The Revisionist Western, Anti-Western or Post-Western is a subgenre of the Western film that traces its roots to the mid-1960s and early-1970s. Some post-Classical Hollywood Westerns began to question the ideals and style of the traditional Western; these films placed the context of the Native cowboys alike in a darker setting. They depicted a morally questionable world where the heroes and villains oftentimes resembled each other more than had been shown; the concept of right and wrong became blurred in a world where actions could no longer be said to be good or bad. Whereas in a majority of the classical western films the ethics were clear and defined in'black and white', the Revisionist film looked to paint a moral'grey' area where people had to adapt in order to survive; this led to depictions of outlaws such as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid where the protagonists of the film are outlaw bank robbers. The subgenre is apparent in many Italian-made Spaghetti Westerns as well as Australian meat pie Westerns.
Most Westerns from the 1960s to the present have revisionist themes. Many were made by emerging major filmmakers who saw the Western as an opportunity to expand their criticism of American society and values into a new genre; the 1952 Supreme Court holding in Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, the end of the Production Code in 1968 broadened what Westerns could portray and made the revisionist Western a more viable genre. Films in this category include Sam Peckinpah's Ride the High Country and The Wild Bunch, Arthur Penn's Little Big Man and Robert Altman's McCabe and Mrs. Miller. Beginning in the late 1960s, independent filmmakers produced revisionist and hallucinogenic films retroactively identified as the separate but related subgenre of "Acid Westerns", that radically turn the usual trappings of the Western genre inside out to critique both capitalism and the counterculture. Monte Hellman's The Shooting and Ride in the Whirlwind, Alejandro Jodorowsky's El Topo, Robert Downey Sr.'s Greaser's Palace, Alex Cox's Walker, Jim Jarmusch's Dead Man fall into this category.
Films made during the early 1970s are noted for their hyper-realistic photography and production design. Notable examples using sepia tinting and muddy rustic settings are Little Big Man, McCabe and Mrs. Miller and The Culpepper Cattle Co.. Other films, such as those directed by Clint Eastwood, were made by professionals familiar with the Western as a criticism and expansion against and beyond the genre. Eastwood's The Outlaw Josey Wales & Unforgiven made use of strong supporting roles for women and Native Americans; the films The Long Riders and The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford are revisionist films dealing with the James gang. Jeffrey Wright's portrayal of Black Confederate Daniel Holt riding with the Missouri Bushwhackers in Ride with the Devil tells the stories of the Missouri-Kansas Border War and Lawrence Massacre. Foreign markets, which had imported the Western since their silent film inception, began creating their own Westerns early on. However, a unique brand of Western emerged in Europe in the 1960s as an offshoot of the Revisionist Western.
The Spaghetti Western became the nickname disparagingly, for this broad subgenre, so named because of their common Italian background, directing and financing. They had in common the Italian language, low budgets, a recognizable fluid, minimalist cinematography that helped eschew many of the conventions of earlier Westerns, they were made in Spain Tabernas desert, in Almería, the dry ruggedness of which resembled the American Southwest's. Director Sergio Leone played a seminal role in this movement. A subtle theme of the conflict between Anglo and Hispanic cultures plays through all these movies. Leone conceived of the Old West as a dirty place filled with morally ambivalent figures, this aspect of the spaghetti Western came to be one of its universal attributes, as seen in a wide variety of these films, beginning with one of the first popular spaghetti Westerns, Gunfight at Red Sands, visible elsewhere in those starring John Philip Law or Franco Nero, in the Trinity series; the Ostern, or red Western, was the Soviet Bloc's reply to the Western, arose in the same period as the revisionist Western.
While many red Westerns concentrated on aspects of Soviet/Eastern-European history, some others like the Czech Lemonade Joe and the East German The Sons of the Great Mother Bear tried to demythologise the Western in different ways: Lemonade Joe by sending up the more ridiculous aspects of marketing, The Sons of the Great Mother Bear by showing how American natives were exploited told from the Native American rather than white settler viewpoint. A Man from the Boulevard des Capucines was a sensitive satire on the Western film itself, it was highly unusual in being one of the few examples in Soviet film of post-modernism. Portrayal of Native Americans in film History of cinema The West As America Art Exhibition Robin Hood
Jorge Leal Amado de Faria was a Brazilian writer of the modernist school. He remains the best known of modern Brazilian writers, with his work having been translated into some 49 languages and popularized in film, notably Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands in 1976, his work is marked by religious syncretism. He depicted a cheerful and optimistic country, beset, at the same time, with deep social and economic differences, he occupied the 23rd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1961 until his death in 2001. Amado was born on a farm near the inland city of Itabuna, in the south of the Brazilian state of Bahia, he was the eldest of four sons of D. Eulália Leal; the farm was located in the village of Ferradas, though today is a district of Itabuna, was at the time administered by the coastal city of Ilhéus. For this reason he considered himself a citizen of Ilhéus. From his exposure to the large cocoa plantations of the area, Amado knew the misery and the struggles of the people working the land and living in slave conditions.
