Miike and others. Jasper Sharp notes that director Tanaka portrays the Taishō period, in which the film is set, as "a pandemonium of styles and colours". Tanaka emphasizes the mixture of the erotic and the grotesque in Rampo's work, in popular culture of the period, which led to its description as "ero guro". According to Sharp, Tanaka's vision of Rampo's world set the tone for filmed versions of the author's works as well as biographical films. Tanaka's influence can be seen in Jissoji's 1994 remake of Walker in the Attic, Kazuyoshi Okuyama's The Mystery of Rampo, Jissoji's The D-Slope Murder Case, in Rampo Noir. Voyeurism—already present in Rampo's story—is a major theme in the film. Tanaka makes the audience aware that Lady Minako is conscious of Gōda's--and, by extension the audience's--spying on her illicit sexual activities.
Sharp writes that the camera views Minako through Gōda's ceiling peephole, "acknowledging the viewer's powerless and passive spectatorial role as she returns our gaze." Sharp notes that voyeurism is a common theme in the pink film, that it would be explored in the films of director Hisayasu Satō. Not only a psychological theme, voyeurism provided a practical way for the director to obscure sexual organs, which were censored by law. Sharp writes, "Framing the sex scenes from an awkward nozoki point-of-view perspective, through keyholes, gaps in open doors, holes in walls, proved one expedient method of blocking the action." Some critics had recognized Tanaka's talents in the early Roman Porno, Secret Chronicles: She Beast Market, but it was Watcher in the Attic which brought him mainstream success. Peer Cinema Club Annual, a conservative, mainstream publication, wrote that the film was "a perfect marriage of decadence and art." At first treated as a standard entry of Nikkatsu's "Psycho Killer Showcase" series, after the film began receiving mainstream critical approval, Nikkatsu promoted Walker in the Attic beyond the softcore Roman Porno market.
English-language critical opinion of the film has been high in the decades since its first release. Magill's Survey of Cinema: Foreign Language Films calls Watcher in the Attic "a frenzied fantasy treat". In their Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films, the Weissers give the film three and a half out of four points. Jasper Sharp comments. Watcher in the Attic was released theatrically in Japan on June 12, 1976, it was released to home video in VHS format in Japan on September 9, 1994. As part of Geneon's second wave of Nikkatsu Roman porno series, it was released on DVD on December 22, 2005. On October 28, 2008, Mondo Macabro released Watcher in the Attic in the U. S. on region 0 DVD. "EDOGAWA RAMPO RYOKI-KAN: YANEURA NO SANPO SHA". Complete Index to World Film. Retrieved 2009-09-21. Sharp, Jasper. Behind the Pink Curtain: The Complete History of Japanese Sex Cinema. Guildford: FAB Press. Pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-1-903254-54-7. Weisser, Thomas. Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Bo
Caroline Augusta Foley Rhys Davids was a British writer and translator. She made a contribution to economics before becoming known as an editor and interpreter of Buddhist texts in the Pāli language, she was honorary secretary of the Pāli Text Society from 1907, its president from 1923 to 1942. Caroline Augusta Foley was born on 27 September 1857 in Wadhurst, East Sussex, England to John Foley and Caroline Elizabeth Foley, she was born into a family with a long ecclesiastic history: her father, John Foley, served as the vicar of Wadhurst from 1847–88. Two years before her birth, five of her siblings died within one month in December 1855/January 1856 from diphtheria and are commemorated in the church of St Peter and St Paul, Wadhurst. One surviving brother, John Windham Foley, became a missionary in India and another, Charles Windham Foley, played in three FA Cup Finals for Old Etonians, being on the winning side in 1852. Rhys Davids was home schooled by her father and attended University College, London studying philosophy and economics.
She completed her BA in 1886 and an MA in philosophy in 1889. During her time at University College, she won both the John Stuart Mill Scholarship and the Joseph Hume Scholarship, it was her psychology tutor George Croom Robertson who "sent her to Professor Rhys Davids", her future husband, to further her interest in Indian philosophy. She studied Sanskrit and Indian Philosophy with Reinhold Rost. Thomas Rhys Davids was elected a fellow of University College in 1896. Caroline Rhys Davids was awarded an honorary D. Litt. degree by the Victoria University of Manchester in 1919. As a student, she was a prolific writer and a vocal campaigner in the movements for poverty relief, children's rights, women's suffrage. Before moving into Buddhist studies, Rhys Davids made a contribution to eEconomics, she wrote seventeen entries for Palgrave Dictionary of Political Economy, including "Rent of ability," "Science, Economic, as distinguished from art," "Statics and social dynamics," as well as twelve biographical entries.
Her entry, "Fashion, economic influence of," was related to her 1893 Economic Journal article, "Fashion," and reflects an unusual economic interest. She translated articles for the Economic journal from the German and Italian, including Carl Menger's influential 1892 article "On the Origin of Money". In 1896 Rhys Davids published two sets of lecture notes by her former teacher and mentor George Croom Robertson: one on psychology and one on philosophy. Rhys Davids was on the editorial board of the Economic Journal from 1891 to 1895. T. W. Rhys Davids encouraged, his pupil, Caroline to pursue Buddhist studies and do research about Buddhist psychology and the place of women in Buddhism. Thus, among her first works were a translation of the Dhamma Sangani, a text from the Theravāda Abhidhamma Piṭaka, which she published under the title A Buddhist manual of psychological ethics: Being a translation, now made for the first time, from the original Pāli, of the first book in the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, entitled: Dhamma-sangaṇi.
Rhys Davids held two academic positions: Lecturer in Indian Philosophy at Victoria University of Manchester. While teaching, she acted as the Honorary Secretary of the Pāli Text Society, started by T. W. Rhys Davids to transcribe and translate Pāli Buddhist texts in 1881, she held that position from 1907 until her husband's death in 1922. Her translations of Pāli texts were at times idiosyncratic, but her contribution as editor and interpreter of Buddhist texts was considerable, she was one of the first scholars to translate Abhidhamma texts, known for their complexity and difficult use of technical language. She translated large portions of the Sutta Piṭaka, or edited and supervised the translations of other PTS scholars. Beyond this, she wrote numerous articles and popular books on Buddhism. After the death of her son in 1917 and her husband in 1922, Rhys Davids turned to Spiritualism, she became involved in various forms of psychic communication with the dead, first attempting to reach her dead son through seances and through automatic writing.
She claimed to have developed clairaudience, as well as the ability to pass into the next world when dreaming. She kept extensive notebooks of automatic writing, along with notes on the afterlife and diaries detailing her experiences; these notes form part of her archive jointly held by the University of Cambridge and the University of London. Although earlier in her career she accepted more mainstream beliefs about Buddhist teachings in life she rejected the concept of anatta as an "original" Buddhist teaching, she appears to have influenced several of her students in this direction, including A. K. Coomaraswamy, F. L. Woodward, I. B. Horner. Caroline Augusta Foley married Thomas William Rhys Davids in 1894. They