South China Morning Post
The South China Morning Post, with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record, owned by Alibaba Group. The journal was founded by Australian-born revolutionary Tse Tsan-tai and British journalist Alfred Cunningham in 1903; the first edition of the paper was published on 6 November 1903. The journal's circulation has been stable for years—the average daily circulation stands at 100,000, it was owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation until it was acquired by real estate tycoon Robert Kuok in 1993. On 5 April 2016, Alibaba Group acquired the media properties of the SCMP Group, including the South China Morning Post. According to a 2016 public survey conducted by the Centre for Communication and Public Opinion Survey at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the South China Morning Post received a credibility rating of 6.54, the highest credibility score among the various paid newspapers in Hong Kong. In 2017, Media Bias/Fact Check granted the South China Morning Post both a "least biased" rating and "high" factual reporting rating, describing it "as factual in reporting slightly left leaning and least biased on a whole".
South China Morning Post Ltd was founded by Tse Tsan-tai and Alfred Cunningham in 1903. The first edition of the paper was published on 6 November 1903. From its founding, during the Qing dynasty until 1913, one year after the establishment of the Republic of China, it was known, in Chinese, as 《南清早報》. In 1913, its Chinese name was changed to 《南華早報》 following the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 which overthrew imperial rule in China and has remained as such since then; the Chinese name of Sunday Morning Post is 《星期日南華早報》. In November 1971, it was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, it was privatised by News Corporation, owned by Rupert Murdoch, in 1987, relisted in 1990. Malaysian tycoon Robert Kuok's Kerry Media bought the controlling interest – a 34.9 per cent stake – from News Corp in October 1993 for US$375 million. His son, Kuok Khoon Ean, took over as chairman at the end of 1997. Kuok Khoon Ean's sister, Kuok Hui Kwong, was named chief executive officer on 1 January 2009. Kuok launched a general offer for the remaining shares in September 2007, increased his stake to 74 per cent at a total cost of HK$1.63 billion.
It was delisted in 2013 when the shares' free float fell below the required 25%. On 11 December 2015, it was announced that Alibaba Group would acquire the media assets of the SCMP Group, including the South China Morning Post; the consideration is reported to be HK$2.06 billion. The consideration – similar to the amount Jeff Bezos paid for the Washington Post – represents 10 times earnings before interest, taxes and amortization, compared to 17 times for the Washington Post. On 5 April 2016 Alibaba Group completed the acquisition and SCMP announced it had taken down the paywall of its online version. Readers are able to have free access to all contents on SCMP mobile apps; the paper's average audited circulation for the first half of 2007 stood at 106,054. In 2012, the readership of the SCMP and the Sunday Morning Post was estimated at 396,000, its readership outside Hong Kong remains at some 6,825 copies for the same period, again unchanged. It had the position as the most profitable newspaper in the world on a per reader basis, profit declined since peaking in 1997 at HK$805 million.
Its average audited circulation for the first half of 2015 stood at 101,652 copies, with the print edition representing 75 percent of the number of copies. The Group reported net profit of HK$338 million for the year 2006, the operating profit of HK$419m was attributable to the newspaper operation; the selling price of the paper is HK$9 each from Monday to Saturday, HK$10 for the Sunday Morning Post. A discounted student subscription is available, it was increased 14.5% and 25% in August 2011. As of 26 August 2010, SCMP Group posted a profit of $52.3 million in the first half of 2010. The printed version of the Post is in a broadsheet format, in sections: Main, Sport, Classifieds, Racing, Education, Style magazine. On 26 March 2007, the Post was given a facelift, with new presentation and fonts. Another redesign in 2011 changed the typefaces to Farnham and Amplitude for headlines, Utopia for text, Freight for headers. SCMP.com had started out as a subscription-only service, which allows the retrieval of archive articles dating back from 1993.
It was launched online in December 1996. On 30 May 2007, SCMP.com relaunched with a new look and multimedia content. Headlines and the introduction to stories are now free to view, while the full articles are available to subscribers. Archive photos and articles are available for purchase. On 16 July 2007, SCMP.com launched its first-ever viral video marketing campaign targeting a global audience and highlighting the new multimedia features of the website. At present, the SCMP als
In law, treason is criminal disloyalty to the state. It is a crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign; this includes things such as participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to overthrow its government, spying on its military, its diplomats, or its secret services for a hostile and foreign power, or attempting to kill its head of state. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor. In common law countries, treason covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife or that of a master by his servant. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason; as jurisdictions around the world abolished petty treason, "treason" came to refer to what was known as high treason. At times, the term traitor has been used as a political epithet, regardless of any verifiable treasonable action. In a civil war or insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors.