This was to be a theme present in several of his works. As a result of a smallpox epidemic, his family moved to Ilhéus when he was one year old, he spent his childhood there, he attended high school in the capital of the state. By the age of 14 Amado had begun to collaborate with several magazines and took part in literary life, as one of the founders of the Modernist "Rebels' Academy", he was the cousin of Brazilian lawyer, writer and politician Gilberto Amado, of Brazilian actress and screenwriter Véra Clouzot. Amado published his first novel, The Country of Carnival, in 1931, at age 18, he married Matilde Garcia Rosa and had a daughter, Lila, in 1933. The same year he published his second novel, which increased his popularity, he studied law at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Faculty of Law but never became a practising lawyer. His leftist activities made his life difficult under the dictatorial regime of Getúlio Vargas. In 1935 he was arrested for the first time, two years his books were publicly burned.
His works were banned from Portugal, but in the rest of Europe he gained great popularity with the publication of Jubiabá in France. The book had enthusiastic reviews, including that of Nobel prize Award winner Albert Camus. In the early 1940s, Amado edited a literary supplement for the Nazi-funded political newspaper "Meio-Dia". Being a communist militant, from 1941 to 1942 Amado was compelled to go into exile to Argentina and Uruguay; when he returned to Brazil he separated from Matilde Garcia Rosa. In 1945 he was elected to the National Constituent Assembly, as a representative of the Brazilian Communist Party, he signed a law granting freedom of religious faith. He remarried to the writer Zélia Gattai. In 1947 they had João Jorge; the same year his party was declared illegal, its members arrested and persecuted. Amado chose exile once again, this time in France, where he remained until he was expelled in 1950, his daughter from his first marriage, died in 1949. From 1950 to 1952 Amado and Gattai lived in Czechoslovakia, where another daughter, was born.
He travelled to the Soviet Union, winning the Stalin Peace Prize in 1951. Released documents show that in this period he was investigated by CIA. On his return to Brazil in 1954, Amado abandoned active political life, leaving the Communist Party one year later. From that period on he dedicated himself to literature, his second creative phase began in 1958 with Gabriela and Cinnamon, described by Jean-Paul Sartre as "the best example of a folk novel". Amado abandoned, in part, the realism and the social themes of his early works, producing a series of novels focusing on feminine characters, devoted to a kind of smiling celebration of the traditions and the beauties of Bahia. In addition to Gabriela these novels included Tereza Batista: Home from the Wars and Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands, his depiction of the sexual customs of his land was scandalous to much of 1950s Brazilian society and for several years Amado could not enter Ilhéus, where Gabriela was set, due to threats received for the alleged offense to the morality of the city's women.
Besides the turning point, the Soviet Union kept publishing Amado's works shortly after their release in Portuguese. On 6 April 1961, he was elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters. On his death his wife was elected to replace him. Amado made the Academy the setting for one of his novels, Sword, Camisole, he received the title of Doctor honoris causa from several universities in Brazil, Italy and France, as well as other honors in every South American country, including Obá de Xangô of the Candomblé, the traditional Afro-Brazilian religion of Bahia. He was removed from the French Government blacklist in 1965 following the intervention of the Minister of Culture, André Malraux. In 1984 he was awarded the French Légion d’Honneur by President François Mitterrand. Amado's popularity as a writer has never declined, his books have been translated into 49 languages in 55 countries, adapted into films, theatrical works and TV programs. They inspired some samba schools of the Brazilian Carnival. In 1987, the House of Jorge Amado Foundation was created, in Salvador.
It promotes the development of culture in Bahia. The renovated building on the Pelourinho in Salvador contains a small museum and wall panels with the covers of international editions of his
Coastland Center is a shopping mall located in Naples, Florida. Opened in 1976, it features Macy's, JCPenney, Dillard's as its anchors, it hosts many other specialty stores. The food court is a main attraction along with a carousel; the mall itself is situated on just one floor. Coastland Center opened in 1977, was anchored by Sears and Maas Brothers; the mall was expanded in 1985 with the additions of Robinson's. Robinson's was acquired by Maison Blanche in 1987, acquired by Dillard's in 1991. Maas Brothers was bought out by Burdines in 1991, bought out by Macy's in 2005. Sears and Dillard's had second floors added to their stores in 1995 along with the addition of parking garages; the mall was further renovated in 2006. In 2015, Sears Holdings spun off 235 of its properties, including the Sears at Coastland Center, into Seritage Growth Properties. On August 22, 2018, it was announced that Sears would be closing as part of a plan to close 46 stores nationwide; the store closed in November 2018. In November 2018, the Naples Daily News announced that a new dine-in movie theater will replace the former Sears location in 2020.
Coastland Center official website
Legong is a form of Balinese dance. It is a refined dance form characterized by intricate finger movements, complicated footwork, expressive gestures and facial expressions. Legong originated in the 19th century as royal entertainment. Legend has it that a prince of Sukawati fell ill and had a vivid dream in which two maidens danced to gamelan music; when he recovered, he arranged for such dances to be performed in reality. Others believe that the Legong originated with the sanghyang dedari, a ceremony involving voluntary possession of two little girls by beneficent spirits. Legong is danced at public festivals. Excerpts from Legong dance dramas are put on for tourists. Traditionally, legong dancers were girls, they begin rigorous training from about the age of five. These dancers are regarded in the society and become wives of royal personages or wealthy merchants. After marriage they would stop dancing. However, in present Indonesia dancers may be of all ages. Classical Legong enacts several traditional stories.
The most common is the tale of the Austin King of Lasem from the Malat, a collection of heroic romances. He is at war with the father of Princess Ranjasari. Lasem wants to marry the girl. Becoming lost in the forest, she is captured by Lasem, who imprisons her and goes out for a final assault against her family, he is attacked by a monstrous raven. The dramatics are enacted in stylized pantomime; the two little actresses are accompanied by a third dancer called a attendant. She sets the scene, presents the dancers with their fans and plays the part of the raven. Traditionally, fifteen types of legong dance were known; the duration and narrative of each type differed. Some, for instance, could last for an hour; these types included: Legong Bapang Saba Legong Jebog Legong Kraton Legong Kuntir Legong Lasem Legong Raja Cina Legong Semarandana Legong Sudasarna Balinese dances Legong: Dance of the Virgins, a 1935 film Legong is mentioned in "I've Been To Bali Too", the single by Australian folk-rock band Redgum from their 1984 album Frontline.
Legong Keraton Legong dance Tari Legong Lasem part 1
"Suicide social" is a song by French rapper Orelsan and produced by Skread. It was released on September 15, 2011 as the fourth single from his second studio album Le chant des sirènes. In the song, Orelsan assumes the persona of a distressed, working individual who spends his last minutes tackling several political and religious issues in France, including the "incompetents" serving in the French government, neo-Nazism and the LGBT community, before committing suicide by shooting himself; the music video was released on 15 September 2011 on YouTube as part of the single's release. Directed by Mathieu Foucher, the video is a lyric video, where the lyrics of the song appear in the video as Orelsan raps them, along with other various illustrations in line with the song's lyrics. Digital download"Suicide social" – 5:41
"Husslin'" is a hip-hop song by Kardinal Offishall. It was the only single from his EP of the same name; the song appears on his second album, Quest for Fire: Firestarter, Vol. 1. Released in early 2000, the 12" single became an underground favorite, it was #1 on many college radio charts in the U. S. After its release, radio-tracking publication Gavin Report called it "By far, the hottest 12-inch on the platter right now. With three cuts to choose from, you can't go wrong." The song has a powerful horn sample. The music video was directed by Kevin De Freitas. In the video, Kardinal raps in the streets of Downtown Toronto alongside members of The Circle. A-side "Mic T. H. U. G. S." "Mic T. H. U. G. S." "Mic T. H. U. G. S." "U R Ghetto When" B-side "Husslin'" "Husslin'" "U R Ghetto When" "U R Ghetto When" "Husslin'" music video