MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
SketchUp Google Sketchup, is a 3D modeling computer program for a wide range of drawing applications such as architectural, interior design, landscape architecture and mechanical engineering and video game design. It is available as a web-based application, SketchUp Free, a freeware version, SketchUp Make, a paid version with additional functionality, SketchUp Pro. SketchUp is owned by Trimble Inc. a mapping and navigation equipment company. There is an online library of free model assemblies, 3D Warehouse, to which users may contribute models; the program includes drawing layout functionality, allows surface rendering in variable "styles", supports third-party "plug-in" programs hosted on a site called Extension Warehouse to provide other capabilities and enables placement of its models within Google Earth. SketchUp was developed by startup company @Last Software of Boulder, Colorado, co-founded in 1999 by Brad Schell and Joe Esch. SketchUp debuted in August 2000 as a general-purpose 3D content creation tool and was envisioned as a software program "that would allow design professionals to draw the way they want by emulating the feel and freedom of working with pen and paper in a simple and elegant interface, that would be fun to use and easy to learn and that would be used by designers to play with their designs in a way, not possible with traditional design software.
It has user friendly buttons to make it easier to use."The program won a Community Choice Award at its first tradeshow in 2000. Google acquired @Last Software on March 14, 2006 for an undisclosed sum, attracted by @Last Software's work developing a plugin for Google Earth. On January 9, 2007, Google announced Google SketchUp 6, a free downloadable version of SketchUp, without some functionality of SketchUp Pro, but including integrated tools for uploading content to Google Earth and to the Google 3D Warehouse. A toolbox enables a viewer to "walk around" and see things from different viewpoints and supports labels for models, a look-around tool and an "any polygon" shape tool. Google SketchUp Pro 6 introduced a beta version of Google SketchUp LayOut. LayOut includes 2D vector tools and page layout tools allowing presentations to be produced without the need for a separate presentation program. On November 17, 2008, SketchUp 7 was released with changes intended to make it easier to use, integration of SketchUp's Component Browser with Google 3D Warehouse, LayOut 2 and dynamic components that respond to scaling.
Windows 2000 was no longer supported. On September 1, 2010, SketchUp 8 was released with model geolocation with Google Maps and Building Maker integration. Mac OS X Tiger was no longer supported. Neither the free version nor the professional version was available in a native format for Linux, or Mac OS earlier than 10.5. SketchUp version 8 use under Wine has been rated "Gold". Geolocation information is always stored in the KMZ file; the building designs themselves are saved in SKP. Trimble Navigation acquired SketchUp from Google on June 1, 2012 for an undisclosed sum. In 2013 SketchUp 2013 was released. A new site was provided, Extension Warehouse, hosting extensions for Sketchup. SketchUp comes in multiple editions. SketchUp Pro includes the functionality of SketchUp Make plus importers and exporters to common 2D and 3D formats, access to LayOut and Style Builder. SketchUp Pro 2016 has native integration with Trimble Connect, treat 3D Warehouse models as references, a rebuilt Generate Report and now LayOut offers web-friendly reference objects as well as a new LayOut API.
SketchUp Pro licensing is cross-platform and works on both Mac machines. SketchUp Shop is a version of SketchUp for DIY designers and woodworkers, it has a feature set designed to meet their needs. A major difference between Shop and Pro is that SketchUp Shop is a web application that you run in a browser while connected to the Internet whereas SketchUp Pro is a downloadable application that you can use offline. In November 2017, SketchUp Free was released as a web-based application which replaces SketchUp Make. Drawings can be saved locally as native SKP file or exported as a STL file. Compared to Make, SketchUp Free does not support creation and editing of materials. Sketchup Make, introduced in May 2013, is a free-of-charge version for home and educational use, it begins with a 30-day trial of SketchUp Pro. After that time, users can continue to use SketchUp Make for free. There will be no further releases of Make after November 2017, users are expected to migrate to SketchUp Free, though the installer remains available for download.