The term traitor is used in heated political discussion – as a slur against political dissidents, or against officials in power who are perceived as failing to act in the best interest of their constituents. In certain cases, as with the Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a large group of people can be a unifying political message. Treason is considered to be different and on many occasions a separate charge from "treasonable felony" in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged and quartered or burnt at the stake, although beheading could be substituted by royal command; those penalties were abolished in 1790 and 1973 respectively. The penalty was used by monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors. Many of them would now just be considered dissidents; the words "treason" and "traitor" are derived from the Latin tradere, to hand over. Christian theology and political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God.
Kings were considered chosen by God, to betray one's country was to do the work of Satan. Many nations' laws mention various types of treason. "Crimes Related to Insurrection" is the internal treason, may include a coup d'état. "Crimes Related to Foreign Aggression" is the treason of cooperating with foreign aggression positively regardless of the national inside and outside. "Crimes Related to inducement of Foreign Aggression" is the crime of communicating with aliens secretly to cause foreign aggression or menace. Depending on a country, conspiracy is added to these. In Australia, there are federal and state laws against treason in the states of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. To Treason laws in the United States, citizens of Australia owe allegiance to their sovereign, the federal and state level; the federal law defining treason in Australia is provided under section 80.1 of the Criminal Code, contained in the schedule of the Commonwealth Criminal Code Act 1995. It defines treason as follows: A person commits an offence, called treason, if the person: causes the death of the Sovereign, the heir apparent of the Sovereign, the consort of the Sovereign, the Governor-General or the Prime Minister.
A person is not guilty of treason under paragraphs, or if their assistance or intended assistance is purely humanitarian in nature. The maximum penalty for treason is life imprisonment. Section 80.1AC of the Act creates the related offence of treachery. The Treason Act 1351, the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 form part of the law of New South Wales; the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 have been repealed by Section 11 of the Crimes Act 1900, except in so far as they relate to the compassing, inventing, devising, or intending death or destruction, or any bodily harm tending to death or destruction, maim, or wounding, imprisonment, or restraint of the person of the heirs and successors of King George III of the United Kingdom, the expressing, uttering, or declaring of such compassings, inventions, devices, or intentions, or any of them. Section 12 of the Crimes Act 1900 creates an offence, derived from section 3 of the Treason Felony Act 1848: 12 Compassing etc deposition of the Sovereign—overawing Parliament etc Whosoever, within New South Wales or without, imagines, devises, or intends to deprive or depose Our M
The Wretched of the Earth
The Wretched of the Earth is a 1961 book by Frantz Fanon, in which the author provides a psychiatric and psychologic analysis of the dehumanizing effects of colonization upon the individual and the nation, discusses the broader social and political implications inherent to establishing a social movement for the decolonization of a person and of a people. The French-language title derives from the opening lyrics of "The Internationale". Through critiques of nationalism and of imperialism, Fanon presents a discussion of personal and societal mental health, a discussion of how the use of language is applied to the establishment of imperialist identities, such as colonizer and colonized, to teach and psychologically mold the native and the colonist into their respective roles as slave and master and a discussion of the role of the intellectual in a revolution. Fanon proposes that revolutionaries should seek the help of the lumpenproletariat to provide the force required to effect the expulsion of the colonists.
In traditional Marxist theory, the lumpenproletariat are the lowest, most degraded stratum of the proletariat—especially criminals and the unemployed—people who lack the class consciousness to participate in the anti-colonial revolution. Fanon applies the term lumpenproletariat to the colonial subjects who are not involved in industrial production the peasantry, unlike the urban proletariat, the lumpenproletariat have sufficient intellectual independence from the dominant ideology of the colonial ruling class to grasp that they can revolt against the colonial status quo and so decolonize their nation. One of the essays included in The Wretched of the Earth is "On National Culture", in which Fanon highlights the necessity for each generation to discover its mission and to fight for it; the first section of Fanon’s book is entitled “On Violence.” It is a detailed explanation of violence in relation to both the colonial world and the process of decolonization. Fanon begins with the premise that decolonization is, by definition, a violent process without exception.
