Fritz Leonhardt was a German structural engineer who made major contributions to 20th-century bridge engineering in the development of cable-stayed bridges. His book Bridges: Aesthetics and Design is well known throughout the bridge engineering community. Born in Stuttgart in 1909, Leonhardt studied at Purdue University. In 1934 he joined the German Highway Administration, he was appointed at the remarkably young age of 28 as the Chief Engineer for the Cologne-Rodenkirchen Bridge. In 1954 he formed the consulting firm Leonhardt und Andrä, from 1958 to 1974 taught the design of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete at Stuttgart University, he was President of the University from 1967 to 1969. He received Honorary Doctorates from six universities, honorary membership of several important engineering universities, won a number of prizes including the Werner von Siemens Ring, the Honorary Medal Emil Mörsch, the Freyssinet Medal of the FIP, the Gold Medal of the Institution of Structural Engineers.
In 1988, he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath. Throughout his career, Leonhardt was as dedicated to research as to design, his major contributions to bridge engineering technology included: development of a launching system for prestressed concrete bridges, first used in his 1963 bridge over the Caroní River in Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela the'Hi-Am' anchor for cable stays, in collaboration with the Swiss firm B. B. R. V. Anchorages in prestressed concrete experiments during the 1930s on steel orthotropic decks, his major structures include the Cologne-Rodenkirchen Bridge, Stuttgart Television Tower, Hamburg's Alster-Schwimmhalle and various cable-stayed bridges in Düsseldorf. He worked on the design of several cable-stayed bridges abroad, including the Pasco-Kennewick bridge in the U. S. and the Helgeland Bridge in Norway. This prize was established in 1999 on the 90th anniversary of Leonhardt's birth, to recognise outstanding achievements in structural engineering; the first prize was awarded to Michel Virlogeux.
Subsequent winners have included Jörg Schlaich, René Walter, William F. Baker. Brücken / Bridges, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-421-02590-8, 1994. Ponts/Puentes, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne, ISBN 2-88074-099-1, 1986. Fritz Leonhardt Symposium 2009 – University of Stuttgart Fritz Leonhardt at Structurae Bridge Design and Engineering: Fritz Leonhardt, Master of Bridges Structures of Leonhardt, Andrä and Partners
DVB-T is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial". This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation, it is the format used worldwide for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point. Rather than carrying one data carrier on a single radio frequency channel, COFDM works by splitting the digital data stream into a large number of slower digital streams, each of which digitally modulates a set of spaced adjacent sub-carrier frequencies. In the case of DVB-T, there are two choices for the number of carriers known as 8K-mode; these are 1,705 or 6,817 sub-carriers that are 4 kHz or 1 kHz apart. DVB-T offers three different modulation schemes. DVB-T has been adopted or proposed for digital television broadcasting by many countries, using VHF 7 MHz and UHF 8 MHz channels whereas Taiwan, Colombia and Trinidad and Tobago use 6 MHz channels.
Examples include the UK's Freeview. The DVB-T Standard is published as EN 300 744, Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television; this is available from the ETSI website, as is ETSI TS 101 154, Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream, which gives details of the DVB use of source coding methods for MPEG-2 and, more H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as well as audio encoding systems. Many countries that have adopted DVB-T have published standards for their implementation; these include the D-book in the UK, the Italian DGTVi, the ETSI E-Book and the Nordic countries and Ireland NorDig. DVB-T has been further developed into newer standards such as DVB-H, a commercial failure and is no longer in operation, DVB-T2, finalised in August 2011. DVB-T as a digital transmission delivers data in a series of discrete blocks at the symbol rate. DVB-T is a COFDM transmission technique, it allows the receiver to cope with strong multipath situations.
Within a geographical area, DVB-T allows single-frequency network operation, where two or more transmitters carrying the same data operate on the same frequency. In such cases the signals from each transmitter in the SFN needs to be time-aligned, done by sync information in the stream and timing at each transmitter referenced to GPS; the length of the Guard Interval can be chosen. It is a trade-off between SFN capability; the longer the guard interval the larger is the potential SFN area without creating intersymbol interference. It is possible to operate SFNs which do not fulfill the guard interval condition if the self-interference is properly planned and monitored. With reference to the figure, a short description of the signal processing blocks follows. Source coding and MPEG-2 multiplexing: Compressed video, compressed audio, data streams are multiplexed into MPEG program streams. One or more MPEG-PS's are joined together into an MPEG transport stream. Allowed bitrates for the transported data depend on a number of coding and modulation parameters: it can range from about 5 to about 32 Mbit/s.
Splitter: Two different MPEG-TSs can be transmitted at the same time, using a technique called Hierarchical Transmission. It may be used to transmit, for example a standard definition SDTV signal and a high definition HDTV signal on the same carrier; the SDTV signal is more robust than the HDTV one. At the receiver, depending on the quality of the received signal, the STB may be able to decode the HDTV stream or, if signal strength lacks, it can switch to the SDTV one. MUX adaptation and energy dispersal: The MPEG-TS is identified as a sequence of data packets, of fixed length. With a technique called energy dispersal, the byte sequence is decorrelated. External encoder: A first level of error correction is applied to the transmitted data, using a non-binary block code, a Reed-Solomon RS code, allowing the correction of up to a maximum of 8 wrong bytes for each 188-byte packet. External interleaver: Convolutional interleaving is used to rearrange the transmitted data sequence, in such a way that it becomes more rugged to long sequences of errors.
