Wildcat Creek (California)
Wildcat Creek is a 13.4-mile-long creek which flows through Wildcat Canyon situated between the Berkeley Hills and the San Pablo Ridge, emptying into San Pablo Bay in Contra Costa County, northern California. In 1772, the first recorded Spanish expedition crossed Wildcat Creek, although the Spaniards may have traveled this far north as early as 1769; the 1772 Fages and 1776 de Anza expeditions received festive greetings at two villages along Wildcat Creek, one of, estimated at 100 – 200 people in size. Within three decades, nearly all the native Huchiun had been forced to move to Mission Dolores and convert to Christianity. On an 1830 diseño of the Rancho San Pablo Wildcat Creek appears as Arroyo Seco, it was known as Arroyo Chiquito. An 1861 map indicates. "Big" San Pablo Creek is located in the next drainage east of the drainage of Wildcat Creek. There are over fifty geographic place names in California with the word "wildcat", which either refers to the historic presence of bobcats or to its meaning as an "unsound scheme".
The Wildcat Creek watershed drains 11.1 square miles. The creek originates on Vollmer Peak in Tilden Regional Park just east of the city of Berkeley, it feeds the artificial Lake Anza as well as the smaller reservoir Jewel Lake along its course. In its lower course, it passes through portions of the city of Richmond. Where it exits the hills, it passes through Alvarado Park, which includes a WPA-constructed stone arch bridge over the creek, it courses through San Pablo's civic center and Davis Park. Wildcat Creek culminates thence to San Pablo Bay; the Wildcat San Pablo Creeks Watershed Council won the Governors Environmental and Economic Leadership award in 2003. Founded in 1985, it is the oldest, continuing running urban watershed council in California. In 2004, the Wildcat San Pablo Watershed Council began work on the Wildcat Creek Watershed Restoration Plan, to address recurring flood damages within the City of San Pablo. In April, 2010, the plan was published and addressed three goals: 1. Reduce flood risk based on Wildcat Creek's 100-year flood flows and improve stormwater management in low-lying neighborhoods.
2. Enhance riparian habitat focused on stream resident coastal rainbow trout and the potential restoration of anadromous steelhead migration. 3. Develop recreational resources for the community a connected two-mile Wildcat Creek Trail through the city. In September 2010 the City of San Pablo announced that it had received a $1.8 million grant from the state Department of Water Resources to clean up Wildcat Creek. Wildcat Creek supported a steelhead run but degradation of habitat and construction of passage barriers from urbanization resulted in their extirpation sometime after 1915; the dams that form both of these artificial lakes Lake Anza and Jewel Lake are impassable barriers to spawning steelhead. In September 1983, the East Bay Regional Park District planted 615 steelhead from Redwood Creek into Wildcat Creek between Alvarado Park and the Regional Parks Botanic Garden; the EBPRD reported that no trout were present in Wildcat Creek prior to this stocking, so that the newly established population would provide a second and separate source for a "precarious" and "unique" genetic stock.
This re-introduction has been successful with steelhead reproducing in the creek below Jewel Lake. According to CEMAR's San Francisco Estuary Watersheds Evaluation of 2007, only 5.1 miles of the watershed's total 22.22 miles of stream channel is suitable and available to steelhead. The East Bay has seen a renaissance of the native coastal rainbow trout in the watershed, some have been spotted in the creek in Downtown Richmond nesting in submerged shopping carts and other garbage; the fish have been spotted in Tilden Regional Park in the Berkeley Hills near the park's merry-go-round and a potamodromous population makes its way up the creek from Lake Anza every spring to spawn. A second native fish, the three-spined stickleback thrives in its tributaries; the recovering 387-acre Wildcat Marsh supports a diversity of endangered and threatened species, including the California clapper rail, the black rail, the salt marsh harvest mouse, the San Pablo vole. In April 1991, a student at the University California, Berkeley electrofished the two perennial reaches of Wildcat Creek to determine the condition of O. mykiss populations.
