The film industry or motion picture industry, comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e. film production companies, film studios, animation, film production, pre-production, post production, film festivals and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve; as of 2018, the global box office is worth $41.7 billion. When including box office and home entertainment revenue, the global film industry is worth $136 billion as of 2018. Hollywood is the world's oldest national film industry, remains the largest in terms of box office gross revenue. Indian cinema is the largest national film industry in terms of the number of films produced and the number of tickets sold, with 3.5 billion tickets sold worldwide annually and 1,986 feature films produced annually.
The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.6 billion in 2016. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with US$14.9 billion, the U. S. and Canada with US$11.4 billion, Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with US$9.5 billion. As of 2016, the largest markets by box office were, in decreasing order, the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom; as of 2011, the countries with the largest number of film productions were India and the United States. In Europe, significant centers of movie production are France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Distinct from the centers are the locations; because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U. S. films are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian films are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian films are filmed in the Americas, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.
The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School and NYFA being established in the area. However, four of the six major film studios are owned by East Coast companies; the major film studios of Hollywood including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Star Wars, Titanic. American film studios today collectively generate several hundred films every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is based in Southern California, and while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, its parent company, the Sony Corporation, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, is the highest-grossing film industry in the world. Between 2009-2015, Hollywood grossed $10 billion annually. Hollywood's award ceremony, the Academy Awards known as The Oscars, is held by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences every year and a total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded since the inception of the award; the earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins which makes United States cinema the earliest cinema in the whole world. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family and reporters; the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895.
The was sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edison's Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywood's first film studio, founded on 27 October 1911, it was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company. It was owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley; the first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west; the California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood area; the Horsleys operated the Nestor Studios at the Sunset and Gower location until 20 May 1912, when the Universal Studios was formed, headed by Carl Laemmle. Nestor, along with several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures, was merged with Universal; the Cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan.
Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was made in 1905, with the film industry being cent
TBS (U.S. TV channel)
TBS is an American subscription television network, owned by the Turner Broadcasting System unit of AT&T-controlled WarnerMedia. It carries a variety of programming, with a focus on comedy, along with some sports events, including Major League Baseball and the NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament; as of September 2018, TBS was received by 90.391 million households that subscribe to a pay television service throughout the United States. TBS was established on December 17, 1976 as the national feed of Turner's Atlanta, independent television station, WTCG; the decision to begin offering WTCG via satellite transmission to cable and satellite subscribers throughout the United States expanded the small station into the first nationally distributed "superstation". With the assignment of WTBS as the broadcast station's call letters in 1979, the national feed became known as SuperStation WTBS, SuperStation TBS, TBS Superstation, or TBS; the channel broadcast a variety of programming during this era, including films, syndicated series, sports.
WTBS maintained a nearly identical program schedule as the national feed, aside from FCC-mandated public affairs and educational programming that only aired on the local signal. By the early 2000s, TBS had begun to focus more intensively on comedic programming, including sitcoms and other series. On October 1, 2007, TBS was converted by Turner into a conventional basic cable network, at which time it began to be carried within the Atlanta market on area cable providers alongside its existing local carriage on satellite providers DirecTV and Dish Network; the former parent station in Atlanta was concurrently relaunched as WPCH and reformatted as a traditional independent station with a separate schedule catering to the Atlanta market. TBS originated as a terrestrial television station in Atlanta, Georgia that began operating on UHF channel 17 on September 1, 1967, under the WJRJ-TV call letters; that station – which its original parent filed to transmit UHF channel 46, before modifying it to assign channel 17 as its frequency in February 1966 – was founded by Rice Broadcasting Inc..
