Eelam People's Democratic Party
The Eelam People's Democratic Party is a political party and a pro-government paramilitary organization in Sri Lanka. It is led by its founder Douglas Devananda. Douglas Devananda was one of the founding members of the Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students, one of the earliest Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups. In 1980 EROS split into two as K. Pathmanabha Varatharajah Perumal broke away and formed the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front. Devananda joined the EPRLF. By early 1986 disputes had arisen between the EPRLF's political leader; the EPRLF leadership split into two factions: EPRLF and EPRLF. In 1987 the EPRLF faction formally split from the EPRLF. Devananda formed the Eelam National Democratic Liberation Front with a breakaway faction of the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam led by Paranthan Rajan; the ENDLF collapsed when Rajan started working with Indians - Devananda was opposed to the Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War. Devananda, now living in Madras, India formed the Eelam People's Democratic Party.
The EPDP lacked funds and Devananda resorted to kidnapping and extortion of Sri Lankan Tamils living in Madras. In 1989 Devananda and 25 others were arrested for the second time by the Indian police, this time for kidnapping a ten-year-old boy for ransom at Poonamallee High Road, Kilpauk and imprisoned, he was given bail. In 1990 police in Kodambakkam, started an investigation on Devananda on charges of rioting and criminal intimidation of a person called Valavan. In 1990 Devananda returned to Sri Lanka. In 1990 Devananda arrived in Colombo. A meeting was arranged by Sri Lankan intelligence between Devananda and Deputy Defence Minister Ranjan Wijeratne. Devananda offered to place the EPDP under Sri Lankan government control in return for support and protection from the Tamil Tigers; the government accepted - the EPDP had transformed itself into a paramilitary organisation. Devananda was attacked for collaborating with the enemy. EPDP cadres from all over Sri Lanka and India converged on Colombo.
The government gave the EPDP vast financial assistance. The EPDP, with the support of the government, took control of the islands off Jaffna peninsula after the Tigers withdrew; the EPDP used the islands as a base to transport goods dried fish, between India and Sri Lanka. It imposed taxes. Tamils living in Colombo were extorted money. On 1 January 1993 Tharmalingam Selvakumar, a former EPDP sympathiser, was abducted from the Premil Sports Club at Kotahena, Colombo. Selvakumar has alleged that he was taken in a van driven by Devananda to Devananda's house at 121 Park Road, Colombo 5, he was detained along with other prisoners in cells at the back of Devananda's house. Selvakumar was tortured and the EPDP tried to extort money from his family. All of this resulted in Devananda making a fortune; the EPDP's paramilitary wing continues to operate, despite its claims to have given up violence. The paramilitary wing has been accused to have helped the Sri Lankan Navy commit massacre in places like Allaipiddy.
Devananda and the EPDP entered electoral politics when it contested the 1994 parliamentary election as an independent group in Jaffna District. Most of the district was under Tamil Tiger control and so did not vote, allowing the EPDP win nine parliamentary seats with just 10,744 votes, of which 9,944 votes came from the EPDP controlled Jaffna islands; the EPDP became an ally of her People's Alliance government. At the 2000 parliamentary election the EPDP won 50,890 votes, securing four of the 225 seats in Parliament. In October 2000 Kumaratunga appointed Devananda as Minister of Development and Reconstruction of the North, Tamil Affairs and East. At the 2001 parliamentary election the EPDP won 72,783 votes, securing two of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda lost his ministerial post following the change of government. At the 2004 parliamentary election the EPDP won 24,955 votes, securing one of the 225 seats in Parliament. Devananda was appointed as Minister of Agriculture, Marketing Development, Hindu Education Affairs, Tamil Language & Vocational Training Centres in North when the United People's Freedom Alliance, the successor to the PA, returned to power.
He was appointed Minister for Social Service and Social Welfare by President Mahinda Rajapaksa in 2005. There are unproved allegations of corruption against Devananda. Since the end of the Sri Lankan civil war in May 2009 the EPDP has contested local and national elections under the UPFA banner rather than on its own. At the 2010 parliamentary election three EPDP members were elected on the UPFA ticket, all from Jaffna District. Official Eelam People's Democratic Party website
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna
The Sri Lanka People's Front known by its Sinhalese name Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna, is a Sri Lankan political front. A minor political party known as the Sri Lanka National Front and Our Sri Lanka Freedom Front, it was relaunched 2016 as the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna and became the home for members of the United People's Freedom Alliance loyal to its former leader Mahinda Rajapaksa; the front's chairman is G. L. Peiris and its secretary is Sagara Kariyawasam; the Sri Lanka National Front contested the 2001 parliamentary election in 15 of the 22 electoral districts but failed to win any seats in Parliament after securing only 719 votes across the country. The SLNF contested the 2004 parliamentary election in 17 of the 22 electoral districts but failed to win any seats in Parliament after securing only 493 votes across the country. SLNF leader Wimal Geeganage contested the 2005 presidential election and came in eighth after securing 6,639 votes; the SLNF contested the 2010 parliamentary election in 19 of the 22 electoral districts but failed to win any seats in Parliament after securing only 5,313 votes across the country.