3D Warehouse is an open library in which SketchUp users may download 3D models to share. The models can be downloaded right into the program without anything having to be saved onto your computer's storage. File sizes of the models can be up to 50 MB. Anyone can modify and re-upload content to and from the 3D warehouse free of charge. All the models in 3D Warehouse are free, so anyone can download files for use in SketchUp or other software such as AutoCAD, Revit and ArchiCAD - all of which have apps allowing the retrieval of models from 3D Warehouse. Since 2014 Trimble has launched a new version of 3D Warehouse where companies may have an official page with their own 3D catalog of products. Trimble is investing in creating 3D developer partners in order to have more professionally modeled products avai
A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. The faces consist of triangles, quadrilaterals, or other simple convex polygons, since this simplifies rendering, but may be composed of more general concave polygons, or polygons with holes; the study of polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and geometric modeling. Different representations of polygon meshes are used for different goals; the variety of operations performed on meshes may include Boolean logic, smoothing and many others. Volumetric meshes are distinct from polygon meshes in that they explicitly represent both the surface and volume of a structure, while polygon meshes only explicitly represent the surface; as polygonal meshes are extensively used in computer graphics, algorithms exist for ray tracing, collision detection, rigid-body dynamics of polygon meshes. Objects created with polygon meshes must store different types of elements.
These include vertices, faces and surfaces. In many applications, only vertices and either faces or polygons are stored. A renderer may support only 3-sided faces, so polygons must be constructed of many of these, as shown above. However, many renderers either support quads and higher-sided polygons, or are able to convert polygons to triangles on the fly, making it unnecessary to store a mesh in a triangulated form. Vertex A position along with other information such as color, normal vector and texture coordinates. Edge A connection between two vertices. Face A closed set of edges, in which a triangle face has three edges, a quad face has four edges. A polygon is a coplanar set of faces. In systems that support multi-sided faces and faces are equivalent. However, most rendering hardware supports only 3- or 4-sided faces, so polygons are represented as multiple faces. Mathematically a polygonal mesh may be considered an unstructured grid, or undirected graph, with additional properties of geometry and topology.
Surfaces More called smoothing groups, are useful, but not required to group smooth regions. Consider a cylinder with caps, such as a soda can. For smooth shading of the sides, all surface normals must point horizontally away from the center, while the normals of the caps must point straight up and down. Rendered as a single, Phong-shaded surface, the crease vertices would have incorrect normals. Thus, some way of determining where to cease smoothing is needed to group smooth parts of a mesh, just as polygons group 3-sided faces; as an alternative to providing surfaces/smoothing groups, a mesh may contain other data for calculating the same data, such as a splitting angle. Additionally high resolution meshes are less subject to issues that would require smoothing groups, as their polygons are so small as to make the need irrelevant. Further, another alternative exists in the possibility of detaching the surfaces themselves from the rest of the mesh. Renderers do not attempt to smooth edges across noncontiguous polygons.
Groups Some mesh formats contain groups, which define separate elements of the mesh, are useful for determining separate sub-objects for skeletal animation or separate actors for non-skeletal animation. Materials Generally materials will be defined, allowing different portions of the mesh to use different shaders when rendered. UV coordinates Most mesh formats support some form of UV coordinates which are a separate 2d representation of the mesh "unfolded" to show what portion of a 2-dimensional texture map to apply to different polygons of the mesh, it is possible for meshes to contain other such vertex attribute information such as colour, tangent vectors, weight maps to control animation, etc. Polygon meshes may be represented in a variety of ways, using different methods to store the vertex and face data; these include: Face-vertex meshes A simple list of vertices, a set of polygons that point to the vertices it uses. Winged-edge in which each edge points to two vertices, two faces, the four edges that touch them.