Under Rice, WJRJ – the first independent station to begin operation in the Atlanta market since WQXI-TV ceased operations on May 31, 1955 – operated on a shoestring budget, general entertainment format with a schedule consisting of a few off-network reruns and older feature films as well as a 15-minute news program. In July 1969, Rice Broadcasting reached an agreement to merge with the Turner Communications Corporation – an Atlanta-based group owned by entrepreneur Robert E. "Ted" Turner III, who ran his late father's billboard advertising business and had expanded his interests to include radio stations in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Under the sale terms, Rice would acquire Turner in an exchange of stock and adopt the Turner Communications name; the Federal Communications Commission granted approval of the acquisition on December 10, 1969, giving Turner its first television property. Soon after Turner received approval of its purchase of WJRJ-TV in January 1970, Turner changed the station's call letters to WTCG.
The sale was formally completed four months on April 6, at which time Turner was assigned as licensee of WJRJ-TV. The channel 17 transmitter was located at 1018 West Peachtree Street Northwest, with the antenna located on a large self-supporting tower; the building at this site was once home to the studios of CBS affiliate WAGA-TV and channel 17, during its first three years as WJRJ-TV. Soon after being purchased by Turner, the station moved to new studio facilities a few blocks west at the former site of the Progressive Club, after having had offices on Williams Street, across Interstate 75/85. Beginning in the early 1970s, WTCG was relayed by microwave link to many areas of the Southeastern United States through cable television providers which picked up the UHF signal off-air and microwaved the signal back to their headends. Early programming included movies from the 1930s and 1940s, Japanese animated series; the station carried sports, such as Atlanta Braves baseball, Atlanta Hawks basketball, Atlanta Flames hockey, Georgia
Up in the Air (2009 film)
Up in the Air is a 2009 American comedy-drama film directed by Jason Reitman and written by Reitman and Sheldon Turner, based on the 2001 novel of the same name, written by Walter Kirn. The story is centered on his travels. Vera Farmiga, Anna Kendrick, Danny McBride star. Filming was in St. Louis, which substituted for a number of other cities. Several scenes were filmed in Detroit, Las Vegas and Miami. Reitman promoted Up in the Air with personal appearances at film festivals and other showings, starting with the Telluride Film Festival on September 5, 2009; the Los Angeles premiere was at the Mann Village Theater on November 30, 2009. Paramount scheduled a limited North American release on December 4, 2009, broadening the release on December 11, 2009, with a wide release on December 23, 2009; the National Board of Review and the Washington D. C. Area Film Critics Association named Up in the Air the Best Picture of 2009, it received eight Critics' Choice Movie Awards nominations and garnered a win for Adapted Screenplay, six Golden Globe Award nominations, earning a win for Best Screenplay, three Screen Actors Guild nominations.
It received six Academy Award nominations and recognition from numerous critics' associations. Ryan Bingham works for a human resources consultancy firm which specializes in termination assistance, makes his living traveling to workplaces across the United States, conducting company layoffs and firings on behalf of employers, he gives motivational speeches, using the analogy "What's in Your Backpack?" to extol the virtues of a life free of burdensome relationships with people as well as things. A frequent flyer, Ryan has no fixed abode, relishes his travels, aspires to become the seventh and youngest person to earn ten million frequent flyer miles with American Airlines. During his travels, he meets another frequent flyer named Alex, they begin a casual relationship. Ryan is called back to his company's offices in Nebraska. Natalie Keener, a young and ambitious new hire, promotes a program designed to cut costs by conducting layoffs via videoconferencing. Ryan raises concerns that the program could be seen as detached and apathetic, arguing that Natalie knows nothing about the reality of the firing process or how to handle upset people.
He plays the role of a fired employee to demonstrate her inexperience. Ryan's boss assigns him to bring Natalie on his next round of terminations to show her the ropes; as they travel together, Natalie questions Ryan's philosophies on life on relationships and love, but Ryan is adamant that he is more than happy with his lifestyle. During the trip, Natalie is shattered when her boyfriend unceremoniously dumps her by text message, Ryan and Alex try to comfort her. On the test run, the earlier concerns Ryan raised prove valid. Another threatens to commit suicide. Natalie lectures Ryan about his refusal to consider a commitment to Alex in spite of their obvious compatibility, becomes infuriated. Instead of returning to Omaha, Ryan convinces Alex to accompany him to his younger sister's wedding, he learns that the reason the couple had him take photos of a cutout picture of them in various places was because they cannot afford a honeymoon. When the groom gets cold feet, Ryan's older sister talks Ryan into using his motivational skills to persuade the groom to go through with the wedding.
Although this runs counter to Ryan's personal philosophy, he argues that the important moments in life are unshared. The wedding proceeds without any further hitches. Ryan begins having second thoughts about his life and philosophies; as he starts delivering his "What's in Your Backpack?" Speech at a convention in Las Vegas, he realizes he no longer believes it, walks off the stage. On an impulse, he flies to Alex's home in Chicago; when she opens the door, Ryan is stunned to discover she is married and has children, leaves before her husband can suspect anything. She tells him over the phone that her family is her real life and he is an escape. On Ryan's flight home, the crew announces that he has just crossed the ten million mile mark, a small celebration is thrown; the airline's chief pilot comes out of the cockpit to meet Ryan. He notes; when asked where he is from, a disheartened Ryan can only respond, "here." Ryan calls the airline to transfer five hundred thousand miles each to his sister and brother-in-law, enough for them to fly around the world for their honeymoon.
His boss tells Ryan that a woman he and Natalie fired during their travels has killed herself, that an upset Natalie has quit via text message. The company puts the remote-layoff program on hold. Natalie applies for a job in San Francisco, where she was offered a job before following her now ex-boyfriend to Omaha; the interviewer is impressed by her qualifications and a glowing recommendation from Ryan, hires her. The film concludes with Ryan standing in front of a vast destination board, looking up, letting go of his luggage; the film has a thematic connection to the children's book The Velveteen Rabbit, which appears in the film, before the wedding. Reitman noted. In another sense, it's a movie about a man. In another sense, it's about a man who meets a woman who's so similar to him that though they both believe in the idea of living solo, they begin to fall in love. Reitman later stated t
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
The Water Horse: Legend of the Deep
The Water Horse: Legend of the Deep is a 2007 family fantasy drama film directed by Jay Russell and written by Robert Nelson Jacobs, based on Dick King-Smith's children's novel The Water Horse. It stars Alex Etel as a young boy who discovers a mysterious egg and cares for what hatches out of it: a "water horse" which becomes the fabled Loch Ness Monster; the film stars Emily Watson, Ben Chaplin and David Morrissey. The film was produced by Revolution Studios and Walden Media, in collaboration with Beacon Pictures, was distributed by Columbia Pictures. Visual effects were completed by the New Zealand-based companies Weta Digital and Weta Workshop The Water Horse was released in the United States on 25 December 2007 and in the United Kingdom on 8 February 2008. In present-day Scotland, an American tourist couple go into a bar where they meet an old man who, per their request, tells them a story about the Loch Ness Monster and how the fake photo came about. In 1940, a boy named Angus MacMorrow lives in the manor house of Lord Killin on the shores of Loch Ness with his mother Anne MacMorrow and his sister, Kirstie.
They are joined by Lewis Mowbray, who comes to work as a handyman in the manor. Angus' father Charlie —Killin's former handyman— is a sailor in the Royal Navy and has been missing since his ship was sunk in the war a year ago. One day, while collecting seashells, he discovers what appears to be a large mysterious egg in the sand, which he leaves in his father's shed; when he returns an unknown creature hatches, which he calls'Crusoe' after Robinson Crusoe. Angus decides to keep the creature a secret, but tells his sister and Lewis after they discover it. Lewis explains to Angus that it is a genderless "Water Horse" that lays one egg dies before it hatches; the next day, troops of the 12th Medium Regiment Royal Artillery arrive at the house, commanded by Captain Thomas Hamilton – a friend of Lord Killin, serving with the Royal Air Force. An artillery battery is set up near the lake as a defence against German U-boats while the troops set up camp on the manor grounds. Meanwhile, Lewis discovers Crusoe to have grown so big that he and Angus have no choice but to let it roam free in the loch.