Geeganage came in 19th after securing 1,826 votes. In 2015 the SLNF changed its name to Our Sri Lanka Freedom Front and its symbol from cricket bat to flower bud. In early 2016 OSLFF leader Geeganage hinted that there would be change in the party leadership's soon. In November 2016 OSLFF relaunched itself as the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna, a front for the Joint Opposition, appointed former Foreign Minister G. L. Peiris, a Rajapaksa ally, as its chairman. Attorney-at-law Sagara Kariyawasam was the front's secretary and its symbol was the flower bud. Kariyawasam is a former Sri Lanka Freedom Party organiser and has served as attorney for Mahinda Rajapaksa and his brother Gotabhaya Rajapaksa. Basil Rajapaksa, another brother of Mahinda Rajapaksa, joined the SLPP shortly. Local elections were held on 10 February 2018; the SLPP contested for the election under its flower bud symbol
Lanka Sama Samaja Party
The Lanka Sama Samaja Party is a Trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka. The party was founded in 1935 and emerged as a major political force in the Sri Lankan independence movement during the 1940s, it joined a coalition government in 1964, was expelled from the Fourth International. It peaked in political strength in the 1970s, but has declined during the last 30 years. In the parliamentary election held on 2 April 2004, the party was part of the United People's Freedom Alliance, which won 45.6% of the popular vote and 105 out of 225 seats. One of those 105 seats belongs to LSSP; the Lanka Sama Samaja Party was the first modern political party in Sri Lanka and the first party to have an indigenous name rather than an English one and the first Marxist party in Sri Lanka. The Sinhala term samasamajaya was one coined by Dally Jayawardena in the Swadesa Mitraya to translate the term'socialist'. However, the usage of samasamajaya has since been superseded by samajavadaya in everything but in the names of the LSSP and various of its splinter groups.
The Tamil term samadharmam was used to translate ` socialist'. The Lanka Sama Samaja Party was founded on 18 December 1935 with the broad aims of Independence and Socialism, by a group of young people who had gathered together for that purpose; the group at the commencement numbered a bare half-dozen composed principally of students who had returned from abroad, influenced by the ideas of Karl Marx and Lenin. The original group consisted of N. M. Perera, Colvin R. de Silva, Leslie Goonewardene, Philip Gunawardena and Robert Gunawardena. The LSSP grew out of the Youth Leagues; the leaders were educated returnees from London, youth who had come into contact with the ideas of the European Left and were influenced by Harold Laski. Dr S. A. Wickremasinghe, an early returnee and a member of the State Council from 1931, was part of this group; the Youth Leagues campaigned for independence from Britain, notably organising opposition to the so-called'Ministers' Memorandum', which called for the colonial authorities to grant increased power to the ministers.
The group, through the South Colombo Youth League, became involved in a strike at the Wellawatte Spinning and Weaving Mills. It published an irregular journal in Kamkaruwa. In 1933 the group got involved in the Suriya-Mal movement, formed to provide support for indigenous ex-servicemen by the sale of Suriya flowers; the Suriya-Mal movement surged as a reaction to the fact that at the time Poppy Day funds went to British ex-servicemen. The movement was honed by volunteer work among the poor during the Malaria Epidemic of 1934-1935; the volunteers found that there was widespread malnutrition, which they helped fight by making pills of'Marmite' yeast extract. In 1936 the LSSP contested the State Council elections in four constituencies and won two of them and Ruanwella; the two new members, Philip Gunawardena and N. M. Perera, proved to be a thorn in the side of the British Colonial government; the LSSP began fraternal relations with the Congress Socialist Party of India. Mrs Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya of the CSP was invited by the LSSP for a successful political tour of the island.
