Xanthi (regional unit)
Xanthi is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace, together with the regional units Rhodope and Evros, it forms the geographical region of Western Thrace. Xanthi borders the Bulgarian provinces of Smolyan and Kardzhali to the north, the regional unit of Kavala lies to the west, Drama to the northwest and Rhodope to the east. The Rhodope Mountains cover the part of the regional unit. The highest point is Koula, at 1, 827m, the coastal area has a predominantly Mediterranean climate, whereas the northern mountainous part has a colder continental climate. The regional unit Xanthi is subdivided into 4 municipalities and these are, Abdera Myki Topeiros Xanthi Xanthi was established as a prefecture in 1944, when it was split off from the Rhodope Prefecture. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a unit within the East Macedonia and Thrace region. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, gR-2/E90, Via Egnatia and new, SW, Cen.
GR-55 The remains of the ancient city of Abdera have been excavated, subterranean Macedonian tombs from the 2nd century BC have been discovered in Komnina. There is a Byzantine castle near the old town of Xanthi, during the 19th century, local tobacco production and commerce developed rapidly. The manors of the old city Xanthi, many of which are still intact, list of settlements in the Xanthi regional unit Slavic toponyms of places in Xanthi Prefecture
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Evros (regional unit)
Evros is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace and its name is derived from the river Evros, which appears to have been a Thracian hydronym. Evros is the northernmost regional unit and it borders Turkey to the east, across the river Evros, and it borders Bulgaria to the north and the northwest. Together with the regional units Rhodope and Xanthi, it forms the region of Western Thrace. Evros is one of the largest regional units of Greece and it forms the eastern part of the geographical region Western Thrace, and includes the island Samothrace in the northern Aegean Sea. Its length is about 150 km from north to south and its width ranges from 70 to 100 km from east to west. The most important rivers are the Evros and its tributary Arda, the Rhodope Mountains lie in the west and the southwest. The Aegean Sea lies to the south, the coastal area has a predominantly Mediterranean climate, whereas the northern part and the mountains have a colder continental climate.
The Evros regional unit is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli Evros was established as a prefecture in 1930, when the former Thrace Prefecture was divided into the Rhodope and Evros prefectures. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a unit within the East Macedonia and Thrace region. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, as a part of Western Thrace, the territory of the Evros regional unit followed the fate of that region. At 1821, several parts of Evros region, such as Lavara and it became part of Greece in 1920, when it was ceded by Bulgaria as a result of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Initially it was part of the Thrace Prefecture, which was subdivided in 1930, during the Greco-Turkish War, many Greek refugees settled in the Evros, and new towns bere built, including Orestiada. The Evros river valley was flooded several times, notably in 1997,2005, another line connects Alexandroupoli with Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria via Didymoteicho and Orestiada, with a branch line from Didymoteicho to Uzunköprü, Turkey.
The Alexandroupolis International Airport is served by national flights
Vehicle registration plates of Greece
Greek vehicle registration plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate. The letters represent the district that issues the plates while the numbers begin from 1000 to 9999, similar plates with digits beginning from 1 to 999 are issued for motorcycles which exceed 50 cc. With the exception of Athens and Thessaloniki, all districts are represented by the first 2 letters, the final letter in the sequence changes in Greek alphabetical order after 9,000 issued plates. For example, Patras plates are ΑΧΑ-1000, where ΑΧ represents the Achaia prefecture of which Patras is the capital, when ΑΧΑ-9999 is reached the plates turn to ΑΧΒ-1000 and this continues until ΑΧΧ is finished. Only the letters from the intersection between the Latin and Greek alphabets by glyph appearance are used, namely Α, Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ, Χ. This is because Greece is a party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. The rule applies in a way in Russia, Belarus and Herzegovina. Combinations used for residents are L-NNNN and are limited.
Until 2003, taxis used L-NNNN, the plate was aligned with the prefecture, when number plates were introduced to Greece, they were numbered and in the late 1950s the system was L-NNN and LL-NNN. The letters were Greek letters and Latin letters, respectively, in 1956, the system was NNNNNN. In 1972, they became lettered and the system was LL-NNNN while trucks used L-NNNN, in 1983, the system was LLL-NNNN and the first two letters are prefecture letters. In 2004, the euroband was added, the first 2 of 3 letters of a licence plate usually represent the prefecture where the car was registered. Π. — Disabled in war ΔΟΚ — Test plates ΔΣ — Corps Diplomatique or foreign delegation Ε. Α. or ΕΛ. ΑΣ. — Hellenic Police ΛΣ — Coast Guard ΞΑ — Foreign missions ΕΣ — Hellenic Army ΠΑ — Hellenic Air Force ΠΝ — Hellenic Navy ΠΣ — Fire Guard ΠΚ — President of the Government, i. e
Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, with a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europes 16th-largest country. Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period and its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Persians, Romans, Goths and Huns. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State, the following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, in December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgarias transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgarias population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised, most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are industry, power engineering. The countrys current political structure dates to the adoption of a constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic, animal bones incised with man-made markings from Kozarnika cave are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, the latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation. Some of these first gold smelters produced the coins and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure and this site offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria, and kept it until 479 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control, by this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria. From the 6th century the easternmost South Slavs gradually settled in the region, in 680 Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It consists of the parts of the country, comprising the eastern part of the region of Greek Macedonia along with the region of Western Thrace. The region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace was established in the 1987 administrative reform, capital of the region is Komotini, which by population is the fourth largest city, following Alexandroupoli and Xanthi. Unlike the former prefectures, the regional units however have limited administrative powers. Along with Central Macedonia, the region is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia, the political post of the Regional governor was created in the course of the Kallikratis reform and can be considered the successor of the former prefects. Current governor is the former Prefect of Xanthi, Giorgos Pavlidis, the region is home to Greeces main Muslim minority, made up mainly of Pomaks and Western Thrace Turks, whose presence dates to the Ottoman period.
