Gainesville is the county seat and largest city in Alachua County, United States, the principal city of the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population of Gainesville in the 2017 US Census estimates was 132,249, a 6.4% growth from 2010. Gainesville is the largest city in the region of North Central Florida, it is a component of the Gainesville-Lake City Combined Statistical Area, which had a 2013 population of 337,925. Gainesville is home to the University of Florida, the nation's fifth-largest university campus by enrollment, as well as to Santa Fe College. Gainesville is located at 29°39'55" North, 82°20'10" West, the same latitude as Houston, Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 62.4 square miles, of which 61.3 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. The total area is 1.74% water. Gainesville's tree canopy is both dense and species rich, including broadleaf evergreens and deciduous species. Gainesville is the only city with more than 10,000 residents in the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is surrounded by rural area, including the 21,000-acre wilderness of Paynes Prairie on its southern edge.
The city is characterized by its medium size and central location, about 90 minutes' driving time from either Jacksonville or Orlando, two hours from Tampa, five hours from either Atlanta or Miami. The area is dominated by the University of Florida, which in 2008 was the third-largest university by enrollment in the US, as of 2016 was the fifth-largest. Gainesville's climate is defined as humid subtropical. Due to its inland location, Gainesville experiences wide temperature fluctuations for Florida, it is part of USDA Plant hardiness zone 9a. During the hot season, from May 15 to September 30, the city's climate is similar to the rest of the state, with frequent afternoon thunderstorms and high humidity. Temperatures range from the low 70s at night to around 92 °F during the day on average; the all-time record high of 104 °F was reached on June 27, 1952. From November through March, the Gainesville area has a climate distinct from much of peninsular Florida with 16 nights of freezing or below temperatures and sustained freezes occurring every few years.
The all-time record low of 6 °F was reached on February 13, 1899, the city experienced light snow and freezing rain on Christmas Eve, 1989. Traces of snow were recorded in 1977, 1996, 2010 and 2016; the daily average temperature in January is 54.3 °F. As with the rest of the state, cold temperatures are always accompanied by clear skies and high pressure systems. Temperatures reaching 100 °F or falling below 20 °F are rare, having occurred on June 16, 2015 and January 11, 2010; the city's flora and fauna are distinct from coastal regions of the state, include many deciduous species, such as dogwood, maple and sweet gum, alongside palms, live oaks, other evergreens. Thus the city enjoys brief periods of fall color in late November and December and a noticeable, prolonged spring from mid-February through early April; this is a pleasant period, as colorful blooms of azalea and redbud complement a cloudless blue sky, for this is the period of the lowest precipitation and lowest humidity. The city averages 47.33 inches of rain per year.
June through September accounts for a majority of annual rainfall, while autumn and early winter is the driest period. Since the 1990s, suburban sprawl has been a concern for a majority of the city commissioners; the "New Urbanization" plan to gentrify the area between historic Downtown and the University of Florida may slow the growth of suburban sectors and spark a migration toward upper-level apartments in the inner city. The area north of the university is seeing active redevelopment. Many gentrification plans rely on tax incentives that have sparked controversy and are sometimes unsuccessful. University Corners, which would not have been proposed without a $98 million tax incentive program by the city, was to be "a crowning jewel of the city's redevelopment efforts", 450 condos and hotel units and 98,000 square feet of retail space in eight stories covering three city blocks, on 3.4 acres purchased for $15.5 million. 19 thriving businesses were demolished in April 2007, but in May 2008 deposit checks were refunded to about 105 people who reserved units, in July 2008 developers spent "$120,000 to beautify the site, so we won't have this ugly green fence."Gainesville's east side houses the majority of the city's African-American community, while the west side consists of the student and white resident population.
West of the city limits are large-scale planned communities, most notably Haile Plantation, built on the site of its eponymous former plantation. The destruction of the city's landmark Victorian courthouse in the 1960s, which some considered unnecessary, brought the idea of historic preservation to the community's attention; the bland county building that replaced the grand courthouse became known to some locals as the "air conditioner". Additional destruction of other historic buildings in the downtown followed. Only a small handful of older buildings are left, like the Hippodrome State Theatre, at one time a feder
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
EB Games is an American computer and video games retailer. First established as an American company in 1977 by James Kim with a single electronics-focused location in the King of Prussia mall near Philadelphia, the company has grown into an international corporation. EB Games's parent corporation, GameStop, has its headquarters in Grapevine, Texas, a suburb of Dallas; when Electronics Boutique was an independent company, its headquarters was in West Goshen Township, near West Chester. The EB Games brand still operates in Canada and New Zealand. Gamestop operates certain stores under the EBX brand; the operation sold calculators and digital watches. Between 1977 and the mid-1990s, the company expanded to selling computers and other related items. Electronics Boutique operated stores under the name Games'n Gadgets; the Games'n Gadgets stores were themed more on entertainment and gaming, rather than business and productivity. In the mid-1990s, the company's focus switched to TV-based video games and consoles, though many stores still maintain PC game sections.
In May 2000, in order to unify their company, Electronics Boutique changed the vast majority of its current EB and EB Gameworld stores to the name EB Games. They announced that they would be either closing or selling all of their EB Kids and Brandywine Sports Collectible Stores. For years EB Games' primary distribution center was in Louisville, with two smaller distribution centers and a World Headquarters all located in West Chester, Pennsylvania. With video games becoming popular, EB Games decided it was time for a new distribution center. In October 2004, EB Games opened its doors to its new 314,000-square-foot distribution center in Sadsbury Township, Pennsylvania; the world headquarter office in West Chester remained open, however anyone working at the old distribution centers were transferred to the new location. As of July 30, 2001, the company operated 2,280 stores in the United States, United Kingdom, Austria, Finland, Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Sweden under the names EB Games and Electronics Boutique On Thursday, October 6, 2005 shareholders from EB Games and GameStop agreed to a $1.44 billion takeover deal.
The deal offered $38.15 in cash as well as ¾ of a share of GameStop stock for every 1 share of EB Games stock. This offer was a 34.2% premium on the $41.12 per share closing price of EB Games stock. GameStop decided to close EB Games's newly constructed distribution center in Sadsbury, PA, their call center in Las Vegas, NV, their International Headquarters in West Chester, PA, eliminating more than 800 jobs. Only 65 former EB Games employees were offered jobs at GameStop's headquarters in Grapevine, TX. EB began its international expansion with the opening of three stores in Toronto, Canada in 1993; the Canadian division is the largest of the international divisions with 300+ stores as of May 2008. In 1995, the company expanded to the UK with the purchase of 25% of the financially troubled British game retailer Rhino Group; the name of the chain was changed from Future Zone to "Electronics Boutique" to match the new owner. John Steinbrecher, Electronic Boutique's VP of Stores in the USA and Canada, was seconded to the UK to manage the chain.
Store remodels, product mix changes and used video games combined to restore the chain's finances. Electronics Boutique commenced operations in Australia in 1997 and became the number one video game specialty retailer in the country and the only one with a nationwide footprint. Although the merger created a company separate from the U. S. parent, EB retained a 24% ownership stake in the merged chain for a period of time and, under the merger agreement, collected substantial management fees from it until 2004, when the companies agreed to sever the remainder of their ties with a one time settlement. The GAME brand replaced the EB name at all former EB stores in Ireland; the new company was the biggest video game retailer in the United Kingdom. However, GameStop is once again operating in Ireland under the GameStop brand. On May 23, 2005, EB Games announced a definitive agreement to acquire Jump, a retailer based in Valencia, Spain that sells PCs and other consumer electronics. EB Games plans to begin introducing video game hardware and software into Jump's 141 stores over the next several months.
The acquisition provides EB Games entry into the Spanish marketplace and continues EB Games's aggressive international expansion. On June 22, 2008, reports surfaced that EB Games in New Zealand would acquire The Gamesman – New Zealand's largest independently owned and operated specialised gaming store. All Gamesman stores are to be rebranded as EB Games stores, leaving no multi-centre specialist gaming stores in New Zealand. On December 16, 2014, the YouTube channel for EB Games Canada uploaded a 30-second commercial entitled "Rivals", in promotion of the video game Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare; the commercial's concept and dialogue became an Internet meme. GameStop EB Games Australia EB Games Expo Official website Electronics Boutique at the Wayback Machine EB World at the Wayback Machine
GameStop Corp. is an American video game, consumer electronics, wireless services retailer. The company is headquartered in Grapevine, United States, a suburb of Dallas, operates 7,267 retail stores throughout the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Europe; the company's retail stores operate under the GameStop, EB Games, ThinkGeek and Micromania brands. In addition to retail stores, GameStop owns Game Informer, a video game magazine. GameStop traces its roots to Babbage's, a Tucson, Arizona-based software retailer founded in 1984 by former Harvard Business School classmates James McCurry and Gary M. Kusin; the company was named after Charles Babbage and opened its first store in Dallas's North Park Center with the help of Ross Perot, an early investor in the company. The company began to focus on video game sales for the then-dominant Atari 2600. Babbage's began selling Nintendo games in 1987; the company went public in 1988. By 1991, video games accounted for two-thirds of Babbage's sales.
