Le Rhône was the name given to a series of popular rotary aircraft engines produced in France by Société des Moteurs Le Rhône and the successor company of Gnome et Rhône. They powered a number of military aircraft types of the First World War. Le Rhône engines were produced under license worldwide. Although not powerful, they were dependable rotary engines; the Le Rhône 9 was a development of a seven-cylinder design. Examples of nine-cylinder Le Rhône rotary engines are on public display in aviation museums with several remaining airworthy, powering vintage aircraft types. In most respects the Le Rhône engines were typical rotary engines, so that the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit; the copper induction tubes had their crankcase ends located in different places on the 80 and 110 horsepower versions. This resulted in the 80 hp version's intake plumbing being "fully visible" from the front, while the 110 hp version had the lower ends of its intake tubes "hidden" behind the cylinders.
A complicated slipper bearing system was used in the Le Rhône engine. The master rod was of a split-type, it employed three concentric grooves, designed to accept slipper bearings from the other cylinders. The other connecting rods used inner-end bronze shoes; the master rod was numbered as number one and the shoes of numbers two and eight rode in the outer groove, the shoes of three and nine in the middle groove and four and seven in the inner groove. Although this system was complex, the Le Rhône engines worked well; the Le Rhône engines used an unconventional valve actuation system, with a single centrally-pivoting rocker arm moving the exhaust valve and the intake valve. When the arm moved down it opened the intake valve and when it moved up it opened the exhaust valve. To make this system work a two-way push-pull rod was fitted, instead of the more conventional one-way pushrod; this feature required the cam followers to incorporate a positive action, a function designed in by using a combination of links and levers.
This design prevented valve overlap and so limited power output, but as the engine structure and cooling arrangements would not have been adequate at a higher power output, this should not be considered a significant design fault. As well as production by Société des Moteurs Gnome et Rhône, which had bought out Société des Moteurs Le Rhône in 1914, the Le Rhône was produced in Germany, the United Kingdom, Russian Empire and Sweden. 80 hp le Rhône engines were made under license in the United States by Union Switch and Signal of Pennsylvania, the 110 hp Oberursel Ur. II rotary engine used by Germany in World War I, in such famous fighters such as the Fokker Dr. I triplane, was a close copy of the 110 hp le Rhône 9J version. Data from: Le Rhône Type 7A 50 hp, seven-cylinder rotary engine — twenty built for use on Borel Monoplanes and Sommer Biplanes. Le Rhône Type 7B 50 hp, seven-cylinder rotary engine — Thirty-five prototype engines built. Le Rhône Type 7B2 60 hp, seven-cylinder rotary engine — 350 built at Societe Moteurs le Rhône.
Le Rhône Type 7Z 40hp Le Rhône Type 9C 80 hp, nine-cylinder rotary engine. Le Rhône Type 9J 110 hp, nine-cylinder rotary engine. Le Rhône Type 9Ja 110 hp, nine-cylinder rotary engine. Le Rhône Type 9Jb 120 hp, nine-cylinder rotary engine. Le Rhône Type 9Jby 130 hp, nine-cylinder rotary engine. Le Rhône Type 9R 170 hp / 180 hp 9-cylinder rotary. Le Rhône 9Z A 60 hp 9-cylinder rotary. Le Rhône 11F A 100 hp 11-cylinder rotary. Le Rhône 14D A 120 hp two-row rotary, consisting of two seven-cylinder rows rotating round a single two-throw crankshaft. Le Rhône 18E A 160 hp two-row rotary, consisting of two nine-cylinder rows rotating round a single two-throw crankshaft. Le Rhône 18E A 340 hp two-row rotary, consisting of two 9R rows rotating round a single two-throw crankshaft. Le Rhône 28E A 320 hp four-row rotary, consisting of four seven-cylinder rows rotating round a single four-throw crankshaft. Le Rhône K A 9-cylinder rotary prototype engine. Le Rhône L A 9-cylinder rotary prototype engine. Le Rhône M A 9-cylinder rotary engine produced in small quantities.
Le Rhône P A 9-cylinder rotary prototype engine. Le Rhône R A 9-cylinder rotary prototype engine. Oberursel Ur. II A clone of the Le Rhône 9J Oberursel Ur. III An 11 cylinder German development of the Ur. II. Oberursel produced the 110 hp model without authorization in Germany; the Oberursel Ur. II was a straight copy of the Le Rhône, but the Le Rhône was preferred over the Oberursel due to the materials used in the French product. However, by July 1918 there was a shortage in Germany of castor oil, a plant-derived lubricant that the rotaries required, as it could not be dissolved into the fuel and because it possessed lubrication qualities superior to mineral oils of the day. A new Voltol-based lubricant, derived from mineral oil, was substituted and was blamed for engine failures on German fighters such as the Fokker E. V, which used the Oberursel Ur. II, it has been suggested that without proper lubricants, the Le Rhône rota
The Rhône Glacier is a glacier in the Swiss Alps and the source of the river Rhône and one of the primary contributors to Lake Geneva in the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais. Because the glacier is located close to the Furka Pass road it is accessible; the Rhône Glacier is the largest glacier in the Urner Alps. It lies on the south side of the range at the source of the Rhône; the Undri Triftlimi connects it to the Trift Glacier. The glacier is located on the northernmost part of the canton of Valais, between the Grimsel Pass and the Furka Pass and is part of the Oberwald municipality; the Dammastock is the highest summit above the glacier. The Rhône Glacier is accessible so its evolution is observed since the 19th century; the glacier lost ~1300 m during the last 120 years leaving behind a track of naked stone. For several years, UV-resistant fleecy white blankets have been installed during the warm periods, covering about 5 acres of the retreating glacier to reduce its melting. It's estimated that this effort reduces the melting by up to 70%.
