Royal Society of Chemistry
The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences". It was formed in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society, the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body. At its inception, the Society had a combined membership of 34,000 in the UK and a further 8,000 abroad; the headquarters of the Society are at Burlington House, London. It has offices in Thomas Graham House in Cambridge where RSC Publishing is based; the Society has offices in the United States at the University City Science Center, Philadelphia, in both Beijing and Shanghai and Bangalore, India. The organisation carries out research, publishes journals and databases, as well as hosting conferences and workshops, it is the professional body for chemistry in the UK, with the ability to award the status of Chartered Chemist and, through the Science Council the awards of Chartered Scientist, Registered Scientist and Registered Science Technician to suitably qualified candidates.
The designation FRSC is given to a group of elected Fellows of the society who have made major contributions to chemistry and other interface disciplines such as biological chemistry. The names of Fellows are published each year in The Times. Honorary Fellowship of the Society is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry; the president is elected biennially and wears a badge in the form of a spoked wheel, with the standing figure of Joseph Priestley depicted in enamel in red and blue, on a hexagonal medallion in the centre. The rim of the wheel is gold, the twelve spokes are of non-tarnishable metals; the current president is Dame Carol V. Robinson. Past presidents of the society have been: The following are membership grades with post-nominals: Affiliate: The grade for students and those involved in chemistry who do not meet the requirements for the following grades. AMRSC: Associate Member, Royal Society of Chemistry The entry level for RSC membership, AMRSC is awarded to graduates in the chemical sciences.
MRSC: Member, Royal Society of Chemistry Awarded to graduates with at least 3 years' experience, who have acquired key skills through professional activity FRSC: Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have made an outstanding contribution to chemistry. HonFRSC: Honorary Fellow of the Society Honorary Fellowship is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. CChem: Chartered Chemist The award of CChem is considered separately from admission to a category of RSC membership. Candidates need to be MRSC or FRSC and demonstrate development of specific professional attributes and be in a job which requires their chemical knowledge and skills. CSci: Chartered Scientist The RSC is a licensed by the Science Council for the registration of Chartered Scientists. EurChem: European Chemist The RSC is a member of the European Communities Chemistry Council, can award this designation to Chartered Chemists. MChemA: Mastership in Chemical Analysis The RSC awards this postgraduate qualification, the UK statutory qualification for practice as a Public Analyst.
It requires candidates to submit a portfolio of suitable experience and to take theory papers and a one-day laboratory practical examination. The qualification GRSC was awarded from 1981 to 1995 for completion of college courses equivalent to an honours chemistry degree and overseen by the RSC, it replaced the GRIC offered by the Royal Institute of Chemistry. The society is organised around 9 divisions, based on subject areas, local sections, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Divisions cover broad areas of chemistry but contain many special interest groups for more specific areas. Analytical Division for analytical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Society for Analytical Chemistry. 12 Subject Groups. Dalton Division, named after John Dalton, for inorganic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Education Division for chemical education. 4 Subject Groups. Faraday Division, named after Michael Faraday, for physical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Faraday Society. 14 Subject Groups.
Organic Division for organic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Chemical Biology Interface Division. 2 Subject Groups. Environment and Energy Division. 3 Subject Groups. Materials Chemistry Division. 4 Subject Groups. Industry and Technology Division. 13 Subject Groups. There are 12 subjects groups not attached to a division. There are 35 local sections covering the United Ireland. In countries of the Commonwealth of Nations and many other countries there are Local Representatives of the society and some activities; the society is a not-for-profit publisher: surplus made by its publishing business is invested to support its aim of advancing the chemical sciences. In addition to scientific journals, including its flagship journals Chemical Communications, Chemical Science and Chemical Society Reviews, the society publishes: Education in Chemistry for teachers. A free online journal for chemistry educators, Chemistry Education Research and Practice. A general chemistry magazine Chemistry World, sent monthly to all members of the Society throughout the world.
The editorial board consists of 10 industrial chemists. It was first published in January 2004, it replaced C
Colyton is a town in Devon, England. It is located within the East Devon local authority area, it is 6 miles from Axminster. Its population in 1991 was 2,783. Colyton is a major part of the Coly Valley electoral ward; the ward population at the above census was 4,493. Colyton first appeared as an ancient village around 700 AD and features in the Domesday Book as'Culitone'; the third code of law of King Edmund I was issued at Colyton in about 945. This helped to stabilize feudal society, by stating its four pillars: kingship, lordship and neighbourhood, it grew into an important agricultural centre and market town with a corn mill, saw mill, iron foundry and an oak bark tannery, still functioning. Situated 0.5 miles to the north of the town was Colcombe Castle, now demolished, a former seat of the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon. Following the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter the Courtenay lands escheated to the Crown, those within Colyton were sold back for £1,000 to various residents of Colyton parish, as listed in a deed transcribed in the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII dated 6 January 1547, summarised as "John Clarke and others.
Grant in free socage, subject to rents etc. for l,000l. of the following lands in the parish of Colyton, which are parcels of Colyton manor and belonged to Henry Marquis of Exeter, attainted". This was the origin of the Feoffees of Colyton, who continued to hold in common various properties in the parish, it was called the "most rebellious town in Devon" due to the number of its inhabitants who joined the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685. The Church of England parish church of St Andrew's, is a Grade I listed building. A Saxon church occupied the site of St Andrew's until replaced by the present Norman church in the 11th century; the 14th century octagonal lantern tower is said to have been used as a beacon for ships on the once navigable River Axe, to the east, although there is doubt that the tower may be seen at all from the river. The nearby vicarage, Brerewood House, is a Grade II listed building from about 1529. Colyton Grammar School dates from 1546 and once occupied the part-medieval building now known as the Old Church House.
