Rhizoids are protuberances that extend from the lower epidermal cells of bryophytes and algae. They are similar in function to the root hairs of vascular land plants. Similar structures are formed by some fungi. Rhizoids may be multicellular. Plants originated in aquatic environments and migrated to land during their long course of evolution. In water or near it, plants could absorb water from their surroundings, with no need for any special absorbing organ or tissue. Additionally, in the primitive states of plant development, tissue differentiation and division of labor was minimal, thus specialized water absorbing tissue was not required. Once plants colonized land however, they required specialized tissues to absorb water efficiently, to anchor themselves to the land. Rhizoids absorb water by capillary action, in which water moves up between threads of rhizoids and not through each of them as it does in roots. In fungi, rhizoids are small branching hyphae that grow downwards from the stolons that anchor the fungus to the substrate, where they release digestive enzymes and absorb digested organic material.

That is. In land plants, rhizoids are trichomes. In the liverworts, they multicelled in mosses. In vascular plants they are called root hairs, may be unicellular or multicellular. In certain algae, there is an extensive rhizoidal system that allows the alga to anchor itself to a sandy substrate from which it can absorb nutrients. Microscopic free-floating species, however, do not have rhizoids at all. Rhizine, the equivalent structure in lichens C. Michael Hogan. 2010. Fern. Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Saikat Basu and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC. "Rhizoids". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Rhizoids". New International Encyclopedia. 1905

LinnDrum Midistudio

The LinnDrum Midistudio was going to be an electronic musical instrument produced by Linn Electronics as the successor to the ill-fated Linn 9000, an integrated digital sampling drum machine and MIDI sequencer. The Midistudio is a rack-mount version of the Linn 9000 with some improvements, it was revealed at the 1986 Winter NAMM Show in January for a list price of $5,990. However, it never went into production because Linn Electronics went out of business in February 1986. One prototype is in existence and was placed up for auction in 2008. For Sale: Roger Linn's original prototype MPC from 1986 Auction on VEMIA listing the Linn MidiStudio - Auction details... Published on: 12/04/2008 - Here's the one and only prototype of Roger Linn's Midistudio... The LinnDrum Midistudio and the LinnSequencer used the same flawed operating system used in the ill-fated Linn 9000, released in 1984. Chronic software bugs led to a reputation for unreliability and contributed to the eventual demise of Linn Electronics.

The similarities between the LinnDrum Midistudio and the Akai MPC series, starting with the Akai MPC60, leads many to perceive a family resemblance. From a chronological standpoint, the LinnDrum Midistudio did come after the Linn 9000 and before the Akai MPC60 and might well be called a step in the evolution of the Music Production Controllers of today. At the time of writing, many products software, bear the name "Midistudio", but in 1986, the LinnDrum Midistudio was one of the first to brandish that moniker. The LinnDrum Midistudio has sixteen 8-bit 10 kHz ~ 50 kHz digitally sampled drum sounds: bass, cross stick, two crash symbols, two ride symbols, four toms, tambourine and clap; the Midistudio has all the same features as the Linn 9000. Many optional 9000 features are standard on the Midistudio. Both machines have large velocity- and pressure-sensitive rubber performance pads, but the 9000 has 18 pads in a three-high by six-wide pattern, where the Midistudio has 16 pads in the distinctive, four-by-four pattern, that would become the hallmark of the Akai MPC series of Music Production Centers, starting with the Akai MPC60.

The Midistudio has some improvements, including a sampling rate of 10 kHz - 50 kHz and 16 trigger inputs. The most distinctive difference between the machines is that the Midistudio has a rack-mountable chassis with a separate "lap pad" control panel that doubles as a protective cover for front panel in the rack-mount unit; the 9000 is a more traditional, one-piece drum machine chassis. They both feature an onboard mixer section providing real-time control over pan. On the Midistudio, the sliders are in the rack, whereas on the 9000, they are on the one-piece, conventional drum machine control panel; the LinnDrum Midistudio sounds are heard in Danger Zone. Official Roger Linn site

Quebec Junior A Hockey League

The Quebec Junior A Hockey League was a Canadian Junior ice hockey league from Quebec that operated from 1972 until 1982. The QJAHL was a member of Hockey Quebec and the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and was eligible for the Dudley Hewitt Cup and Centennial Cup; the Quebec Junior A Hockey League was formed in 1972 to give the Province of Quebec an entry in the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association's Centennial Cup playoffs. In 1982, the QJAHL folded. During the final 1981-1982 season, there were only four teams left in the league: the Joliette Cyclones, the Pierrefonds Pirates, the St. Eustache Patriotes and the La Prairie Flames. Quebec would not see Junior "A" hockey again until the Black Lake Miners jumped from Junior "B" into the 1988 Dudley Hewitt Cup playoffs. A year the Quebec Provincial Junior Hockey League was formed. Beauport Cascades Cape Madeleine Barons Granby Vics Grand'Mere Joliette Cyclones La Prairie Flames La Tuque Wolves Lac Megantic Royals Lachine Longueuil Rebels Pierrefonds Pirates Rosemont Bombardiers St. Eustache Patriotes St. Foy Roosters St. Jean St. Jerome Alouettes Thetford Mines Fleur de Lys Waterloo Maroons 1973 St. Jerome Alouettes 1974 Lac-Megantic Royals 1975 St. Jerome Alouettes 1976 Lac-Megantic Royals 1977 La Tuque Wolves 1978 Thetford Mines Fleur de Lys 1979 Thetford Mines Fleur de Lys 1980 Joliette Cyclones 1981 Joliette Cyclones 1982 La Prairie Flames LHJAAAQ Website