Internal encoder: A second level of error correction is given by a punctured convolutional code, denoted in STBs menus as FEC. There are five valid coding rates: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8. Internal interleaver: Data sequence is rearranged again, aiming to reduce the influence of burst errors; this time, a block interleaving technique is adopted, with a pseudo-random assignment scheme. Mapper: The digital bit sequence is mapped into a base band modulated sequence of complex symbols. There are three valid modulation schemes: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM. Frame adaptation: the complex symbols are grouped in blocks of const
Stadtmitte is an urban borough in the central District 1 of Düsseldorf, Germany. Stadtmitte borders with Carlstadt, Pempelfort and the old town of Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf-Altstadt. In the Stadtmitte there are: Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof, the Main Station for Düsseldorf the Schadowstraße - one of the highest turnover shopping streets in Europe the greatest theatre of Düsseldorf the stock exchange of Düsseldorf WestLB, the central bank of North Rhine-Westphalia Thyssen-Haus the Königsallee, short Kö, a prominent shopping street. All Nippon Airways has its Düsseldorf Sales Office in Stadtmitte. Media related to Düsseldorf-Stadtmitte at Wikimedia Commons Stadtmitte, City of Düsseldorf
Harald Deilmann was a German architect. Born in Gladbeck, Deilmann was best known for his work on public spaces, such as opera houses and museums, throughout Germany and worldwide, he was a member of the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, as well as the Deutsche Akademie für Städtebau und Landesplanung in Hanover, Germany. He was an associate of Heinrich Bartmann and joined the Architektenteam Münster (Harald Deilmann, Max von Hausen, Ortwin Rave, Werner Ruhnau in the competition for the theater Münster in 1953, he left the team before the opening of the theater Münster to start his own office in 1956. He took part in the development of his home town Münster in the time of the German Wirtschaftswunder 1950-1975; as a protagonist of postwar modernism he taught architecture at the Technical University Stuttgart and Dortmund. Deilmann retired in 1985 but continued to do freelance work until his death in Münster. 1962 grand prize for North Westphalia architecture 1998 Cross of the White Rose, Finland.
Theater: 1952–1955: Stadttheater Münster 1959–1988: Aalto Theatre, Essen Theater in Tokyo City Halls: 1957: Rathaus Nordwalde 1971–1974: Rathaus Rheda-Wiedenbrück Rathaus Gronau, North Rhine-Westphalia Schools and Universities Schülerinternat Münster Bielefeld University Martin-Luther-Schule Bielefeld Realschule Lemgo Metallberufsschule John F. Kennedy School, Berlin Museums Clemens-Sels-Museum Neuss Banks: WestLB Dortmund Town or urban planning: Stadtkern Werne Allwetterzoo Münster Office Buildings: Kreishaus Münster Verwaltung Nordwest Lotto Münster Hauptverwaltung LVA Rheinprovinz Düsseldorf Hauptverwaltung WestLB Münster, Düsseldorf und Dortmund Verwaltungsgebäude Wohnbauförderungsanstalt Düsseldorf Verwaltung Volkswohl-Bund in Dortmund Hospitals: Aggertalklinik Engelskirchen Städt. Krankenhaus Siegburg Fachklinikum Bad Salzuflen, Ahlbeck Reingau St.-Barbara-Krankenhaus Gladbeck Miscellaneous: 1979–1981: Rheinturm Düsseldorf Architekt Deilmann obituary
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Horst H. Baumann
Horst H. Baumann is a German architect, light artist, photographer, he is best known for designing Rheinturm Düsseldorf, in Germany. He studied metallurgical engineering from 1954 to 1957 at the RWTH Aachen, from 1994 to 2004 at the Heinrich-Heine University in Düsseldorf, he worked as a photographer and designer since 1957, since 1966 as a lighting artist. In 1963-1964, he was a visiting lecturer at the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm. In 1977, he took part in documenta 6 in Kassel, where he installed, with Peter Hertha, the first permanent laser sculpture in the world. Other installations include the Rheinturm in Düsseldorf, the Neonskulptur "Pass the Cross" in Bielefeld-Sennestadt, the light remodeled at the Rheinturm Düsseldorf 2003, his work has been shown internationally, including in the Museum of Modern Art, in New York City in 1965, in 1967 and 1969 in the Biennale des Jeunes in Paris. Laserscape "Horst H. Baumann", Artnet
An observation deck, observation platform or viewing platform is an elevated sightseeing platform situated upon a tall architectural structure such as a skyscraper or observation tower. Observation decks are sometimes enclosed from weather, a few may include coin-operated telescopes for viewing distant features; this is a timeline of the development of world's highest observation decks since the inauguration of the Washington Monument in 1885. 2019 Wuhan Greenland Center, People's Republic of China. 610 m, Level 126 2022 Jeddah Tower, Saudi Arabia. 644 m, Level 157 See List of tallest buildings and structures in the world#World's highest observation deck Observation wheel