The object of that process is the eventual replacement of one group of humans with another, that process is only complete when the transition is total. This conception of decolonization is based on Fanon's construction of the colonial world. Through his observations, he concluded that all colonial structures are nested societies which are not complementary, he uses Aristotelian logic in that the colony followed the “principle of reciprocal exclusivity”. Based on this conclusion, Fanon characterizes the assessment of the native population by the settler class as dehumanizing; the settlers do not see the natives as members of the same species. The natives are incapable of ethics and thereby are the embodiment of absolute evil as opposed to the Christian settlers who are forces of good; this is a crucial point for Fanon because it explains two phenomena that occur in the colonial world. The first is the idea that decolonization is the replacement of one population by another, the second is that since the native knows that they are not animals, they develop a feeling of rebellion against the settler.
One of the temporary consequences of colonization that Fanon talks about is division of the native into three groups. The first is the native worker, valued by the settler for their labor; the second group is what he calls the “colonized intellectual”. These are, by western standards, the more educated members of the native group who are in many ways recruited by the settler to be spokespeople for their views; the settlers had “implanted in the minds of the colonized intellectual that the essential qualities remain eternal in spite of the blunders men may make: the essential qualities of the West, of course”. The third group described by Fanon are the lumpenproletariat; this group is described in Marxism as the poorest class. This group is dismissed by Marxists as unable to assist in the organizing of the workers, but Fanon sees them differently. For him, the lumpenproletariat will be the first to discover violence in the face of the settler. Fanon is not wholly understanding of the native, he refers to the native as containing his aggressiveness through the terrifying myths which are so found in underdeveloped communities.
This characterization in many ways is a holdover from Fanon's schooling in France. Once the idea of revolution is accepted by the native, Fanon describes the process by which it is debated and implemented. According to Fanon, the revolution begins as an idea of total systematic change, through the actual application to real world situations is watered down until it becomes a small shift of power within the existing system. “ pacifists and legalists…put bluntly enough the demand… ‘Give us more power’”, but the “native intellectual has clothed his aggressiveness in his veiled desire to assimilate himself to the colonial world”. The colonialist bourgeoisie offers non-violence and compromise as further ways out of the violence of decolonization. An example of this is the newly independent Republic of Gabon which gained independence from France in 1960 and afterward, the new president, Léon M'ba said “Gabon is independent, but between Gabon and France nothing has changed. For Fanon, this is the perfect example of a decoloni
Eric Eustace Williams served as the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago. He served as prime minister from 1962 until his death in 1981, he was a noted Caribbean historian. Dr. Williams was born on 25 September 1911, his father Thomas Henry Williams was a minor civil servant, his mother Eliza Frances Boissiere was a descendant of the mixed French Creole elite. He saw his first school years at Tranquillity Boys' Intermediate Government School and he was educated at Queen's Royal College in Port of Spain, where he excelled at academics and football. A football injury at QRC led to a hearing problem, he won an island scholarship in 1932, which allowed him to attend Oxford. In 1935, he received first-class honours for his B. A in history and was ranked in first place among University of Oxford students graduating in History in 1935, he represented the university at football. In 1938 he went on to obtain his doctorate. In Inward Hunger, his autobiography, he described his experience of racism in Great Britain, the impact on him of his travels in Germany after the Nazi seizure of power.
In Inward Hunger, Williams recounts that in the period following his graduation: "I was handicapped in my research by my lack of money.... I was turned down everywhere I tried... and could not ignore the racial factor involved". However, in 1936, thanks to a recommendation made by Sir Alfred Claud Hollis, the Leathersellers' Company awarded him a £50 grant to continue his advanced research in history at Oxford, he completed the D. Phil in 1938 under the supervision of Vincent Harlow, his doctoral thesis was titled The Economic Aspects of the Abolition of the Slave Trade and West Indian Slavery, was published as Capitalism and Slavery in 1944. It was both a direct attack on the idea that moral and humanitarian motives were the key facts in the victory of British abolitionism, a covert critique of the idea common in the 1930s, emanating in particular from the pen of Oxford Professor Reginald Coupland, that British imperialism was propelled by humanitarian and benevolent impulses. Williams's argument owed much to the influence of C. L. R. James, whose The Black Jacobins completed in 1938 offered an economic and geostrategic explanation for the rise of British abolitionism.