Unlike the Muslims of Greek Macedonia and elsewhere in northern Greece, they were exempted from the Greek-Turkish population exchange following the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne
The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Its highest peak, Golyam Perelik, is the seventh highest Bulgarian mountain, the mountain range gives its name to the terrestrial ecoregion Rodope montane mixed forests that belongs in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome and the Palearctic ecozone. The region is notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms. A significant part of Bulgarias hydropower resources is located in the areas of the range. There are a number of hydro-cascades and dams used for electricity production, irrigation, in Greece there are the HPPs of Thisavros and Platanovrysi. The name of the Rhodope mountains has a Thracian provenance, rhod-ope is interpreted as the first name of a river, meaning rusty/reddish river, where Rhod- has the same Indo-European root as the Bulgarian руда, ръжда, риж, Latin rufus and German rot. In Greek mythology, Queen Rhodope of Thrace offended the gods, the wife of King Haemus of Thrace, the mountains are associated with the mythic figure of Orpheus.
In geomorphological terms, the Rhodopes are part of the Rilo-Rhodope massif, the Rhodopes are spread over 14,735 square kilometers, of which 12,233 square kilometers are on Bulgarian territory. They have the greatest extent of any mountain range in Bulgaria. The mountains are about 240 kilometers long and about 100 to 120 kilometres wide, to the north the mountain slopes descend steeply towards the Upper Thracian Plain. To the west, the Rhodopes reach the Avram saddle, Yundola, to the south and east they extend over the border with Greece. The Rhodopes are a system of ridges and deep river valleys. Fifteen reserves have established in the region, some of which are under UNESCO protection. The location of the Rhodopes in the part of the Balkan Peninsula determines the climate in the region to a great extent. It is influenced both by the air coming from the north and by the warmer breeze from the Mediterranean. The average annual temperature in the Eastern Rhodopes is 13 °C, the precipitation is in December.
In the Western Rhodopes, the temperature varies from 5 to 9 °C, the mild climate, combined with some other factors, works in favour of the development of recreation and tourist activities. The Pamporovo resort, where the microclimate permits a heavy snow cover to be preserved for a time, is an excellent example
Muslim minority of Greece
The Muslim minority of Greece is the only explicitly recognized minority in Greece. It numbers 97,605 according to the 1991 census, and 140,000 people or 1. 24% of the total population and these arguments have territorial overtones, since the self-identity of the Muslims in Western Thrace could conceivably support territorial claims to the region by Turkey. The Muslims of Western Thrace were exempt from the 1923 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey (when all of the 1, most of the Muslim minority in Greece resides in the Greek region of Thrace, where they make up 28. 88% of the population. Muslims form the majority in the Rhodope regional unit and sizable percentages in the Xanthi and Evros regional units. Nearly 3,000 Turks remain on the island of Rhodes and 2,000 on the island of Kos, the exchanged populations were not homogenous, the Christians resettled in Greece included not only Greek speakers, but Georgian speakers, Arabic speakers and even Turkish speakers. The official Greek text of the Treaty of Lausanne refers to muslim minorities in article 45 However, according to the Greek government, Turkish speakers form approximately 50% of the minority, Pomaks 35% and Muslim Roma 15%.
The minority enjoys full equality with the Greek majority, and prohibition against discrimination and freedom of religion are provided for in Article 5, in Thrace today there are 3 muftis, approximately 270 imams and approximately 300 mosques. The minority is represented in the Greek parliament, and is currently represented by PASOK members Çetin Mandacı. During the 2002 local elections, approximately 250 Muslim municipal and prefectural councillors and mayors were elected, the main minority rights activist organization of the Turkish community within the minority is the Turkish Minority Movement for Human and Minority Rights. The Pomak language, however, is not taught at any level of the education system, the government finances the transportation to and from the schools for students who live in remote areas, and in the academic year 1997-98, approximately 195,000 USD was spent on transportation. Finally,0. 5% of places in Greek higher education institutions are reserved for members of the minority, all the aforementioned institutions are funded by the state.
The main minority grievance regards the appointment of muftis, Human Rights Watch alleges that this is against Lausanne Treaty which grants the Muslim minority the right to organize and conduct religious affairs free from government interference. As such, there are two muftis for each post, one elected by the faithful, and one appointed by Presidential Decree. The elected Mufti of Xanthi is Mr Aga and the government recognized one is Mr Sinikoğlu, the elected Mufti of Komotini is Mr Şerif and the government recognized one is Mr Cemali. According to the Greek government, the elections by which Mr Aga, as pretension of authority is a criminal offence against the lawful muftis under the Greek Penal Code, both elected muftis were prosecuted and on conviction, both were imprisoned and fined. When, the case was taken to the European Court of Human Rights, another controversial issue was Article 19 of the Greek Citizenship Code, which allowed the government to revoke the citizenship of non-ethnic Greeks who left the country.
According to official statistics 46,638 Muslims from Thrace and the Dodecanese islands lost their citizenships from 1955 to 1998, the final grievance is the Greek governments restrictions on the usage of the terms Turk and Turkish when describing the minority as a whole. A number of organizations, including the Turkish Union of Xanthi, have been banned for using terms in their title