Winged-edge meshes allow constant time traversal of the surface, but with higher storage requirements. Half-edge meshes Similar to winged-edge meshes except that only half the edge traversal information is used. Quad-edge meshes which store edges, half-edges, vertices without any reference to polygons; the polygons are implicit in the representation, may be found by traversing the structure. Memory requirements are similar to half-edge meshes. Corner-tables which store vertices in a predefined table, such that traversing the table implicitly defines polygons; this is in essence the triangle fan used in hardware graphics rendering. The representation is more compact, more efficient to retrieve polygons, but operations to change polygons are slow. Furthermore, corner-tables do not represent meshes completely. Multiple corner-tables are needed to represent most meshes. Vertex-vertex meshesA "VV" mesh represents only vertices. Both the edge and face information is implicit in the representation. However, the simplicity of the representation does not allow for many efficient operations to be performed on meshes.
Each of the representations above have particular advantages and drawbacks, further discussed in Smith. The choice of the data structure is governed by the application, the per
MicroStation is a CAD software platform for two and three dimensional design and drafting and sold by Bentley Systems and used in the architectural and engineering industries. It generates 2D/3D vector graphics objects and elements and includes building information modeling features; the current version is MicroStation CONNECT Edition. MicroStation was developed by Bentley Systems and sold and supported by Intergraph in the 1980s; the latest versions of the software are released for Microsoft Windows operating systems, but MicroStation was available for Macintosh platforms and a number of Unix-like operating systems. From its inception MicroStation was designed as an IGDS file editor for the PC, its initial development was a result of Bentley Systems's experience developing PseudoStation released in 1984, a program designed to replace the use of proprietary Intergraph graphic workstations to edit DGN files by substituting the much less expensive Tektronix compatible graphics terminals. PseudoStation as well as Intergraph's IGDS program ran on a modified version of Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX super-mini computer.
In 1985, MicroStation 1.0 was released as a DGN file read-only and plot program designed to run on the IBM PC-AT personal computer. In 1987, MicroStation 2.0 was released, was the first version of MicroStation to read and write DGN files. Two years MicroStation 3.0 was released, which took advantage of the increasing processing power of the PC with respect to dynamics. Intergraph MicroStation 4.0 was released in late 1990 and added many features: reference file clipping and masking, a DWG translator, fence modes, the ability to name levels, as well as GUI enhancements. The 1992 release of version 4 introduced the ability to write applications using the MicroStation Development Language. In 1993, MicroStation 5.0 was released. New capabilities included binary raster support, custom line styles, settings manager, dimension driven design; the "V5 for Power Macintosh provided a comprehensive tool set for both 2-D and 3-D CAD... with added several useful features... the high-end PowerPC- native CAD package runs on steroids."
This was the last version to be supported in Unix. This version was branded both Bentley MicroStation. Versions were all branded Bentley; this was the last version to run on Intergraph CLIX. All platforms other than the PC used 32-bit processors. In 1995, Windows 95 was released. Bentley soon followed with a release of MicroStation for that operating system. Aside from being the first version of MicroStation to not include the version number in its name, MicroStation 95 was a groundbreaking release that included the ability to be graphic button icon driven; this version introduced a host of new features: Accudraw, dockable dialogs, revised view controls, movie generation, the ability to use two application windows. Many of these features are among the most popular used today. MicroStation 95 was the first version of MicroStation for a PC platform to use 32-bit hardware; the last multi-platform release, MicroStation SE was released late in 1997, was the first MicroStation release to include button icons that were in color.
These icons could be made borderless, just like in Office 97. This version of MicroStation included several features to enable more work over the internet; this version introduced enhanced precision and a commonly used tool in MicroStation - PowerSelector. MicroStation/J was released a year after SE; the J in the software title stood for Java, as this version introduced a Java-enhanced version of MDL, called JMDL. Other features included a revised help system. MicroStation/J was the last version to be based upon the IGDS file format; that file format had been used for about 20 years. However, with the advent of MicroStation V8 in 2001 came a new IEEE-754 based 64-bit file format, referred to as V8 DGN. MicroStation V8 is noted by most users as the most groundbreaking release in Bentley's history. Along with the new file format came many new enhancements, including unlimited levels, a nearly limitless design plane and no limits on filesize. Other features that were added were: Accusnap, Design History, unlimited undo, VBA programming.