In 1927 it moved to a small village within the Colyton parish. The school has made headlines in recent years as the first school to'opt out' of local authority control and gain grant-maintained status and for achieving high rankings in national examination league tables. Seaton Tramway terminates at nearby Kingsdon on the other side of the River Coly. Colyton Station was opened in 1868 and was part of the Seaton Branch line, which connected Seaton and Colyton with the main line at Seaton Junction; when the line closed in 1966, Modern Electric Tramways Ltd purchased the section between Seaton Riverside and Colyton, Seaton Tramway was established in 1970. The line was extended in stages and Colyton was reached in 1980; the original station building has been restored and extended, now houses the Tramway's ticket office, gift shop and Tram Stop Restaurant. The Tramway is open daily from Easter until the end of October, with a more limited service running at other times; the town is on the route of the East Devon Way footpath.
Historic estates within the parish include: Great House, seat of the Yonge family Shute, seat of the Pole family Colcombe Castle, seat of the Courtenays, Earls of Devon of the Poles of Shute Colyton Parish History Society Seaton Tramway
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Fellow of the British Academy
Fellowship of the British Academy is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences. There are three kinds of fellowship Fellows, for scholars resident in the United Kingdom Corresponding Fellows, for scholars not resident in the UK Honorary Fellows, an honorary academic titleThe award of fellowship is evidenced by published work and fellows may use the post-nominal letters: FBA. Examples of fellows include Mary Beard, Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford, Jeremy Horder, Michael Lobban, M. R. James and Rowan Williams. List of Fellows of the British Academy
Merton College, Oxford
Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its foundation can be traced back to the 1260s when Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and to Edward I, first drew up statutes for an independent academic community and established endowments to support it. An important feature of Walter's foundation was that this "college" was to be self-governing and the endowments were directly vested in the Warden and Fellows. By 1274, when Walter retired from royal service and made his final revisions to the college statutes, the community was consolidated at its present site in the south east corner of the city of Oxford, a rapid programme of building commenced; the hall and the chapel and the rest of the front quad were complete before the end of the 13th century. Mob Quad, one of Merton's quadrangles, was constructed between 1288 and 1378, is claimed to be the oldest quadrangle in Oxford, while Merton College Library, located in Mob Quad and dating from 1373, is the oldest continuously functioning library for university academics and students in the world.
Like many of Oxford's colleges, Merton admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after over seven centuries as an institution for men only. Notable alumni and academics past and present include four Nobel laureates and writer J. R. R. Tolkien, Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959. Merton is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford and held funds totalling £272 million as of July 2017. Merton has a strong reputation for academic success, having ranked first in the Norrington Table in recent years. Merton College was founded in 1264 by Lord Chancellor and Bishop of Rochester, it has a claim to be the oldest college in Oxford, a claim, disputed between Merton College, Balliol College and University College. One argument for Merton's claim is that it was the first college to be provided with statutes, a constitution governing the college set out at its founding. Merton's statutes date back to 1264, whereas neither Balliol nor University College had statutes until the 1280s.
Additionally, Merton was the first college to be conceived as a community working to achieve academic ends, rather than just a place for the housing of scholars. Merton has an unbroken line of wardens dating back to 1264. Of these, many had great influence over the development of the college. Henry Savile was one notable leader who led the college to flourish in the early 17th century by extending its buildings and recruiting new fellows. St Alban Hall was an independent academic hall owned by the convent of Littlemore until it was purchased by Merton College in 1548 following the dissolution of the convent, it continued as a separate institution until it was annexed by the college in 1881. During the English Civil War, Merton was the only Oxford college to side with Parliament; this was due to an earlier dispute between the Warden, Nathaniel Brent, the Visitor of Merton and Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud. Brent had been Vicar-General to Laud, who had held a visitation of Merton College in 1638, insisted on many radical reforms: his letters to Brent were couched in haughty and decisive language.
Brent, a parliamentarian, moved to London at the start of the Civil War: the college's buildings were commandeered by the Royalists and used to house much of Charles I's court when Oxford was the Royalists' capital. This included the King's French wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, housed in or near what is now the Queen's Room, the room above the arch between Front and Fellows' Quads. A portrait of Charles I hangs near the Queen's Room as a reminder of the role it played in his court. Brent gave evidence against Laud in his trial in 1644. After Laud was executed on 10 January 1645, John Greaves, one of the subwardens of Merton and Savilian Professor of Astronomy, drew up a petition for Brent's removal from office. Thomas Fairfax captured Oxford for the Parliamentarians after its third siege in 1646 and Brent returned from London. However, in 1647, a parliamentary commission was set up by Parliament "for the correction of offences and disorders" in the University of Oxford. Nathaniel Brent was the president of the visitors.
Greaves was accused of sequestrating the college's plate and funds for king Charles. Despite a deposition from his brother Thomas, Greaves had lost both his Merton fellowship and his Savilian chair by 9 November 1648; the "House of Scholars of Merton" had properties in Surrey as well as in Oxford, but it was not until the mid-1260s that Walter de Merton acquired the core of the present site in Oxford, along the south side of what was St John's Street. The college was consolidated on this site by 1274, when Walter made his final revisions to the college statutes; the initial acquisition included the parish church of St John and three houses to the east of the church which now form the north range of Front Quad. Walter obtained permission from the king to extend from these properties south to the old city wall to form an square site; the college continued to acquire other properties as they became available on both sides of Merton Street. At one time, the college owned all the land from the site, now Christ Church to the south-eastern corner of the city.
The land to the east became the current Fellows' garden, while the western end was leased by Warden Richard Rawlins in 1515 for the foundation of Corpus Christi. By the late 1280s the old church of St John
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua