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Rhacotis

Rhacotis was the name for a city on the northern coast of Egypt at the site of Alexandria. Classical sources from the Greco-Roman era, in Greek and in hieroglyphics, give Rhacotis as an older name for Alexandria before the arrival of Alexander the Great. Rhacotis was located west of the now-silted Canopic branch of the Nile. Unlike ports within the Nile Delta, it was reliably accessible to large ships, enough water for a city could be supplied by a canal, it is described as the home of sentinels who protected the Egyptian kingdom from outsiders. The root of the name, qd, means "construct"; the prefix r-ꜥ can be used as a derivational morpheme forming nouns of action from infinitives, so a interpretation of the name as a whole is "building site" or "construction in progress". Michel Chaveau of the École pratique des hautes études argues that Rhakotis may have been the Egyptian name of the construction site for Alexandria; the original city may have included the island of Pharos, a harbor mentioned in Homer's Odyssey as the kingdom of Proteus.

Plutarch writes that this reference influenced Alexander in his decision to found a new capital at the harbor of Pharos. The earliest text from Alexandria, a hieroglyphic "satrap" stela from the month of Thout in 311 BC, refers to R-qd as the preceding name of the city. Strabo, in his description of Alexandria, describes Rhacotis as the home of Egyptian sentinels guarding the Nile. Pliny the Elder mentions Rhacotes as the former name of the site of Alexandria. Alexandria was planned by Dinocrates, an experienced Greek architect and city planner from Rhodes, who modeled the new city after the Hellenistic architectural style popular in the Greek world at the time; the existing small village of Rhacotis a fishing port, became the Egyptian quarter of the city, located on the West side. Egyptians may have continued to refer to the whole city as Rhakotis, in some cases resented its existence. Tacitus relates a story of the Egyptian priests that Ptolemy I, seeking a blessing for the construction of Alexandria, received instructions to obtain a certain statue from the temple of "infernal Jupiter" in Pontus.

First they visit the oracle Pythia at Delphi, who confirms they are to remove the statue, but not its female companion. When they reach King Scydrothemis at Sinope, they find him reluctant to part with the statue; the god leaves the temple of his own will and conveys the party back to Alexandria, where a new temple is established at Rhacotis—the historical site of a temple to Serapis and Isis. Continuing maritime archaeology in the harbour of Alexandria has revealed details of Rhakotis before the arrival of Alexander. In 1916, while preparing construction of a new port, French engineer Gaston Jondet found a sophisticated ancient port facility west of Pharos. Kamal Abu el-Saadat continued research in the 1960s with a pioneering submarine archaeology campaign which found more ruins and a 25-ton statue fragment. Another campaign began in the 1990s under the supervision of Franck Goddio, finding numerous artifacts including twelve sphinxes, some removed from Heliopolis by the Ptolemies. Wood pilings and planks dated chemically and stratigraphically to c. 400 BC, potsherds dated to 1000 BC, have been recovered from Alexandria's eastern harbor.

Recent chemical analysis of artifacts found in the harbor has discovered high levels of lead in the third millennium BC, peaking circa the turn of the 23rd century BC, again near the turn of the first millennium BC, as well as in the Hellenic era following the conquest of Alexander. They suggest an expansive trade network including metal imports from Cyprus and Turkey; some or all of the remains of Rhacotis may lie beneath the densely populated modern city of Alexandria, thus remain off limits to archaeologists. No attempts to date have discovered remains of an early city in the Alexandrine neighborhood with the same name; the importance of Rhacotis remains a matter of debate. If the Rhacotis was indeed no more than a building yard, it may have been an inconsequential part of the Egyptian civilization before the arrival of Hellenic invaders. Hawass, Zahi, ed.. Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000. Volume 2: History, Religion.

American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 977 424 714 0. "Certificates of Unloading of River Boats in Alexandria", 246–221 BC: " Clearchus and guard, which we discharged at the Serapeum in Rhacotis." Details on the archaïc port with a pdf of Gaston Jondet's report, 1916

8441 Lapponica

8441 Lapponica, provisional designation 4008 T-3, is a background asteroid from the Florian region of the inner asteroid belt 4.5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 16 October 1977, by Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden, Tom Gehrels at Palomar Observatory in California; the L-type asteroid has a rotation period of 3.27 hours. It was named for the Bar-tailed godwit, a shorebird known by its Latin name Limosa lapponica. Lapponica is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements. Based on osculating Keplerian orbital elements, the asteroid has been classified as a member of the Flora family, a giant asteroid family and the largest family of stony asteroids in the main-belt; the asteroid orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.9–2.5 AU once every 3 years and 3 months. Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 5° with respect to the ecliptic. The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as 1953 EC1 at Goethe Link Observatory in March 1953, more than 24 years prior to its official discovery observation.

The survey designation "T-3" stands for the third Palomar–Leiden Trojan survey, named after the fruitful collaboration of the Palomar and Leiden Observatory in the 1960s and 1970s. Gehrels used Palomar's Samuel Oschin telescope, shipped the photographic plates to Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden Observatory where astrometry was carried out; the trio are credited with the discovery of several thousand asteroid discoveries. Lapponica has been characterized as an L-type asteroid in the SDSS-based taxonomy and by Pan-STARRS' survey, it is an assumed S-type asteroid. In 2008, two rotational lightcurves of Lapponica were obtained from photometric observations by French amateur astronomer Pierre Antonini and by Maurice Clark at the Montgomery College Observatory in Maryland. Analysis of the best-rated lightcurve gave a rotation period of 3.27 hours with a consolidated brightness amplitude between 0.29 and 0.50 magnitude. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.24 – derived from 8 Flora, the parent body of the Flora family – and calculates a diameter of 4.50 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 13.9.

This minor planet was named for the bar-tailed godwit a migratory bird of the family Scolopacidae. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 2 February 1999 and revised on 2 April 1999. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 8441 Lapponica at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 8441 Lapponica at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Essingen Islands

The Essingen Islands are a group of two islands—Stora Essingen and Lilla Essingen—in the Swedish lake of Mälaren, located southwest of Kungsholmen in Stockholm. Both Essingen islands are residential areas, the smaller densely packed with apartment buildings while the larger is scattered with private houses and, to a lesser extent, apartment buildings; the islands were a part of the administrative Bromma Parish until 1916, when they were incorporated with the parish into Stockholm Municipality. They remained a part of Bromma ecclesiastical parish until 1955, when they received their own parish within the Church of Sweden. On older maps, the islands are called Lilla Hessingen. Essingebron bridge was built between the islands and Kungsholmen in 1907, between the islands themselves in 1917. In 1966, the Essingeleden motorway opened across the islands; the Alviksbron bridge opened in 2000