The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine known as the Black Army or as Makhnovshchyna, was an anarchist army formed of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. They protected the operation of "free soviets" and libertarian communes in the Free Territory, an attempt to form a stateless libertarian communist society from 1918 to 1921 during the Ukrainian Revolution. Ukrainian anarchist guerrilla bands were active during the Russian Civil War; some claimed to be loyal to the Ukrainian state. Of all the anarchist groups, the most famous and successful was that of the peasant anarchist leader Nestor Makhno, aka Batko, who began operations in the southeastern Ukraine against the Hetmanate regime in July 1918. In September, he formed the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, or Anarchist Black Army, with arms and equipment obtained from retreating Austro-Hungarian and German forces. During the Civil War, the Black Army numbered between 15,000 and 110,000 men and was organized on conventional lines, with infantry and artillery units.
Makhno's cavalry incorporated both regular and irregular horse-mounted forces, was considered among the best-trained and most capable of any of the cavalry units deployed by any side in the Russian Civil War. The Bolshevik government and Red Army commanders referred to the Black Army as "Makhnovist forces", because they pointedly declined to accord the Ukrainian anarchists the status of having an army or a legitimate political movement. Volin described the Insurrectionary Black Army of the time as follows: The infantry, when it was not fighting, led the march of the army... tachankas. Each of these vehicles, which were drawn by two horses, carried the driver on the front seat and two soldiers behind them. In some sections a machine-gun was installed on the seat between them; the artillery brought up the rear. A huge black flag floated over the first carriage; the slogans Liberty or Death and The Land to the Peasants, the Factories to the Workers were embroidered in silver on its two sides. A main obstacle to the anarchist army, one which it never overcame throughout its existence, was a lack of access to primary industrial manufacturing resources factories capable of producing large amounts of arms and ammunition.
Denied large-scale arms shipments from the Bolshevik government in Moscow, without arsenal manufacturing centers of its own, the Black Army was forced to rely on captures of munition depots and supplies from enemy forces, to procure food and horses from the local civilian population. By May 1919, the Bolshevik government had withdrawn most Red Army forces from Ukraine after White successes in the south; the remaining Red Army troops who had stayed in various parts of Ukraine were suspicious of their commanders, angry at the withdrawals from Ukraine, which they considered a defection from the revolutionary cause. At the end of July, 1919, Red Army detachments numbering some 40,000 troops in Crimea mutinied and deposed their commanders; the mutiny was organized by some of Makhno's anarchist comrades who had remained commanders in the ranks of the Red Army, including Kalashnikov and Budanov. Large numbers of Red Army soldiers advanced from Novi Bug to Pomoshchnaya in search of Makhno's Black Army, bringing with them, as captives, their former commanders: Kochergin and others.
The mutineers joined Black Army forces at Dobrovelychkivka in the municipality of Kherson at the beginning of August 1919. For the Bolshevik government in Moscow, this defection was a major blow. Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army, at first declared'bandits' and'outlaws' by the Moscow's Bolshevik government, were welcomed after General Anton Denikin threatened to overrun Moscow in a drive towards the city in 1919. After concluding an agreement with the Ukrainian Directory and his subordinate commanders made plans to turn the Black Army east and attack Denikin's Volunteer Army and its lines of supply, hoping to break through his lines; the Black Army had been retreating to the west across Ukraine. But on the evening of September 25, 1919, it turned east, attacking the main forces of General Denikin's army; the first encounter took place late in the evening near the village of Kruten'koe, where the Black Army's First Infantry Brigade advanced towards White Army positions. Denikin's troops retreated to take up better positions.
At first, Denikin believed the move was a feint or reconnaissance-in-force, did not follow up, concluding that most of the anarchist army was still retiring to the west. However, in the middle of the night, all of Makhno's troops began an offensive to the east; the White Army's principal forces in the area were concentrated near the village of Peregonovka. An intense battle broke out, the occupying anarchist forces began to lose ground, pressured by White Army reinforcements, including infantry regiments composed of young and fanatically anti-communist officers. Makhno's headquarters staff, as well as everyone in the village who could handle a rifle, armed
Bural was an airline based in Ulan-Ude, Russia. It operated trunk and regional passenger services, its main base was Ulan-Ude Airport. The airline was established in 1933 as Buryatia Air Enterprise, it became independent in 1993 and was known as Buryatia Airlines. Since 2002, the airline has curtailed its operations including services to Moscow-Domodedovo; the airline went defunct in 2017, due to failure to follow the laws in the technical service of the aircraft. The regional flights across Buryatia to Taksimo and Nizhneangarsk were served by Angara Airlines instead; the Bural fleet included the following aircraft in August 2015: RussiaBagdarin — Bagdarin Airport Irkutsk - Irkutsk Airport Kyzyl - Kyzyl Airport Nizhneangarsk — Nizhneangarsk Airport Taksimo — Taksimo Airport Ulan-Ude — Ulan-Ude Airport Hub The airlines has codeshares with: Centre-South PANH Yakutia Airlines October 1, 2010 - AN-2 Uakit - Bagdarin - In flight at an altitude of 2300 meters with poor weather conditions and too little fuel left, the pilot decided to carry out an emergency landing.