The upper reach was located above Lake Anza, while the lower reach was at the northwest edge of Wildcat Canyon Regional Park. The upper reach produced 46 O. mykiss. In the lower reach, 71 O. mykiss were caught. The resulting study reported that the presence of multiple age classes in both the upper and lower reaches indicated successful spawning in the two areas; the study noted age 3+ O. mykiss from Lake Anza spawning in upper reaches of Wildcat Creek. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks: Wildcat Creek Watershed Urban Creeks Council Pictures from the entire length of Wildcat Creek History of Wildcat Creek Watershed
Brickyard Cove Pond
Brickyard Cove Pond is a small lake in the Brickyard Cove District of Richmond, California. It was formed from quarrying of Nicholl's Knob the surrounding hill, it is fed by a series of underground springs. Before the early 19th Century it was a swimming pond for local boys who went skinny dipping at the lake; however this ceased. List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025; the county seat is Martinez. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, is suburban; the county's name is Spanish for "opposite coast", referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In prehistoric times the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations.
This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and continues to be elevated by compressive forces resulting from the action of plate tectonics and at its upper reaches presents ancient seabed rocks scraped from distant oceanic sedimentation locations and accumulated and lifted by these great forces. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, with the present county containing portions of regions populated by a number of Native American tribes; the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned.
The known settled populations were hunter-gatherer societies that had no knowledge of metals and that produced utilitarian crafts for everyday use of the highest quality and with graphic embellishments of great aesthetic appeal. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known culturally comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts and from inter-generational knowledge passed down through northerly outlying tribes of the larger region. Early interaction of these Native Americans with Europeans came with the Spanish colonization via the establishment of missions in this area, with the missions in San Jose and San Francisco and the establishment of a Presidio in 1776.
Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, through the establishment of land grants from the King of Spain to favored settlers. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain. While little changed in ranchero life, the Mexican War of Independence resulted in the secularization of the missions with the re-distribution of their lands, a new system of land grants under the Mexican Federal Law of 1824. Mission lands extended including portions of Contra Costa County. Between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County; the smallest unit was one square league, or about seven square miles, or 4,400 acres, maximum to one individual was eleven leagues, or 48,400 acres, including no more than 4,428 acres of irrigable land. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope and stakes.
Lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year. Fences were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required 2000 head of cattle and two square leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, trading ships were taxed. Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley. In 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon. Jose Maria Amador was granted a four square league Rancho San Ramon in 1834. In 1834 Rancho Monte del Diablo was confirmed with 17,921 acres to Salvio Pacheco; the Pacheco family settled at the Rancho in 1846. The boundary lines w
Richmond Inner Harbor
Richmond Inner Harbor is a deepwater body of water in Richmond, California. The harbor lies between Ferry Point and Point Isabel, between the mainland and Brooks Island in western Contra Costa County along the East Bay's northern East Shore; the harbor provides excellent protection as it lies protected by Brooks Island an extensive breakwater inside the protected San Francisco Bay. The harbour connects to the Sante Fe Channel and its chanellets in addition to the Richmond Marina Bay and Campus Bay. Baxter Creek and Meeker Slough Creek's mouths and deltas drain into the harbor
Keller Beach is a public beach on the San Francisco Bay in Richmond, California. The beach is located in the Point Richmond District at Miller/Knox Regional Park in southwestern Richmond, it is accessible by a 66-foot walk from an AC Transit line 72M bus stop. The beach's amenities include bathrooms, picnic tables, barbecue pits. There is no lifeguard on duty; the site is located at the corners of Dornan Drive and Western Drive on land and the beach is located on a small cove of the San Francisco Bay. In February 2010, a mass invasion of herring to the bay caused a convergence of ducks, gulls and cormorants that hasn't been seen in over three decades at the beach. With a short walk to the south end there are some great fishing spots. Google maps
Richmond Long Wharf
The Richmond Long Wharf is a major tanker terminal and port facility in Richmond, California. The terminal receives petroleum, oil and other petro-chemical imports destined for the Chevron Richmond Refinery and other installations, it is located in the Point Richmond neighborhood. Chevron has cited the sensitivity of the general area in stonewalling attempts to complete the Bay Trail between Point Richmond and the Point Molate Area
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San