Gad Heuman states: In Capitalism and Slavery, Eric Williams argued that the declining economies of the British West Indies led to the abolition of the slave trade and of slavery. More recent research has rejected this conclusion. In 1944, Dr. Williams was appointed to the Anglo-American Caribbean Commission. In 1948 he returned to Trinidad as the Commission's Deputy Chairman of the Caribbean Research Council. In Trinidad, he delivered a series of educational lectures. In 1955 after disagreements between Dr. Williams and the Commission, the Commission elected not to renew his contract. In a famous speech at Woodford Square in Port of Spain, he declared that he had decided to "put down his bucket" in the land of his birth, he rechristened that enclosed park, which stood in front of the Trinidad courts and legislature, "The University of Woodford Square", proceeded to give a series of public lectures on world history, Greek democracy and philosophy, the history of slavery, the history of the Caribbean to large audiences drawn from every social class.
From that public platform, Williams on 15 January 1956 inaugurated his own political party, the People's National Movement, which would take Trinidad and Tobago into independence in 1962, dominate its post-colonial politics. Until this time his lectures had been carried out under the auspices of the Political Education Movement, a branch of the Teachers Education and Cultural Association, a group, founded in the 1940s as an alternative to the official teachers' union; the PNM's first document was its constitution. Unlike the other political parties of the time, the PNM was a organized, hierarchical body, its second document was The People's Charter, in which the party strove to separate itself from the transitory political assemblages which had thus far been the norm in Trinidadian politics. In elections held eight months on 24 September the Peoples National Movement won 13 of the 24 elected seats in the Legislative Council, defeating 6 of the 16 incumbents running for re-election. Although the PNM did not secure a majority in the 31-member Legislative Council, he was able to convince the Secretary of State for the Colonies to allow him to name the five appointed members of the council.
This gave him a clear majority in the Legislative Council. Williams was thus elected Chief Minister and was able to get all seven of his ministers elected. After the Second World War, the British Colonial Office had preferred that colonies move towards political independence in the kind of federal systems which had appeared to succeed since the Confederation of Canada, which created Canada, in the 19th century. In the British West Indies this goal coincided with the political aims of the nationalist movements which had emerged in all the colonies of the region during the 1930s; the Montego Bay conference of 1948 had declared the common aim to be the achievement by the West Indies of "Dominion Status" as a Federation. In 1958, a West Indies Federation emerged from the British West Indies
Mau Mau Uprising
The Mau Mau Uprising known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony between the Kenya Land and Freedom Army known as Mau Mau, the British colonists. Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the KLFA comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, the local Kenya Regiment; the capture of rebel leader, Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, on 21 October 1956, signalled the defeat of the Mau Mau, the rebellion survived until after Kenya's independence from Britain, driven by the Meru units led by Field Marshal Musa Mwariama and General Baimungi. Baimuingi, one of the last Mau Mau generals, was killed shortly after Kenya attained self-rule; the KLFA failed to capture widespread public support due to the British policy of divide and rule, the Mau Mau movement remained internally divided, despite attempts to unify the factions. The British, applied the strategy and tactics they developed in suppressing the Malayan Emergency.
The Mau Mau Uprising created a rift between the European colonial community in Kenya and the metropole, resulted in violent divisions within the Kikuyu community. Suppressing the Mau Mau Uprising in the Kenyan colony cost Britain £55 million; the origin of the term Mau Mau is uncertain. According to some members of Mau Mau, they never referred to themselves as such, instead preferring the military title Kenya Land and Freedom Army; some publications, such as Fred Majdalany's State of Emergency: The Full Story of Mau Mau, claim it was an anagram of Uma Uma and was a military codeword based on a secret language-game Kikuyu boys used to play at the time of their circumcision. Majdalany goes on to state that the British used the name as a label for the Kikuyu ethnic community without assigning any specific definition. Akamba people say the name Mau Mau came from' Ma Umau' meaning'Our Grandfathers'; the term was first used during a pastoralists revolt against de-stocking that took place in 1938 led by Muindi Mbingu during which he urged the colonists to leave Kenya so that his people can live like the time of'Our Grandfathers'.
Some have argued. As the movement progressed, a Swahili backronym was adopted: "Mzungu Aende Ulaya, Mwafrika Apate Uhuru" meaning "Let the foreigner go back abroad, let the African regain independence". J. M. Kariuki, a member of Mau Mau, detained during the conflict, postulates that the British preferred to use the term Mau Mau instead of KLFA in an attempt to deny the Mau Mau rebellion international legitimacy. Kariuki wrote that the term Mau Mau was adopted by the rebellion in order to counter what they regarded as colonial propaganda. Another possible origin is a mishearing of the Kikuyu word for oath "muuma"; the armed rebellion of the Mau Mau was the culminating response to colonial rule. Although there had been previous instances of violent resistance to colonialism, the Mau Mau revolt was the most prolonged and violent anti-colonial warfare in the British Kenya colony. From the start, the land was the primary British interest in Kenya, which had "some of the richest agricultural soils in the world in districts where the elevation and climate make it possible for Europeans to reside permanently".
