Francis James Westbrook Pegler was an American journalist and writer. He was a popular columnist in the 1930s and 1940s famed for his opposition to the New Deal and labor unions. Pegler aimed his pen at presidents of both parties, including Herbert Hoover, FDR, Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, he criticized the Supreme Court, the tax system, labor unions. In 1962, he lost his contract with King Features Syndicate, owned by the Hearst Corporation, after he started criticizing Hearst executives, his late writing appeared sporadically in publications that included the John Birch Society's American Opinion. Pegler was born August 2, 1894, in Minneapolis, the son of Frances A. and Arthur James Pegler, a local newspaper editor. Pegler, a Roman Catholic, married Julia Harpman, a onetime New York Daily News crime reporter, from a Jewish family in Tennessee, he married his secretary Maude Wettje. Westbrook Pegler was the youngest American war correspondent during World War I, working for United Press, he soon wrote general interest articles.
He moved in 1925 to the Chicago Tribune and in 1933 to the Scripps Howard syndicate, where he worked with his friend Roy Howard. He built up a large readership for his column'Mister Pegler' and elicited this observation by Time magazine in its October 10, 1938 issue: At the age of 44, Mr. Mister Pegler's place as the great dissenter for the common man is unchallenged. Six days a week, for an estimated $65,000 a year, in 116 papers reaching nearly 6,000,000 readers, Mister Pegler is invariably irritated, inexhaustibly scornful. Unhampered by coordinated convictions of his own, Pegler applies himself to presidents and peanut vendors with equal zeal and skill. Dissension is his philosophy. In 1941, he won a Pulitzer Prize for exposing criminal racketeering in labor unions; the same year, he finished third for Time Magazine's "Man of the Year". He moved his syndicated column to the Hearst syndicate in 1944. Pegler supported President Franklin Delano Roosevelt but, after seeing the rise of fascism in Europe, he warned against the dangers of dictatorship in America and became one of the Roosevelt administration's sharpest critics for what he saw as its abuse of power.
Thereafter he missed an opportunity to criticize Roosevelt, his wife Eleanor Roosevelt, or Vice President Henry A. Wallace; the New York Times stated in his obituary that Pegler lamented the failure of would-be assassin Giuseppe Zangara, who missed FDR and killed the mayor of Chicago instead. He "hit the wrong man". Pegler's views became more conservative in general, he was outraged by the New Deal's support for labor unions, which he considered morally and politically corrupt. At his peak in the 1930s and 1940s, Pegler was a leading figure in the movement against the New Deal and its allies in the labor movement, such as the National Maritime Union, he compared union advocates of the closed shop to Hitler's "goose-steppers." The National Maritime Union sued Hearst and Associated Press for an article by Pegler, settled out of court for $10,000. In Pegler's view, the corrupt labor boss was the greatest threat to the country. By the 1950s, he was more outspoken, his proposal for "smashing" the AFL and CIO was for the state to take them over.
"Yes, that would be fascism," he wrote. "But I, who detest fascism, see advantages in such fascism." After 1942 Pegler assailed Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt calling Mrs. Roosevelt "La boca grande", or "the big mouth"; the Roosevelts ignored his writings, at least in public. Recent scholars have reported that Franklin Roosevelt used the FBI for political purposes, ordered wartime sedition investigations of isolationist and anti-New Deal newspaper publishers. On Dec. 10, 1942, FDR, citing evidence Eleanor Roosevelt had gathered, asked the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover to investigate Pegler, which it did. In the end, nothing came of it except a lifelong distaste for Eleanor Roosevelt by Pegler, which he expressed in his column. In 1941 Pegler became the first columnist to win a Pulitzer Prize for reporting, for his work in exposing racketeering in Hollywood labor unions, focusing on the criminal career of Willie Bioff and the link between organized crime and unions. Pegler's reporting led to the conviction of George Scalise, the president of the Building Service Employees International Union who had ties to organized crime.
Scalise was indicted by New York District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey, charged with extorting $100,000 from employers from three years. Convicted of labor racketeering, Scalise was sentenced to 10–20 years in prison; as historian David Witwer has concluded about Pegler, "He depicted a world where a conspiracy of criminals, corrupt union officials and their political allies in the New Deal threatened the economic freedom of working Americans."In the winter of 1947, Pegler started a campaign to draw public attention to the'Guru Letters' of former Vice-President Henry A. Wallace, claiming they showed Wallace's unfitness for the office of President he had announced he would seek in 1948. Pegler characterized Wallace as a "messianic fumbler," and "off-center mentally." There was a personal confrontation between the two men on the subject at a public meeting in Philadelphia in July 1948. Several reporters, including H. L. Mencken, joined in the aggressive questioning. Wallace declined to comment on the letters, while labelling some of
My Life in Court
My Life in Court is a 1961 memoir by American trial lawyer Louis Nizer documenting his career in law. The work was a best seller when it was first released, lasting for 72 weeks on The New York Times Bestsellers list; the book is based on a number of court cases. The original papers for many of these trials are held by the Columbia Law Library. All six cases depicted within the book are civil cases, unusual for legal fiction and non-fiction because of the greater sensationality of criminal law cases; the book depicts the following cases: Baron v. Leo Feist Reynolds v. Pegler Bercovici v. Chaplin Cambell v. Loew's Inc.—which was presided over by judge Collins J. Seitz. Eleanor Holm v Billy Rose Foerster v. Ridder Dolly Astor v. John Astor The book was received favorably. Commentary magazine reviewer David T. Bazelon said he did not "understand why it has become a bestseller", but all in all "Properly read, it is an occasion for some real understanding of the trial man. Haphazardly or naively read, it is interesting and exciting."
Bazelon challenges praise by Max Lerner that the work is "one of the great legal autobiographies of our time". Kirkus reviews gave less praise, calling the book "direct and orderly" and enjoyable by "Trial lawyers, law students, the general public". For the most part and legal reviewers of the autobiography were harsh critics of the book. In The Modern Law Review, British reviewer C. P. Harvey commented "I cannot help wondering what made Messrs. Heinmann think it would be good business to publish this book in." He writes "I pronounce this book to be didactic, long-winded and pretentious" and describes it as an example of "the breadth of the ocean which lies between the English and American legal systems."In the Osgoode Hall Law Journal, reviewer R. N. Starr described the work as not realistic, taken to "poetic license", his review is rather skeptical and mixed. In the Yale Law Review Joseph W. Bishop lambasts the piece as demonstrating the decline of legal practice, jury tried cases, the flaws of the legal profession.
Nonetheless, he describes the book as anything but "dry and indigestable reading", the case for accounts of legal cases. Unlike other academic reviewers, American Bar Association Journal reviewer Alfred Schweppe praised the book as a "must for every lawyer searching for an answer to success in the courtroom" and the describing the style as "Moving with an easy finished prose"; the book has inspired a number of people to become lawyers, including Roy Black. Nizer's subsequent book The Jury Returns follows much the same format and pattern as My Life in Court, attempting to create a similar work and success; the book was adapted into the 1963 Broadway play A Case of Libel. The book was adapted into a television film. Both depict the Pegler case. "My life in court / Louis Nizer. Www.pacificaradioarchives.org. Pacifica Radio Archives. Retrieved August 30, 2016
United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. Its territory comprises the states of Connecticut, New York, Vermont, the court has appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Connecticut Eastern District of New York Northern District of New York Southern District of New York Western District of New York District of VermontThe Second Circuit has its clerk's office and hears oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse at 40 Foley Square in Lower Manhattan. Due to renovations at that building, from 2006 until early 2013, the court temporarily relocated to the Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse across Pearl Street from Foley Square, certain court offices temporarily relocated to the Woolworth Building at 233 Broadway. Several notable judges have served on the Second Circuit, including three named Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court: John Marshall Harlan II, Thurgood Marshall, Sonia Sotomayor.
Judge Learned Hand served on the court from 1924 to 1961, as did his cousin, Augustus Noble Hand, from 1927 until 1953. Judge Henry Friendly served from 1959 to 1986; as of October 17, 2018, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge.
After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982; the court has thirteen seats for active judges, numbered in the order. Judges who retire into senior status leave their seat vacant; that seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president. Federal judicial appointment history#Second Circuit United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Recent opinions from FindLaw
Hearst Communications referred to as Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate based in New York City. Hearst owns newspapers, television channels, television stations, including the San Francisco Chronicle, the Houston Chronicle and Esquire, it owns 50% of broadcasting firm A&E Networks and 20% of the sports broadcaster ESPN in partnership with The Walt Disney Company. Despite being better known for the above media holdings, Hearst makes most of its profits in the business information section, where it owns companies including Fitch Ratings, First Databank, others. Hearst Communications is based in the Hearst Tower in New York City; the company was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur and U. S. senator, entered the publishing business by acquiring the San Francisco Daily Examiner. In 1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, William Randolph Hearst, who that year founded the Hearst Corp. W. R. Hearst went on to purchase or launch several more newspapers in multiple cities and to found the Los Angeles Examiner in 1903.
W. R. Hearst found early success, growing readership for the Examiner from 15,000 in 1887 to over 20 million. Hearst's magazine division began with W. R. Hearst's creation of Motor magazine, he acquired several other publications, including Cosmopolitan in 1905, Good Housekeeping in 1911. W. R. Hearst entered the book publishing business in 1913 with the formation of Hearst's International Library. W. R. Hearst began producing film features in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios: the International Film Service, turning characters from Hearst newspaper strips into film characters. After purchasing the Atlanta Georgian in 1912, the San Francisco Call and the San Francisco Post in 1913, Hearst acquired the Boston Advertiser and the Washington Times in 1917, he purchased the Chicago Herald in 1918. In 1919, Hearst's book publishing division was renamed Cosmopolitan Book. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, which included a number of magazines and newspapers in major cities.
Hearst began acquiring radio stations to complement his papers. Hearst saw financial challenges in the early 1920s, during which time he was subsidizing funds from his corporation to fund the construction of Hearst Castle in San Simeon and movie production at Cosmopolitan Productions; this lead to the merger of the magazine Hearst International with Cosmopolitan in 1925. Despite some financial troubles, Hearst began extending its reach in 1921, purchasing the Detroit Times, The Boston Record and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst added the Los Angeles Herald and Washington Herald, as well as the Oakland Post-Enquirer, the Syracuse Telegram and the Rochester Journal in 1922, he continued his buying spree into the mid-1920s, purchasing the Baltimore News, the San Antonio Light, the Albany Times Union, The Milwaukee Sentinel. In 1924, Hearst entered the tabloid market in New York City with The New York Mirror, meant to compete with the New York Daily News. In addition to print and radio, Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the early 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer.
In 1929, Hearst and MGM created. The Great Depression had a negative impact on his publications. Cosmopolitan Book was sold to Farrar and Reinhart in 1931. After two years of leasing them to her, Hearst had to sell the Washington Times and Herald to Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson in 1939 who merged them to form the Washington Times-Herald; that year he bought the Milwaukee Sentinel from Paul Block, absorbing his afternoon Wisconsin News into the morning publication. In 1939, he sold the Atlanta Georgian to Cox Newspapers, which merged it with the Atlanta Journal. Hearst, with his chain now owned by his creditors after a 1937 liquidation had to merge some of his morning papers into his afternoon papers. In Chicago, he combined the morning Herald-Examiner and the afternoon American into the Herald-American in 1939; this followed the 1937 combination of the New York Evening Journal and the morning American into the New York Journal-American, the sale of the Omaha Daily Bee to the World-Herald. Abandoning the morning market was harmful in the long run for Hearst's media holdings as most of his remaining newspapers became afternoon papers.
Newspapers in Rochester and Fort Worth were sold or closed. Afternoon papers were a profitable business in pre-television days outselling their morning counterparts featuring stock market information in early editions, while editions were heavy on sporting news with results of baseball games and horse races. Afternoon papers benefited from continuous reports from the battlefront during World War II. After the war, both television news and suburbs experienced an explosive growth. Another major blow was the fact that beginning in the 1950s, football and baseball games were being played in the afternoon and now stretched through early in the evening, preventing afternoon papers from publishing all the results. In 1947, Hearst produced an early television newscast for the DuMont Television Network: I. N. S
Defamation, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of, depending on the law of the country, an individual, product, government, religion, or nation. Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed; some common law jurisdictions distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel. False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading. In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong; the United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 2012 that the libel law of one country, the Philippines, was inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as urging that "State parties should consider the decriminalization of libel". In Saudi Arabia, defamation of the state, or a past or present ruler, is punishable under terrorism legislation.
A person who defames another may be called a "defamer", "libeler", "slanderer", or a "famacide". The term libel is derived from the Latin libellus; as of 2017, at least 130 UNESCO Member States retained criminal defamation laws. In 2017, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Office of the Representative on Freedom of the Media issued a report on criminal defamation and anti-blasphemy laws among its Member States, which found that defamation is criminalized in nearly three-quarters of the 57 OSCE participating States. Many of the laws pertaining to defamation include specific provisions for harsher punishment for speech or publications critical of heads of state, public officials, state bodies and the State itself; the OSCE report noted that blasphemy and religious insult laws exist in around one third of OSCE participating States. In Africa, at least four Member States decriminalized defamation between 2012 and 2017; the ruling by the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights in Lohé Issa Konaté v. the Republic of Burkina Faso set a precedent in the region against imprisonment as a legitimate penalty for defamation, characterizing it as a violation of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the treaty of the Economic Community of West African States.
Countries in every region have moved to advance the criminalization of defamation by extending legislation to online content. Cybercrime and anti-terrorism laws passed throughout the world have led to bloggers appearing before courts, with some serving time in prison; the United Nations, OSCE, Organisation of American States and African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression stated in a joint declaration in March 2017 that ‘general prohibitions on the dissemination of information based on vague and ambiguous ideas, including "false news" or "non-objective information", are incompatible with international standards for restrictions on freedom of expression...and should be abolished.’ The common law origins of defamation lie in the torts of "slander" and "libel", each of which gives a common law right of action. Defamation is the general term used internationally, is used in this article where it is not necessary to distinguish between "slander" and "libel".
Libel and slander both require publication. The fundamental distinction between libel and slander lies in the form in which the defamatory matter is published. If the offending material is published in some fleeting form, as by spoken words or sounds, sign language, gestures or the like it is slander. Libel is defined as defamation by written or printed words, pictures, or in any form other than by spoken words or gestures; the law of libel originated in the 17th century in England. With the growth of publication came the growth of libel and development of the tort of libel. An early example of libel is the case of John Peter Zenger in 1735. Zenger was hired to publish New York Weekly Journal; when he printed another man's article that criticized William Cosby, British Royal Governor of Colonial New York, Zenger was accused of seditious libel. The verdict was returned as Not Guilty on the charge of seditious libel, because it was proven that all the statements Zenger had published about Cosby had been true, so there was not an issue of defamation.
Another example of libel is the case of New York Times Sullivan. The U. S. Supreme Court overruled a State court in Alabama that had found The New York Times guilty of libel for printing an advertisement that criticized Alabama officials for mistreating student civil rights activists. Though some of what The Times printed was false, the Court ruled in its favor, saying that libel of a public official requires proof of actual malice, defined as a "knowing or reckless disregard for the truth". There are several things. In the United States, a person must prove that 1) the statement was false, 2) caused harm, 3) was made without adequate research into the truthfulness of the statement; these steps are for an ordinary citizen. For a celebrity or public official, a person must prove the first three steps, that the statement was made with the intent to do harm or with reckless disregard for the truth, specifically referred to as "actual malice". At one time, the honour of peers was protected
Jerome New Frank was an American legal philosopher and author who played a leading role in the legal realism movement, Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission, a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Born in New York City, New York, Frank's parents were Herman Frank and Clara New Frank, descendants of mid-19th-century German Jewish immigrants. Frank's father an attorney, relocated the family to Chicago, Illinois in 1896, where Frank would attend Hyde Park High School, before receiving his Bachelor of Philosophy degree from the University of Chicago in 1909. Frank obtained his Juris Doctor from the University of Chicago Law School in 1912, where he had the highest grades in the school's history, despite leaving the program for a year to work as secretary to reformist Chicago alderman Charles Edward Merriam. Frank worked as a lawyer in private practice in Chicago from 1912 to 1930, specializing in corporate reorganizations, becoming a partner in the firm in 1919.
In 1930, after having undergone six months of psychoanalysis, Frank published Law and the Modern Mind, which argued against the "basic legal myth" that judges never make law but deduce legal conclusions from premises that are clear and unchanging. Drawing on psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget, Frank proposed that judicial decisions were motivated by the influence of psychological factors on the individual judge. Like his judicial hero, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Frank urged judges and legal scholars to acknowledge the gaps and uncertainties in the law, to think of law pragmatically as a tool for human betterment; the book "dropped like a bombshell on the legal and academic world" becoming "a jurisprudential bestseller" which "was noticed as well as criticized". In 1930, Frank moved to New York City, where he practiced until 1933 working as a research associate at Yale Law School in 1932, where he collaborated with Karl Llewellyn, feuded with legal idealist Roscoe Pound.
In addition to the philosophical disagreements arising from Frank's realism and Pound's idealism, Pound accused Frank of misattributing quotes to him in Law and the Modern Mind, writing to Llewellyn: I am troubled about Jerome Frank. When a man puts in quotation marks and attributes to a writer things which he not only never put in print any where, but goes contrary to what he has set in print it seems to me to go beyond the limits of permissible carelessness and to be incompatible, not with scholarship but with the ordinary fair play of controversy. Llewellyn defended Frank; this led Frank to produce a lengthy memorandum showing where each quote attributed to Pound by Frank could be found in Pound's writing, offering to pay Pound to hire someone to verify the citations. Pound would continue to attack Frank's legal philosophy throughout his life, although Frank moderated his views on legal realism. During the New Deal administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frank sought the assistance of Felix Frankfurter to secure a position with the administration.