Babbage's merged with Software Etc. an Edina, Minnesota-based retailer that specialized in personal computing software, to create NeoStar Retail Group in 1994. The merger was structured as a stock swap, where shareholders of Babbage's and Software Etc. received shares of NeoStar, a newly formed holding company. Babbage's and Software Etc. continued to operate as independent subsidiaries of NeoStar and retained their respective senior management teams. Babbage's founder and chairman James McCurry became chairman of NeoStar, while Babbage's president Gary Kusin and Software Etc. president Daniel DeMatteo retained their respective titles. Software Etc. chairman Leonard Riggio became chairman of NeoStar's executive committee. Gary Kusin resigned as president of Babbage's in February 1995 to start a cosmetics company. Daniel DeMatteo president of Software Etc. assumed Kusin's duties and was promoted to president and chief operating officer of NeoStar. NeoStar chairman James McCurry was appointed to the newly created position of NeoStar CEO.
The company relocated from its headquarters in Dallas to Grapevine that year. NeoStar merged its Babbage's and Software Etc. units into a single organization in May 1996 amid declining sales. Company president Daniel DeMatteo resigned, NeoStar chairman and CEO James McCurry assumed the title of president. In September of that year, after NeoStar was unable to secure the credit necessary to purchase inventory necessary for the holiday season, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. With the filing, NeoStar board member Thomas G. Plaskett became chairman and James McCurry remained company chief executive and president; the leadership changes were not enough and in November 1996 the assets of NeoStar were purchased for $58.5 million by Leonard Riggio, a founder of Software Etc. and chairman and principal stockholder of Barnes & Noble. Electronics Boutique had bid to purchase NeoStar, but the judge presiding over NeoStar's bankruptcy accepted Riggio's bid because it kept open 108 stores more than Electronics Boutique's bid would have.
200 retail stores were not included in the transaction and were subsequently closed. Following his purchase of NeoStar's assets, Leonard Riggio dissolved the holding company and created a new holding company named Babbage's Etc, he appointed Richard "Dick" Fontaine Software Etc.'s chief executive during its expansion in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as Babbage Etc.'s chief executive. Daniel DeMatteo the president of both Software Etc. and NeoStar, became company president and COO. Three years in 1999, Babbage's Etc. launched its GameStop brand with 30 stores located in strip malls. The company launched gamestop.com, a website that allowed consumers to purchase video games online. GameStop.com was promoted in Software Etc. stores. Barnes & Noble Booksellers purchased Babbage's Etc. in October 1999 for $215 million. Because Babbage's Etc. was principally owned by Leonard Riggio, Barnes & Noble's chairman and principal shareholder, a special committee of independent directors of Barnes & Noble Booksellers evaluated and signed-off on the deal.
A few months in May 2000, Barnes & Noble acquired Funco, an Eden Prairie, Minnesota-based video game retailer, for $160 million. Babbage's Etc., operating as a direct subsidiary of Barnes & Noble, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Funco. With its acquisition of Funco, Barnes & Noble acquired Game Informer, a video game magazine, first published in 1991. Funco was renamed GameStop, Inc. in December 2000 in anticipation of holding an initial public offering for the company. Barnes & Noble Booksellers took GameStop public with a February 2002 initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. GameStop was listed under the ticker symbol GME. Barnes & Noble retained control over the newly public company with 67% of outstanding shares and 95% of voting shares. Barnes & Noble retained control over GameStop until October 2004, when it distributed its 59% stake in GameStop to stakeholders of Barnes & Noble, making it an independent company. GameStop acquired EB Games in 2005 for $1.44 billion. The acquisition expanded GameStop's operations into Europe, Canada and New Zealand.