Net interoperability, True Scale, standard definitions for working units. But the most anticipated feature was the ability to work natively with DWG files, an ability lauded more than any other. MicroStation V8 2004 Edition followed nearly three years with support for newer DWG releases, Multi-snaps, PDF creation, the Standards Checker and Feature modeling. MicroStation V8 XM Edition was released in May 2006, it builds upon the changes made by V8. The XM edition includes a revised Direct3d-based graphics subsystem, PDF References, task navigation, element templates, color books, support for PANTONE and RAL color systems and keyboard mapping. According to Bentley, "XM" does not stand for anything. In MicroStation V8i the task navigation was overhauled and the newest DWG format was supported. MicroStation now contains
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
NX known as "UG". In 2000 Unigraphics purchased SDRC I-DEAS and began an effort to integrate aspects of both software packages into a single product which became Unigraphics NX or NX. NX is an advanced high-end CAD/CAM/CAE, owned since 2007 by Siemens PLM Software, it is used, for: Design Engineering analysis. Manufacturing finished design by using included machining modules. NX is a direct competitor to CATIA, Autodesk Inventor, SolidWorks. 1972: United Computing, Inc. releases UNIAPT, one of the world's first end-user CAM products. 1973: The company purchases the Automated Drafting and Machining software code from MCS in 1973. The code became a foundation for a product called UNI-GRAPHICS sold commercially as Unigraphics in 1975. 1976 McDonnell Douglas Corporation buys United Computing. 1983: UniSolids V1.0 is released, marking the industry's first true interactive Solid Modeling software offering. 1991: During a period of financial difficulties McDonnell Douglas Automation Company sells its commercial services organization, including the Unigraphics organization and product, to EDS which at that time is owned by GM.
Unigraphics becomes GM's corporate CAD system. 1992: Over 21,000 seats of Unigraphics are being used worldwide.1996: Unigraphics V11.0 is released with enhancements in Industrial Design and Modeling including Bridge Surface, Curvature Analysis for Curve and Surfaces, Face Blends, Variable Offset Surface, etc. In the area of Assembly Modeling the new capabilities include Component Filters, Faceted Representations, Clearance Analysis between multiple Components. A integrated Spreadsheet linked to Feature-Based Modeling is included.. 2002 First release of the new "Next Generation" version of Unigraphics and I-DEAS, called NX, beginning the transition to bring the functionality and capabilities of both Unigraphics and I-DEAS together into a single consolidated product. 2007 Introduction of Synchronous Technology in NX 5.2011 Release of NX8 on October 17-2011 2013 Release of NX9 on October 14-2013 Computer-aided design Parametric solid modeling Freeform surface modelling, class A surfaces. Reverse engineering Styling and computer-aided industrial design Engineering drawing Product and manufacturing information Reporting and analytics and validation Knowledge reuse, including knowledge-based engineering Sheet metal design Assembly modelling and digital mockup Routing for electrical wiring and mechanical piping Computer-aided engineering Stress analysis / finite element method Kinematics Computational fluid dynamics and thermal analysis Computer-aided manufacturing Numerical control programming NX runs on Linux, Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.
NX uses Parasolid for its Geometric modeling kernel and D-Cubed as Associative engine for sketcher and assembly constraints as well as using JT for lightweight data and Multi-CAD. AutoForm Solid Edge I-DEAS NX Nastran CATIA PTC Creo Elements/Pro SolidWorks Autodesk Inventor ANSYS SpaceClaim Media related to NX screenshots at Wikimedia Commons Category:Screenshots of NX Official website