The LSSP maintained a clear distance from the Indian radical left, considered the Communist Party of India to be an extremist force. In 1937, the British Colonial Governor Sir Reginald Stubbs attempted to deport a young Anglo-Australian planter, Mark Anthony Bracegirdle, who had joined the LSSP, he went into hiding in defiance of the Governor and the LSSP started a campaign to defend him. He made a dramatic appearance on the platform at that year's May Day rally. Bracegirdle won his case in the courts and the deportation order was quashed; the Governor was isolated and the cause of independence was much strengthened, as the Bracegirdle incident had brought the entire State Council into opposition to the colonial government. Bracegirdle had been working among the plantation labourers, who were treated inhumanely, receiving little health care less education and living in'line rooms' which were worse than cattle sheds in England. Militancy among these workers was increasing at the time. In 1940 the Lanka Estate Workers' Union intervened in a strike at Mooloya.
This became the harbinger of a wave of trade-union action on the plantations. Meanwhile, in the LSSP a number of members had become influenced by the ideas of the Left Opposition led by Leon Trotsky. Individual LSSPers, notably Philip Gunawardena, had encountered Trotskyist groups during stays in Britain and the USA; the Trotskyists within the LSSP formed a secret fraction known as the "T" group. Its original members were Philip Gunawardena, N. M. Perera, Colvin R. de Silva, Leslie Goonewardene, Robert Gunawardena and Vernon Gunasekera, the Party Secretary. It was joined by Edmund Samarakkody and V. Karalasingham. In 1940 the LSSP split with the expulsion of the pro-Moscow fraction led by S. A. Wickremasinghe, M. G. Mendis, Pieter Keuneman and A. Vaidialingam; the expelled members formed the United Socialist Party which evolved into the Communist Party of Ceylon. The LSSP was thus confirmed as a Trotskyist-led party. At the outbreak of the Second World War the party was forced to go underground due to its opposition to the British war effort.
The two State Council members of the party and others on its Central committee were arrested and jailed, but Leslie Goonewardene evaded arrest and went
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by the Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky identified as Bolshevik -- Leninist, he supported founding a vanguard party of the proletariat, proletarian internationalism and a dictatorship of the proletariat based on working class self-emancipation and mass democracy. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism as they oppose Joseph Stalin's theory of socialism in one country in favor of Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution. Trotskyists criticize the bureaucracy that developed in the Soviet Union under Stalin. Vladimir Lenin and Trotsky were close both ideologically and during the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, some call Trotsky its "co-leader". Trotsky was the paramount leader of the Red Army in the direct aftermath of the Revolutionary period. Trotsky opposed some aspects of Leninism, but he concluded that unity between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks was impossible and joined the Bolsheviks. Trotsky played a leading role with Lenin in the revolution.
Assessing Trotsky, Lenin wrote: "Trotsky long ago said. Trotsky understood this and from that time on there has been no better Bolshevik". Under Stalin's orders, Trotsky was removed from power, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled first to Alma-Ata, from the Soviet Union; as the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued from exile to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union. On 20 August 1940, Trotsky was attacked by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish-born NKVD agent, died the next day in a hospital, his murder is considered a political assassination. All of the Trotskyists within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were executed in the Great Purges of 1937–1938 removing all of Trotsky's internal influence in the Soviet Union. Trotsky's Fourth International was established in France in 1938, when Trotskyists argued that the Comintern or Third International had become irretrievably "lost to Stalinism" and thus incapable of leading the international working class to political power.
In contemporary English language usage, an advocate of Trotsky's ideas is called a "Trotskyist". A Trotskyist can be called a "Trotskyite" or "Trot" by a critic of Trotskyism. American Trotskyist James P. Cannon wrote in his History of American Trotskyism that "Trotskyism is not a new movement, a new doctrine, but the restoration, the revival of genuine Marxism as it was expounded and practiced in the Russian revolution and in the early days of the Communist International". According to Trotsky, his program could be distinguished from other Marxist theories by five key elements: Support for the strategy of permanent revolution, in opposition to the two-stage theory of his opponents. Criticism of the post-1924 leadership of the Soviet Union, analysis of its features. Support for social revolution in the advanced capitalist countries through working class mass action. Support for proletarian internationalism. Use of a transitional programme of demands that bridge between daily struggles of the working class and the maximal ideas of the socialist transformation of society.
On the political spectrum of Marxism, Trotskyists are considered to be towards the left. In the 1920s they called themselves the Left Opposition, although today's left communism is distinct and non-Bolshevik; the terminological disagreement can be confusing because different versions of a left-right political spectrum are used. Anti-revisionists consider themselves the ultimate leftists on a spectrum from communism on the left to imperialist capitalism on the right, but given that Stalinism is labeled rightist within the communist spectrum and left communism leftist, anti-revisionists' idea of left is different from that of left communism. Despite being Bolshevik-Leninist comrades during the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War and Stalin became enemies in the 1920s and thereafter opposed the legitimacy of each other's forms of Leninism. Trotsky was critical of the Stalinist Soviet Union for suppressing democracy and lack of adequate economic planning. In 1905, Trotsky formulated his theory of permanent revolution that became a defining characteristic of Trotskyism.
Until 1905, some revolutionaries claimed that Marx's theory of history positioned that only a revolution in a European capitalist society would lead to a socialist one. According to this position, it was impossible for a socialist revolution to occur in a backward, feudal country such as early 20th century Russia when it had such a small and powerless capitalist class; the theory of permanent revolution addressed the question of how such feudal regimes were to be overthrown and how socialism could be established given the lack of economic prerequisites. Trotsky argued that in Russia only the working class could overthrow feudalism and win the support of the peasantry. Furthermore, he argued, they would win their own revolution against the weak capitalist class, establish a workers' state in Russia and appeal to the working class in the advanced capitalist countries around the world. As a result, the global working class would come to Russia's aid and socialism could develop worldwide. Revolutions in Britain in the 17th century and in France in 1789 abolished feudalism and established the basic requisites for the development of capitalism.
Trotsky argued. In Results and Prospects, written in 1906, Trotsky outlines his theory in detail, arguing: "History does not repea
United National Front (Sri Lanka)
The United National Front the United National Front for Good Governance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka formed by the United National Party, the alliance represents 7 parties including the largest Muslim party Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and the Sinhala Nationalist Jathika Hela Urumaya. The UNF is current governing party in the Parliament of Sri Lanka. A new UNP led alliance, the National Democratic Front is in the process of being formed for future elections; the UNF was formed as an alliance in 2001 to battle president Kumaratunga's SLFP led People's Alliance in 2001 parliamentary election. Initial members were the United National Party, the Ceylon Workers' Congress, the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and the Western People's Front; the alliance won the election by securing 109 seats in the parliament, 4 seats short of a majority. UNF government had been in limbo since October 2003, when President Kumaratunga declared a state of emergency and took three key cabinet portfolios for her party. During the campaign, she argued that prime minister Wickremasinghe had been too soft on the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and promised to take a harder line.
The UNF, for its part, stressed the economic gains, made with the ceasefire and the need to find a negotiated solution to the civil war. President Kumaratunga dissolved the parliament and called an election in 2004, which UNF lost to newly formed United People's Freedom Alliance. In 2006, CWC left the alliance to join UPFA. UNP and SLMC once again contested 2010 parliamentary election from UNF and only secured 29.34% of the popular vote and 60 out of 225 seats. After the election the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress left the UNF and joined President Rajapaksa's UPFA government; the UNP had contested past parliamentary elections in alliance with smaller parties representing ethnic minorities but many of these had defected to the UPFA after the election. The United National Front was once again re-activated by United National Party to form as common front against the re-emergence of Rajapaksa, defeated on 8 January 2015 Presidential Election, with the support of many parties such as the Jathika Hela Urumaya, Sri Lanka Muslim Congress, Tamil National Alliance etc. as a major coalition to support the progress of the Common Candidate Maithripala Sirisena.
Prior to this election being called the UNP had claimed. However, after the election had been called it started forming alliances with minority parties including the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and Tamil Progressive Alliance. Democratic Party led by Field Marshal Sarath Fonseka signed an MOU with Prime Minister Ranil Wickramasinghe to join the front on 3 February, 2016. On 12 July 2015 the UNP, SLMC and TPA signed agreements with the Jathika Hela Urumaya and anti-Rajapaksa members of the SLFP to form the United National Front for Good Governance to contest the election; the All Ceylon Makkal Congress contested with the UNFGG. The UNFGG is believed to have had the tacit support of President Sirisena but he has pledged to be neutral; the UNFGG had been established by the renaming of the JHU after it left the UPFA. It was registered as a political party with the diamond symbol. Despite this the UNFGG contested the election under the name and elephant symbol of the UNP. UNFGG general-secretary Champika Ranawaka has stated that the JHU name and its conch symbol will be revived after the election.
The UNFGG became the largest group in Parliament after securing 45.66% of votes and 106 seats whilst the UPFA won 42.38% of votes and 95 seats. Rajapaksa conceded defeat in his attempt to become Prime Minister. 42 members of the opposition joined the government, giving them a 2/3 majority. The result left the UNFGG seven seats short of a majority in Parliament. However, on 20 August 2015 the central committee of the SLFP agreed to form a national government with the UNP for two years. Wickremesinghe was sworn in as Prime Minister on 21 August 2015. Afterwards a memorandum of understanding to work together in Parliament was signed by acting SLFP general secretary Duminda Dissanayake and UNP general secretary Kabir Hashim. United People's Freedom Alliance