Two years in 2007, GameStop acquired Rhino Video Games from Blockbuster for an undisclosed amount. Rhino Video Games operated 70 video game stores throughout the Southeastern United States. GameStop purchased Free Record Shop's Norwegian stores in April 2008; the company converted them into video game shops. Daniel DeMatteo replaced Richard Fontaine as GameStop CEO in August 2008
Blockbuster LLC Blockbuster Entertainment, Inc. and known as Blockbuster Video or Blockbuster, is an American-based provider of home movie and video game rental services through a video rental shop, DVD-by-mail, video on demand, cinema theater. Blockbuster expanded internationally throughout the 1990s. At its peak in 2004, Blockbuster employed 84,300 people worldwide, including about 58,500 in the United States and about 25,800 in other countries, had 9,094 stores in total, with more than 4,500 of these in the US. Competition from the Netflix mail-order service, Redbox automated kiosks, video on demand services were major factors in Blockbuster's eventual demise. Blockbuster began to lose significant revenue during the 2000s, in 2010, the company filed for bankruptcy protection; the following year, its remaining 1,700 stores were bought by satellite television provider Dish Network. In November 2013, the last 300 company-owned stores were closed. While the Blockbuster brand has been retired, Dish maintained a small number of Blockbuster franchise agreements, which allowed some stores to remain open.
By April 2019, just one store remained open -- in Oregon. Blockbuster's early beginnings can be traced back to another company, Cook Data Services, founded by David Cook in 1978; the company's primary goal was to supply software services to the oil and gas industries throughout Texas, but it was not successful. Sandy Cook, David's wife, wanted to get into the video business, her husband would soon study the industry and future prospects. Using profit he made from the sale of David P. Cook & Associates, the subsidiary of his company, he decided to buy into a video store franchise in Dallas known as Video Works; when Video Works would not allow him to decorate the interior of his store with a blue-and-yellow design, he departed the franchise and opened the first Blockbuster Video in 1985 under his own company Blockbuster Video Inc. When he realized the potential in video rentals, Cook abandoned the oil industry and began franchising the Blockbuster store; the first Blockbuster store opened October 19, 1985, in Dallas, with an inventory of 8,000 VHS and 2,000 Beta tapes.
Cook's experience with managing huge databases proved helpful in driving innovation within the industry. Following early success from the company's first stores, Cook built a $6-million warehouse in Garland, Texas, to help sustain and support future growth that allowed new stores to open quickly. Blockbuster would custom-tailor a store's inventory to its neighborhood, based on local demographics. In 1987, the company won a court case against Nintendo; that year, Waste Management co-founder Wayne Huizenga, who had reservations about entering the video rental industry, agreed to acquire several Blockbuster stores. At that point the number of stores counted 19, attracted Huizenga's associate John Melk's attention due to its efficiency, family-friendly image and business model, convinced Huizenga to have a look at it. Huizenga and Melk utilized techniques from their waste business and Ray Kroc's model of expansion to expand Blockbuster, soon they were opening a new store every 24 hours, they took over many of the existing Blockbuster franchise stores as well, Huizenga spent much of the late 1980s acquiring several of Blockbuster's rivals, including Major Video.
In 1990, Blockbuster bought. In 1992, Blockbuster acquired the Sound Warehouse and Music Plus music retail chains and created Blockbuster Music. In October 1993, Blockbuster took controlling interest in Spelling Entertainment Group, a media company run by television producer Aaron Spelling. Blockbuster purchased Super Club Retail Entertainment Corp. on November 22, 1993 from Philips Electronics, N. V. for 5.2 million shares of Blockbuster stock. This brought 270 Record Bar, Tracks and Rhythm and Views music stores and 160 video retail superstores into the corporation, it owned 35% of Republic Pictures. Blockbuster became a multibillion-dollar company, but Huizenga was worried about how new technology could threaten their business, such as video on demand and the growth of cable television. In 1991, just three days after Time Warner had announced they would upgrade their cable system, Blockbuster's shares dropped more than 10 percent. In 1993, he made an attempt to expand into other areas by investing in Viacom.
Huizenga considered buying a cable company, but this was unknown territory for Blockbuster and he decided not to take the risk. He had the idea of a 2,500-acre Blockbuster sports and amusement park in Florida, something Blockbuster was still considering as late as August 1994. Unable to come up with a proper solution about how to face the growing threats to the traditional videostore, he made the decision to sell Blockbuster to Viacom and pull out. Viacom acquired Blockbuster in 1994 for $8.4 billion to help finance its bid for Paramount in the bidding war with QVC Network Inc. Blockbuster's stock trade had been dropping the months before the merger, with a small rise after the deal was announced, three years in 1997, it's worth was estimated to just $4.6 billion. The Blockbuster Block Party concept was test-marketed in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1994, it was an "entertainment complex" aimed at adults, containing eight themed areas housing a restaurant, laser tag arena, motion simulator rides, was housed in a windowless building the size of a city block.
During the 1990s, Blockbuster expanded in the United Kingdom, purchasing that country's Ritz Video chain. The stores were rebrand