Though declared a colony in 1920, the formal British colonial presence in Kenya began with a proclamation on 1 July 1895, in which Kenya was claimed as a British protectorate. Before 1895, Britain's presence in Kenya was marked by dispossession and violence. In 1894, British MP Sir Charles Dilke had observed in the House of Commons, "The only person who has up to the present time benefited from our enterprise in the heart of Africa has been Mr. Hiram Maxim". During the period in which Kenya's interior was being forcibly opened up for British settlement, there was plenty of conflict and British troops carried out atrocities against the native population. Opposition to British imperialism existed from the start of British occupation; the most notable include the Nandi Resistance of 1895–1905. None of the armed uprisings during the beginning of British colonialism in Kenya were successful; the nature of fighting in Kenya led Winston Churchill to express concern in 1908 about how it would look if word got out: 160 Gusii have now been killed outright without any further casualties on our side....
It looks like a butchery. If the H. of C. gets hold of it, all our plans in E. A. P. will be under a cloud. It cannot be necessary to go on killing these defenceless people on such an enormous scale. A feature of all settler societies during the colonial period was the ability to obtain a disproportionate share in land ownership. Kenya was no exception, with the first settlers arriving in 1902 as part of Governor Charles Eliot's plan to have a settler economy pay for the Uganda Railway; the success of this settler economy would depend on the availability of land and capital, so, over the next three decades, the colonial government and settlers consolidated their control over Kenyan land, and'encouraged' native Kenyans to become wage labourers. Until the mid-1930s, the two primary complaints were low native Kenyan wages and the requirement to carry an identity document, the kipande. From the early 1930s, howev
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America. Though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2, it is the fifth largest in the West Indies; the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was Iëre which meant "Land of the Hummingbird". Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage; this has since been shortened to Trinidad. Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus encountered the islands on his third voyage on 31 July 1498; the island remained Spanish until 1797, but it was settled by French colonists from the French Caribbean Martinique. In 1889 the two islands became a single British Crown colony.
Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. Major landforms include the hills of the Northern and Southern Ranges, the Caroni and Oropouche Swamps, the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni and South Oropouche and Ortoire Rivers. There are many other natural landforms such as waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per calendar year: the dry season. El Cerro del Aripo, at 940 metres, is the highest point in Trinidad, it is part of the Aripo Massif and is located in the Northern Range on the island, northeast of the town of Arima. The demographics of Trinidad and Tobago reflect the diversity of this southern-most country in the West Indies, it is sometimes known as a "rainbow island" or more fondly "a callaloo". There is a wide range of ethnicity and culture; the variety of denominations has followed this pattern for decades: Protestant 32.1%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1%.
Religion in Trinidad and Tobago consists of a diverse array of denominations including Roman Catholic, other Christian denominations and Muslim faiths. There are a minority of people who are followers of Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Amerindian religions, Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and Bahá'í. Catholicism constitutes the largest religious denomination of the country; as of the 2011 Trinidad and Tobago Census, the population was 35.43% East Indian, 34.22% African, 7.66% Mixed – African and East Indian, 15.16% Mixed – Other. Venezuela has had a great impact on Trinidad's culture, such as introducing the music style parang to the island. Many groups overlap. For example, a "Dougla" is a person of African and East Indian descent who may identify as being part of either group. There are multiple festivals featuring the music of the Caribbean and the steelpan, which originated in Trinidad and is the country's national instrument; these festivals include the world-renowned Carnival, J'ouvert, Panorama, the national steel pan competition.
Trinidad has many public holidays, such as Indian Arrival Day, Emancipation Day, Independence Day, Republic Day, Labour Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Phagwah, Eid al-Fitr, Corpus Christi, Good Friday, Easter Monday and Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day. There are places that can be visited that hold cultural significance, such as Mount Saint Benedict and the Temple in the Sea. Further information: Natural history of Trinidad and Tobago The island of Trinidad has a rich biodiversity; the fauna is overwhelmingly of South American origin. There are about 100 species of mammals including the Guyanan red howler monkey, the collared peccary, the red brocket deer, the ocelot and about 70 species of bats. There are over 400 species of birds including the endemic Trinidad piping-guan. Reptiles are well represented, with about 92 recorded species including the largest species of snake in the world, the green anaconda, the spectacled caiman, one of the largest lizards in the Americas, the green iguana.
