René Doumic, French critic and man of letters, was born in Paris, after a distinguished career at the École Normale began to teach rhetoric at the Collège Stanislas de Paris. He was a contributor to Le Moniteur Universel, the Journal des Débats and the Revue bleue, but was best known as the independent and uncompromising literary critic of the Revue des Deux Mondes. Éléments d'histoire littéraire Portraits d'écrivains De Scribe à Ibsen Écrivains d'aujourd'hui Études sur la littérature française Les Jeunes Essais sur le théâtre contemporain Hommes et idées du XIXe siècle an edition of the Lettres d'Elvire à Lamartine. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Doumic, René". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. Works by René Doumic at Project Gutenberg Works by or about René Doumic at Internet Archive
Jean-Jacques Ampère was a French philologist and man of letters. Born in Lyon, he was the only son of the physicist André-Marie Ampère. Jean-Jacques' mother died. On his tomb at the cemetery of Montmartre, Paris, he is named Jean-Jacques Antoine Ampère, his father's father was named Jean-Jacques Ampère. He studied the folk songs and popular poetry of the Scandinavian countries in an extended tour in northern Europe. Returning to France in 1830, he delivered a series of lectures on Scandinavian and early German poetry at the Athenaeum in Marseille; the first of these was printed as De l'Histoire de la poésie, was the first introduction of the French public to the Scandinavian and German epics. Moving to Paris, he taught at the Sorbonne, became professor of the history of French literature at the Collège de France. A journey in northern Africa was followed by a tour in Greece and Italy, in company with Prosper Mérimée, Jean de Witte and Charles Lenormant; this bore fruit in his Voyage dantesque. In 1848 he became a member of the Académie française, in 1851 he visited America.
From this time he was occupied with his chief work, L'Histoire romaine à Rome, until his death at Pau. The Correspondence et souvenirs of A-M and J-J Ampère was published in 1875. Notices of J-J Ampère are to be found in Sainte-Beuve's Portraits littéraires, vol. iv. and Nouveaux Lundis, vol. xiii.. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ampère, Jean Jacques". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 879. Works by or about Jean-Jacques Ampère at Internet Archive
Claude-Joseph Gignoux was a French politician. He served as a member of the Chamber of Deputies from 1928 to 1932. Gignoux became an undersecretary of state. In 1936 he was director of the Journée Industrielle. On 9 October 1936 the Confédération générale du patronat français held a general assembly to elect its new board. Gignoux was elected president, he proved an energetic leader. He said that employers must not try to avoid their responsibilities, but must confirm their authority through united action. In the early part of 1939 Gigoux warned the CGPF members of the danger of government demands to rehire workers, fired after the general strike, since this would only lead to further government intervention, he urged industrialists to make the present arrangement work, since socialism was the only alternative. Newspaper clippings about Claude-Joseph Gignoux in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Jean Baptiste Gustave Planche
Jean Baptiste Gustave Planche was a French art and literary critic. In his time as a medical student, Planche frequented artistic circles; this did nothing to promote the success of his studies. Around 1830, Planche was introduced by the famous writer Alfred de Vigny to François Buloz, director of the Revue des deux mondes, contributed to this journal until 1840. In that year, his father, a rich apothecary and over the few years, Planche dedicated himself to spending his 80,000 franc inheritance in Italy, his Salon reviews at the Revue des Deux Mondes taken over by Louis Peisse from 1841, he resumed his connection with the journal in 1846, a collaboration, only terminated by his death in 1857, at the age of 49. Planche was an honest critic and refused to accept a position from Napoleon III for fear of compromising his freedom. A fervent admirer of George Sand and Alfred de Vigny, he was contemptuous of Victor Hugo as a playwright, he characterized Hugo's earlier dramas as odes, those following the drama Le Roi s'amuse as antitheses, the ones as nothing but spectacle.
His critical papers were collected under the titles: Portraits littéraires. In his writings, Planche made an attempt to reconcile modern and classical art and literature by highlighting their common preoccupation in depicting human passions. Planche liked to formulate his opinions in a precise manner, his style is witty. Jonker, Marijke,'Gustave Planche, or The Romantic Side of Classicism.' Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide Vol. 1 no. 2. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Planche, Jean Baptiste Gustave". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Valerie Toranian is a French journalist and the editor-in-chief of the fashion magazine Elle in France. She is the founder of Nouvelles d'Arménie, a French-Armenian journal, she is the head of the Elle Foundation in France and the general manager of the Revue des deux Mondes. Valerie Toranian was born in Suresnes, France, to a French mother from Normandy and an Armenian father in 1962, her father's family settled in Marseille. Valerie's mother was a teacher who taught Latin and Greek. In 1983, Toranian started her career as a freelance writer and acquiring a position as a freelance writer for Elle's beauty department, she began working for Elle in 1994 and was promoted to deputy editor of the fashion department in 1996. Toranian became managing editor and vice-president of Elle until 2002, when she became editor-in-chief. In 1991, Valerie Toranian, along with her husband Ara Toranian, co-founded an Armenian journal called Nouvelles d'Arménie. In 2004, she became the vice-president of the Elle Foundation, which supports and sponsors women around the world.
She was named president of the foundation in June 2010. In the same year, she released a novel titled Pour en Finir avec la Femme, which explores issues concerning feminism. An advocate for women's rights, Toranian has hosted several conferences and events, including a Women's Forum held annually in Deauville, France. In December 2014, Toranian became the general director of the Revue des deux Mondes, a French-language monthly literary magazine. In 2015, she released a novel about titled L'Etrangère. Valerie Toranian met Ara Toranian, at a local Armenian school, they have two sons. After their divorce, she married Franz-Olivier Giesbert, a journalist and television host
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro