Mollusca is the second largest phylum of invertebrate animals. The members are known as mollusks. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized; the number of fossil species is estimated between 100,000 additional species. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats, they are diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is divided into 8 or 9 taxonomic classes, of which two are extinct. Cephalopod molluscs, such as squid and octopus, are among the most neurologically advanced of all invertebrates—and either the giant squid or the colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species; the gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs and account for 80% of the total classified species. The three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, the structure of the nervous system.
Other than these common elements, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on a "hypothetical ancestral mollusc". This has a single, "limpet-like" shell on top, made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, is secreted by a mantle covering the whole upper surface; the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular "foot". Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small; the main body cavity is a hemocoel. The "generalized" mollusc's feeding system consists of a rasping "tongue", the radula, a complex digestive system in which exuded mucus and microscopic, muscle-powered "hairs" called cilia play various important roles; the generalized mollusc has three in bivalves. The brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. Most molluscs have eyes, all have sensors to detect chemicals and touch; the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur.
All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, or miniature adults. The coelomic cavity is reduced, they have kidney-like organs for excretion. Good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods and bivalves in the Cambrian period, 541 to 485.4 million years ago. However, the evolutionary history both of molluscs' emergence from the ancestral Lophotrochozoa and of their diversification into the well-known living and fossil forms are still subjects of vigorous debate among scientists. Molluscs still are an important food source for anatomically modern humans. There is a risk of food poisoning from toxins which can accumulate in certain molluscs under specific conditions and because of this, many countries have regulations to reduce this risk. Molluscs have, for centuries been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye, sea silk, their shells have been used as money in some preindustrial societies. Mollusc species can represent hazards or pests for human activities.
The bite of the blue-ringed octopus is fatal, that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month. Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can kill, but their sophisticated, though produced, venoms have become important tools in neurological research. Schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, affects about 200 million people. Snails and slugs can be serious agricultural pests, accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has damaged some ecosystems; the words mollusc and mollusk are both derived from the French mollusque, which originated from the Latin molluscus, from mollis, soft. Molluscus was itself an adaptation of Aristotle's τὰ μαλάκια ta malákia, which he applied inter alia to cuttlefish; the scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology. The name Molluscoida was used to denote a division of the animal kingdom containing the brachiopods and tunicates, the members of the three groups having been supposed to somewhat resemble the molluscs.
As it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the body structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the organization of the nervous system. Many have a calcareous shell. Molluscs have developed such a varied range of body structures, it is difficult to find synapomorphies to apply to all modern groups; the most general characteristic of molluscs is they are bilaterally symmetrical. The following are present in all modern molluscs: The dorsal part of the body wall is a mantle which secretes calcareous spicules, plates or shells, it overlaps the body with enough spare room to form a mantle cavity. The anus and genitals open into the mantle cavity. There are two pairs of main nerve cords. Other characteristics that appear in textbooks have significant exceptions: Estimates of accepted described living species of molluscs vary from 50,000 to a maximum of 120,000 species.
In 1969 David Nicol estimated the probable total number of living mollusc species at 107,000 of which were ab
Philippe Bouchet is a French biologist whose primary scientific fields of study are malacology and taxonomy. He works at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, he is a Commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Bouchet published Taxonomy of the Gastropoda with the malacologist Jean-Pierre Rocroi in 2005, which laid out a new taxonomy of Gastropod molluscs, he has named over 500 new taxa of mollusks, numerous taxa have been named in his honor. Bouchet is a senior professor at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, is head of the Malacology laboratory and the Taxonomy Collections Unit there, he is one of the Commissioners of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and has been a member of the ICZN since 1990. Philippe Bouchet is co-editor of several volumes in the Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos series. In 2005, Bouchet was the senior author of a taxonomy of the Gastropoda, published in a paper entitled "Classification and Nomenclator of Gastropod Families" published in the journal Malacologia.
Bouchet is the head of the 2004 Panglao Marine Biodiversity Project. By the end of 2010, Bouchet had described more than 500 new species gastropods. More than 70 new species have been named in his honor. Bouchet was honored with a new genus named after him by Héros in 2008: Bouchetia, and in 2012, Bouchet was honored by having a monotypic family of gastropods named after him: Bouchetispiridae by Kantor, Strong & Puillandre. In 2001 Bouchet was awarded the Marine Sciences Prize of the French Academy of Sciences for his work on the vertical migration of gastropod larvae, his publications as author or co-author are numerous. A few examples are listed below: P. Bouchet, Revision of the Northeast Atlantic Bathyal and Abyssal Turridae. Stud. 46: 1-119. Doi:10.1093/mollus/46. Supplement_8.1 Bouchet Philippe, Taviani Marco. "The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: pseudopopulations of Atlantic species?". Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers. 39: 169–184. Doi:10.1016/0198-014990103-Z. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01.
P. Bouchet, The magnitude of marine biodiversity, VliZ, 2006 Bouchet P. & Mermet G.. Shells 168 pp. ISBN 978-0-7892-0989-4 Philippe Bouchet, Hervé Le Guyader et Olivier Pascal, "Des voyages de Cook à l’expédition Santo 2006: un renouveau des explorations naturalistes des îles du Pacifique", Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 126–127 | Année 2008 Philippe Bouchet. ZooBank Philippe Bouchet. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Caenogastropoda is a taxonomic clade, a large diverse group which are sea snails and other marine gastropod mollusks, but includes some freshwater snails and some land snails. Caenogastropoda contains many families of shelled marine molluscs – including the periwinkles, wentletraps, moon snails, cone snails and turrids – and constitutes about 60% of all living gastropods; the Caenogastropoda exhibit torsion, thus are included in what was called the Streptoneura known as Prosobranchia. They are characterized by having only a single auricle in the heart and a single pair of gill leaflets, are equivalent to the Monotocardia or Pectinobranchia of older authors; the taxon Caenogastropoda was first established by Leslie Reginald Cox in 1960 as a superorder but now sometimes it is retained as a clade. Based on optimal phylogenetic analysis, it is deemed monophyletic; this Caenogastropoda combines the older taxa Mesogastropoda and Stenoglossa from the classification by Johannes Thiele and is equivalent to the revised Monotocardia as defined by Mörch in 1865.
Caenogastropoda can be divided into two major groups, based on the anatomy of the radula: Taenioglossa, equivalent to the older Mesogastropoda, with seven teeth in each radular row. Stenoglossa, the Neogastropoda, with only 1–3 teeth per row. Ponder & Lindberg, 1997 and others since show Caenogastropoda as a superorder, following the sense of Cox, 1960. More Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 revised Caenogastropoda as a clade; the following classification was laid out in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi: Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position an informal group Architaenioglossa clade Sorbeoconcha clade Hypsogastropoda Colgan et al. provided further insight into the phylogeny of Caenogastropoda. Sorbeoconcha should be considered an alternate representation of Caenogastropoda. Sorbeoconcha should include, see definition in Ponder & Lindberg, 1997: 225, not only as suggested by the indent pattern in Bouchet & Rocroi. Neotaenioglossa Haller, 1892 suggested in Ruud Bank’s draft for Fauna Europaea is not retained because it would need severe emendation to remove Pyramidellids, etc. included in its original definition, therefore would be too far from Haller's concept if it were to fit the concept of Sorbeoconcha.
Although cladistically sound, the taxon Sorbeoconcha is skipped in the classification scheme because ten years after its publication, the name still sounds unfamiliar to most and it is not helpful in the classification because it includes the bulk of Caenogastropoda. This is not final, opinions are welcome
Malacologia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of malacology, the study of mollusks. The journal publishes articles in the fields of molluscan systematics, population ecology, molecular genetics and phylogenetics; the journal specializes in publishing long monographs. The journal publishes at least one, sometimes two, volumes of about 400 pages per year, which may consist of 1 or 2 issues. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2010 impact factor is 1.024. This ranks Malacologia 66th out of 145 listed journals in the category "Zoology"; the journal started publication in 1962. Journal of Molluscan Studies Official website
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results