Frank was offered the position of solicitor of the United States Department of Agriculture, but this appointment was blocked by Postmaster General James A. Farley, who favored another candidate for the job. Frank was appointed as general counsel of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in 1933, soon became embroiled in an internal struggle with the agency's head, George Peek, who had tried to exercise complete control over the agency. Peek resigned in December 1933, Frank continued to serve until February 1935, when he was purged along with young leftist lawyers in his office.. Roosevelt approved the purge, but made Frank a special counsel to the Reconstruction Finance Association in 1935. Frank returned to private practice in New York from 1936 to 1938, with the firm of Greenbaum and Ernst. In 1937, William O. Douglas recommended that Roosevelt appoint Frank to be a commissioner of the Securities and Exchange Commission, which Douglas chaired. Roosevelt agreed, Frank served as an SEC commissioner from December 1937 until 1941, was elevated to Chairman from 1939 to 1941, when Douglas was appointed to the United States Supreme Court.
While serving in the SEC, Frank served on the Temporary National Economic Committee. In 1938, Frank published a book titled Save America First, written during his return to private practice and advocating against American involvement in the stirring conflict in Europe. However, Frank recanted those views after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt forgave Frank's isolationism. Frank was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 13, 1941, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated by Judge Robert P. Patterson, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 20, 1941, received his commission on March 27, 1941. His service terminated on January 1957, due to his death. Frank was considered a competent judge taking what was perceived as the more liberal position on civil liberties issues. In addition to his reputation for expertise on civil liberties matters, he was considered to be "an outstanding judge in the fields of procedure, criminal law".
For a time, he was and vocally at odds with a colleague on the bench, Charles Edward Clark, "over a whole range of common law precepts". Frank's scholarly tendency bled over into his judicial opinions, some of which were notoriously lengthy. On
New York Herald Tribune
The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924, it was regarded as a "writer's newspaper" and competed with The New York Times in the daily morning market. The paper won at least nine Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime. A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city", the Tribune did not match the comprehensiveness of The New York Times' coverage, but its national and business coverage was viewed as among the best in the industry, as was its overall style. At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Roger Kahn, Richard Watts, Jr. Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, St. Clair McKelway, Judith Crist, Dick Schaap, Tom Wolfe, John Steinbeck, Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint; the paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements.
However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue. A series of disastrous business decisions, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival. In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney, a multimillionaire Wall Street investor, serving as ambassador to the United Kingdom at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s; the paper revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions the local chapter of the International Typographical Union. Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966.
Combined with investments in the World Journal Tribune, Whitney spent $39.5 million in his attempts to keep the newspaper alive. After the New York Herald Tribune closed, the Times and The Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication; the International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013 and is now named The New York Times International Edition. New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963, was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, continues to publish today; the New York Herald was founded on May 6, 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, a Scottish immigrant who came to the United States aged 24. Bennett, a firm Democrat, had established a name in the newspaper business in the 1820s with dispatches sent from Washington to the New York Enquirer, most critical of President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay. Bennett was a pioneer in crime reporting.
The fight over access overshadowed the trial itself. Bennett founded the New York Globe in 1832 to promote the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the White House, but the paper folded after the election. After a few years of journalistic piecework, he founded the Herald in 1835 as a penny newspaper, similar in some respects to Benjamin Day's Sun but with a strong emphasis on crime and financial coverage. Bennett, who wrote much of the newspaper himself, "perfected the fresh, pointed prose practiced in the French press at its best"; the publisher's coverage of the 1836 murder of Helen Jewett—which, for the first time in the American press, included excerpts from the murder victim's correspondence—made Bennett "the best known, if most notorious…journalist in the country". Bennett put his profits back into his newspaper, establishing a Washington bureau and recruiting correspondents in Europe to provide the "first systematic foreign coverage" in an American newspaper. By 1839, the Herald's circulation exceeded that of The London Times.
When the Mexican–American War broke out in 1846, the Herald assigned a reporter to the conflict—the only newspaper in New York to do so—and used the telegraph a new technology, to not only beat competitors with news but provide Washington policymakers with the first reports from the conflict. During the American Civil War, Bennett kept at least 24 correspondents in the field, opened a Southern desk and had reporters comb the hospitals to develop lists of casualties and deliver messages from the wounded to their families; the New-York Tribune was founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. Greeley, a native of New Hampshire, had begun publishing a weekly paper called The New-Yorker in 1834, whi