The largest of turtles nests on Trinidad's northern beaches. There are 37 recorded frog species, including the tiny El Tucuche golden tree frog, the more widespread huge cane toad. About 43 species of freshwater fishes are known including the well known guppy, it is estimated that there are at least 80,000 arthropods, at least 600 species of butterflies. The economy of Trinidad and Tobago is diversified, based to a large extent on oil, natural gas and agriculture, it is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories, it is an oil-rich country and stable economically. The Venezuela Tertiary Basin is a subsidence basin formed between the Caribbean and South American plates, is bounded on the north by the coast ranges of Venezuela and the Northern Range of Trinidad, bounded on the south by the Guayana Shield.
This Guayana shield supplied fine-grained clastic sediments, which with the subsidence, formed a regional negative gravity anomaly and growth faults. Oil and g
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries. Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire, continues to act as the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth nations, the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories. Formally a statutory committee of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, the Judicial Committee consists of senior judges who are Privy Councillors: they are predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth, it is referred to as the Privy Council. In Commonwealth realms, appeals are nominally made to "Her Majesty in Council", who refers the case to the Judicial Committee for "advice", while in Commonwealth republics retaining the JCPC as their final court of appeal, appeals are made directly to the Judicial Committee itself.
In the case of Brunei, appeals are made to the Sultan of Brunei, who refers the case to the Judicial Committee for advice. The panel of judges hearing a particular case is known as "the Board"; the "report" of the Board is always accepted by the Queen in Council as judgment. The origins of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council can be traced back to the curia regis, or royal council. In theory, the King was the fount of justice, petitions for redress of wrongs arising from his courts were addressed to him; that power was taken over by Parliament within England, but the King-in-Council retained jurisdiction to hear petitions from the King's non-English possessions, such as the Channel Islands and on, from England's colonies. The task of hearing appeals was given to a series of short-lived committees of the Privy Council. In 1679, appellate jurisdiction was given to the Board of Trade, before being transferred to a standing Appeals Committee in 1696. By the nineteenth century, the growth of the British Empire, which had expanded the appellate jurisdiction of the Privy Council, had put great strains on the existing arrangements.
In particular, the Appeals Committee had to hear cases in a variety of legal systems, such as Hindu law, with which its members were unfamiliar. In 1833, at the instigation of Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor, Parliament passed the Judicial Committee Act 1833; the Act established a statutory committee of the Privy Council, known as The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, to hear appeals to the King-in-Council. In addition to colonial appeals legislation gave the Judicial Committee appellate jurisdiction over a range of miscellaneous matters, such as patents, ecclesiastical matters, prize suits. At its height, the Judicial Committee was said to be the court of final appeal for over a quarter of the world. In the twentieth century, the jurisdiction of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council shrank as British Dominions established their own courts of final appeal and as British colonies became independent, although many retained appeals to the Privy Council post-independence. Canada abolished Privy Council appeals in 1949, India and South Africa in 1950, New Zealand in 2003.
Twelve Commonwealth countries outside of the United Kingdom retain Privy Council appeals, in addition to various British and New Zealand territories. The Judicial Committee retains jurisdiction over a small number of domestic matters in the United Kingdom; the United Kingdom does not have a single highest national court. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has jurisdiction in the following domestic matters: Appeals against schemes of the Church Commissioners. Appeals from the ecclesiastical courts in non-doctrinal faculty cases. Appeals from the High Court of Chivalry. Appeals from the Court of Admiralty of the Cinque Ports. Appeals from prize courts. Appeals from the Disciplinary Committee of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Disputes under the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975. Additionally, the government may refer any issue to the committee for "consideration and report" under section 4 of the Judicial Committee Act 1833; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the Court of Final Appeal for the Church of England.
It hears appeals from the Arches Court of Canterbury and the Chancery Court of York, except on matters of doctrine, ritual or ceremony, which go to the Court for Ecclesiastical Causes Reserved. By the Church Discipline Act 1840 and the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 all archbishops and bishops of the Church of England became eligible to be members of the Judicial Committee. Prior to the coming into force of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the Privy Council was the court of last resort for devolution issues. On 1 October 2009 this jurisdiction was transferred to the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Judgments of the Judicial Committee are not binding on courts wit