Passengers and copilot received injuries of varying severity when leaving the aircraft
Grantville is a small town in Victoria, Australia. In the 2006 census, Grantville had a population of 456; the town was named after Lieutenant James Grant who surveyed the area in 1801. Grantville was named by surveyor Edmund Colbert in 1870 after James McPherson Grant, MLA, a lawyer, a member of Parliament from 1855 to 1885, president of the board of lands and works and commissioner of crown lands and survey from September 1864 to May 1868. Although accepted, there is no evidence that Grantville is named after Lieutenant James Grant, who had sailed the Lady Nelson into Western Port in 1801. Grantville was established as a supply port situated on the east coast of Western Port. Sawmills were soon built and Grantville took a turn to become a town centered on timber. Short tramways were constructed between the jetty. Ships arriving at the jetty would bring in supplies for the locals and the land selectors further out in the Gippsland hills, on their return voyage they carried timber to Melbourne.
The town fell into decline after the closure of the last of the sawmills in the early 1900's however 60 years on saw a new industry emerge around sand extraction for the production of concrete, this activity has revitalized the town which has seen an influx of new residents, of new home construction. The town houses some small shops including a bakery, fast food and real estate agencies as well as a petrol station. There are some bed and breakfasts and a foreshore caravan park. Near the coastline, there is a jetty as well as manual pad and adventure playground. There is a boat ramp. Grantville has a Bendigo Community Bank, a pharmacy which trades 7 days a week, a news agency and Post office, it boasts medical facilities and a 24 hour ambulance service. It is well served by a volunteer Fire Brigade 24/7. Grantville hosts a moderately sized variety market on the fourth Sunday of each month; the event is held on a reserve adjacent to the Bass Highway near the western end of the town. Grantville travel guide from Wikivoyage
The 131st Infantry Brigade the Surrey Brigade was an infantry formation of Britain's Territorial Army that saw service during both the First and the Second World Wars. In the First World War the brigade was in British India for most of the war and did not see service as a complete unit but many of its battalions would see service in the Middle East; the brigade, assigned to the 44th Division, saw extensive service in the Second World War, in France and was evacuated at Dunkirk in May 1940. It saw service in the North African Campaign in late 1942 at El Alamein and Tunisia, Salerno in Italy, both in late 1943, the invasion of Normandy and throughout North-west Europe from June 1944 until May 1945. From late 1942, when 44th Division was broken up, the brigade served with the 7th Armoured Division; some sources call the brigade the 131st Brigade, due it being composed composed of battalions from the Queen's Royal Regiment. The Volunteer Force of part-time soldiers was created following an invasion scare in 1859, its constituent units were progressively aligned with the Regular British Army during the 19th Century.
The Stanhope Memorandum of December 1888 introduced a Mobilisation Scheme for Volunteer units, which would assemble in their own brigades at key points in case of war. In peacetime these brigades provided a structure for collective training; the Surrey Brigade was one of the formations organised at this time. Brigade Headquarters was at 71 New Street in Kennington Park and the commander was Colonel Alexander Hamilton, a retired officer in the Royal Engineers; the assembly point for the brigade was at Caterham Barracks, the Brigade of Guards' depot conveniently situated for the London Defence Positions along the North Downs. The brigade's original composition was:Surrey Brigade 1st Volunteer Battalion, The Queen's 2nd Volunteer Battalion, The Queen's 3rd Volunteer Battalion, The Queen's 4th Volunteer Battalion, The Queen's 1st Surrey Rifles 2nd Volunteer Battalion, East Surrey Regiment 3rd Volunteer Battalion, East Surrey Regiment 4th Volunteer Battalion, East Surrey Regiment Supply Detachment, Army Service Corps Bearer Company, Medical Staff CorpsIn the reorganisation after the end of the 2nd Boer War in 1902, separate East and West Surrey Brigades were formed, under command of the respective regimental districts.