Captain Hamilton proclaims Lewis to be a bad influence, Angus' mother allows him to teach Angus some discipline and make a soldier out of him. However, after a few days of training, Angus escapes and returns to the lake, where Crusoe, now a full-grown adult, encourages Angus to ride on its back. After some time, it begins to dive underwater. Angus, having aquaphobia, protests diving, but enjoys himself and overcomes his phobia; the next day, Captain Hamilton takes the MacMorrow family to a hill overlooking Loch Ness. Angus interrupts to save Crusoe from injury or death, but in the process, enrages Hamilton and irates Angus' mother, who doesn't know what a Water Horse is and won't believe Angus when he tries to tell her. Two fishermen who saw Crusoe, attempt to take a photo of the creature for fame and fortune; when they realize that they won't be able to photograph the real thing due to the bombardment, they decide to create an imitation. The photo piques the interest of a few soldiers, who venture out on the lake at night to hunt it with Sergeant Walker leading the hunt.
Angus visits the lake and calls for Crusoe. Crusoe rises, but still in shock and fear from the earlier bombardment, nearly bites off Angus's hand before sinking back into the loch. Hamilton's dog Churchill, having caught Crusoe's scent at the shore, alerts the soldiers of its presence. Crusoe surprises the soldiers and capsizes their boat but not before one of the soldiers sends out an SOS to Hamilton, who thinks the Germans are attacking. Back at the loch, Angus attempts to calm down Crusoe, attacking Strunk, wades into the lake where he loses his footing and sinks. Crusoe saves his life; when his mother arrives, she believes her son when she sees Crusoe, though does not notice the creature at first and accuses Lewis of filling Angus' head with fairy tales. The nearby artillery battery soon opens fire upon Crusoe. Angus, Hamilton and Lewis lead Crusoe to safety at the net, who escapes into the sea. At sunrise, Angus accepts his father's fate before they watch Crusoe's departure, it is implied that Anne is ready to move on, having fallen in love with Lewis.
Over the years after Crusoe's departure, several people claim to have seen it, but Angus never sees Crusoe again. The tourists ask for his name, which he reveals to be Angus himself. Outside the pub, a mother calls out to her son, walking down the beach, he spots a rock, which has an iridescent shell just like Crusoe's, hinting that Crusoe has died and has left a descendant behind to become the next Water Horse. Alex Etel as Angus MacMorrow Brian Cox as Older Angus MacMorrow Emily Watson as Anne MacMorrow Ben Chaplin as Lewis Mowbray David Morrissey as Captain Thomas Hamilton Priyanka Xi as Kirstie MacMorrow Marshall Napier as Sgt. Strunk Joel Tobeck as Sgt. Walker Erroll Shand as Lt. Wormsley Craig Hall as Charlie MacMorrow Geraldine Brophy as Gracie Director Jay Russell first read Dick King-Smith's book years before the film was made. "With the technology where it was at the time and the cost of that t
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards; the eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year. The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019; the 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020. In 1943, a group of writers banded together to form the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and, by creating a generously distributed award called the Golden Globe Award, they now play a significant role in film marketing; the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille; the official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018 to "Golden Globe Ambassador"; the holders of the position were, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, as a point of pride, these continued to be contested among celebrity parents. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned; the New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content.
It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals; the most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged. The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31. Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are disqualified from all of the film and TV acting categories. Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31.
Films can be released on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery. For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country. A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 11:00 p.m.. A show can air on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery. A TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore and non-scripted shows are disqualified. For a television film, it cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, instead should be entered based on its original release format.
If it was first aired on American television it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view it should instead to be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying. Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries. Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist; the screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with a press screening; the screening must be cleared with the Motion Picture Association of America so there are not scheduling conflicts with other official screenings. For TV programs, they must be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the