When the Volunteers were subsumed into the Territorial Force under the Haldane Reforms in 1908, the battalions in North Surrey, whose recruiting areas had fallen in the County of London since its formation 1889, became part of the all-Territorial London Regiment. These became the 21st to 24th Battalions and constituted the 6th London Brigade in the 2nd London Division; the four remaining battalions became battalions of their parent regiments and formed a single Surrey Brigade once more, as part of the Home Counties Division. On the outbreak of war the Surrey Brigade was composed as follows:Commander: Brigadier-General J. Marriott 4th Battalion, Queen's 5th Battalion, Queen's 5th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment 6th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment On the outbreak of the First World War, most of the men of the division accepted liability for overseas service to go to British India to relieve Regular Army troops for the fighting fronts. However, the brigade staffs and Regular adjutants of the battalions remained behind.
The division embarked at Southampton and sailed on 30 October 1914, disembarking at Bombay on 1–3 December. On arrival, the division's units were distributed to various peacetime stations across India and Burma to continue their training for war. For a time the two East Surrey battalions were attached to the Allahabad Brigade in 8th Division, where they were joined by the 4th Queens. In May 1915, the division was numbered 44th Division and the brigade formally became 131st Brigade; the TF battalions had all taken the prefix'1' to distinguish them from their 2nd Line battalions forming in the United Kingdom. During 1915 there was a regular drain on the battalions as they lost their best Non-Commissioned Officers for officer training, sent detachments to various places in India, provided drafts to replace casualties among units fighting in Mesopotamia. 1/5th Queens was transferred to Mesopotamia at the end of the year, landing at Basra on 10 December and transferring to 15th Indian Division. By early 1916 it had become obvious that the Territorial Divisions in India (there were two others in addition to the 44th, the 43rd Division and 45th Division were never going to be able to reform and return to Europe to reinforce the Western Front as had been intended.
They continued training in India for the rest of the war, providing drafts and detachments as required. 1/6th East Surreys served in garrison at Aden from February 1917 to January 1918, 1/5th East Surreys was transferred to Mesopotamia at the end of 1917, landing at Basra on 27 December and joining 55th Indian Brigade, 18th Indian Division. The only battalion of the 131st Brigade that had not deployed outside India at any time during the war, 1/4th Queen's saw active service in 1919 during the Third Anglo-Afghan War. During 1919 the remaining units were reduced and was disbanded, along with the rest of the Territorial Force, reformed as the Territorial Army in 1920; the division was reconstituted as the 44th (Home
Petr Knoth is a Czech former ice dancer. With Petra Pachlová, he competed in the final segment at five ISU Championships – the 2004 European Championships and four World Junior Championships. Knoth began learning to skate in 1996, he and his skating partner, Petra Pachlová, made their ISU Junior Grand Prix debut in 2000. They finished 23rd at the 2002 World Junior Championships in Norway. In October 2003, Pachlová/Knoth won bronze at a JGP event in Ostrava, Czech Republic. In January, they outscored Diana Janošťáková / Jiří Procházka to win the Czech national senior title and were selected to compete at the 2004 European Championships. Making their senior international debut, they finished 19th at the European Championships, which took place the following month in Budapest, Hungary. In March, they achieved their career-best ISU Championship result, tenth, at the 2004 World Junior Championships in The Hague, Netherlands, they were coached by Natalia Vorobieva until the end of the season. František Blaťák coached Pachlová/Knoth during the 2004–05 season.
After placing fourth at a JGP event in Budapest, they took silver at their October JGP assignment in Kiev, Ukraine. They were named first alternates for the ISU Junior Grand Prix Final, they finished second to Janošťáková/Procházka at the Czech Championships in December. In March, they finished 11th at the 2005 World Junior Championships in Kitchener, Canada, it was their final competition together. JGP: Junior Grand Prix with Pachlová Petra Pachlova / Petr Knoth at the International Skating Union
The Nova Artax is an Austrian single-place paraglider, designed by Hannes Papesch and produced by Nova Performance Paragliders of Innsbruck. It is now out of production; the aircraft was designed as an intermediate glider. The models are each named for their relative size. Artax S Small-sized model for light pilots, its 11.67 m span wing has a wing area of 23.08 m2, 53 cells and the aspect ratio is 5.17:1. The pilot weight range is 75 to 95 kg; the glider model is AFNOR Standard certified. Artax M Mid-sized model for medium-weight pilots, its 12.19 m span wing has a wing area of 25.18 m2, 53 cells and the aspect ratio is 5.17:1. The pilot weight range is 85 to 105 kg; the glider model is AFNOR Standard certified. Artax L Large-sized model for heavier pilots, its 12.72 m span wing has a wing area of 27.36 m2, 53 cells and the aspect ratio is 5.17:1. The pilot weight range is 100 to 130 kg; the glider model is AFNOR Standard certified. Data from BertrandGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 12.19 m Wing area: 25.18 m2 Aspect ratio: 5.17:1