In addition to the global implications of increasing climate warming and instability, the local economy is at risk of losing business income from glacier tourists who have flocked to the area since 1870 to walk through "a long and winding ice grotto with glistening blue walls and a leaky ceiling". List of glaciers in Switzerland List of glaciers Retreat of glaciers since 1850 Swiss Alps Rhône Glacier at Glaciers online Rhône Glacier at NASA Earth Observatory Simulation of the shrinking of the glacier Swiss Glacier Monitoring Network: Rhône Glacier - with length variation measurements since 1879 Media related to Rhône Glacier at Wikimedia Commons Interactive repeat photo comparisons of the Rhône Glacier
The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée designations. The region's major appellation in production volume is Côtes du Rhône AOC; the Rhône is divided into two sub-regions with distinct vinicultural traditions, the Northern Rhône and the Southern Rhône. The northern sub-region produces red wines from the Syrah grape, sometimes blended with white wine grapes, white wines from Marsanne and Viognier grapes; the southern sub-region produces an array of red and rosé wines blends of several grapes such as in Châteauneuf-du-Pape. The first cultivated vines in the region were planted around 600 BC; the origins of the two most important grape varieties in the northern Rhone are subject to speculation. Some say. Others say the grape came 50 years when Greeks fled from the Persian king Cyrus I, yet others say the grape came from the Sicilian city of Syracuse, whence circa 280 AD the Romans brought it and the Viognier grape.
Meanwhile, extensive DNA typing and viticultural research has led scientists to conclude that Syrah originated in the Rhône region itself. Regardless of origin, when the Romans disappeared so too did interest in the wine of the region. Rhône reappeared in the 13th century when the Popes and their considerable purchasing power moved to Avignon, at which time the production of wine expanded greatly; the wines were traded to such a degree that the Duke of Burgundy banned import and export of non-Burgundian wines. In 1446 the city of Dijon forbade all wines from Lyon and Vienne, arguing that they were "très petit et pauvres vins" - small and miserable wines; the name Côtes du Rhône comes from public administration in the 16th century and was a name of a district in the Gard depardement. In 1650, to guard against forgeries a set of rules was passed in an attempt to guarantee the origin of the wine. In 1737 the King decreed that all casks destined for resale should be branded C. D. R; those were the wines from the area around Tavel, Roquemure and Chusclan.
Just over 100 years wines from other parts of the region were added to the C. D. R definition; the various AOC wines of the Rhône Valley region are produced by over 6,000 wine growing properties including 1,837 private wineries and 103 cooperatives. Those vineyard owners which do not vinify their wines themselves deliver their grapes in bulk either to a winemaking cooperative, of which there are 103 in the region, or sell them to one of the 51 négociants who blend and export on an industrial scale; the entire Rhône region produces around 4 million hl of wine each year, of which over half is classified under the Côte du Rhône and Côte du Rhône-Villages appellations. The prestigious Northern Rhône appellations account for less than 5% of the total Rhône wine production; the northern Rhône is characterised by a continental climate with harsh winters but warm summers. Its climate is influenced by the mistral wind. Northern Rhône is therefore cooler than southern Rhône, which means that the mix of planted grape varieties and wine styles are different.
Syrah is the only red grape variety permitted in red AOC wines from this sub-region. The grape, believed to have originated in or close to the Rhône region, is widely known as Shiraz, its name in Australia and much of the English-speaking world, has become popular with consumers around the world. For wines bearing the Cornas AOC designation, Syrah must be used whereas other reds from the northern Rhône sub-region may be blended with white wine grapes, either Viognier or Marsanne and Roussanne, depending on the appellation. However, while this is allowed by the AOC rules, blending with white grapes is practiced only for Côte-Rôtie. Viognier by itself is used for white wines from Château-Grillet. Marsanne and Roussanne are in turn used for the whites from Crozes-Hermitage, Saint Joseph, Saint Péray. From north to south the appellations in the northern Rhône are: Côte-Rôtie AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 20% Viognier. Condrieu AOC - whites of Viognier only. Château-Grillet AOC - whites of Viognier.
Saint-Joseph AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 10% Marsanne and Roussanne. Crozes-Hermitage AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 15% Marsanne and Roussanne. Hermitage AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 15% Marsanne and Roussanne. Cornas AOC - reds of Syrah only. Saint-Péray AOC - sparkling and still whites of only Marsanne and Roussanne. Northern Rhône reds are identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon; the southern Rhône sub-region has a more Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Drought can be a problem in the area; the differing terroirs, together with the rugged landscape which protects the valleys from the Mistral, produce microclimates which give rise to a wide diversity of wines. A feature of the cultivation of the region is the use of large pebbles around the bases of the vines to absorb the heat of the sun during the day to keep the vines warm at night when, due to the cloudless skies, there is a significant drop in temperature; the southern Rhône's most famous red wine is Châteauneuf-du-Pape, a blend containing up to 19 varieties of wine grapes as permitted by the Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC rules.
Other nearby AOC regions
Gnome et Rhône
Gnome et Rhône was a major French aircraft engine manufacturer. Between 1914 and 1918 they produced 25,000 of their 9-cylinder Delta and Le Rhône 110 hp rotary designs, while another 75,000 were produced by various licensees; these engines powered the majority of aircraft in the first half of the war, both Allied designs as well as German examples produced by Motorenfabrik Oberursel. In the post-war era they started a new design series based on the Bristol Jupiter, but evolving into the excellent 1,000 hp-class Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Major radial, licensed and used around the world during World War II, they were a major supplier of engines to the German Luftwaffe, producing both their own designs as well as German ones under licence. Their factories were the target of accurate bombing, knocking them out of the war; the company was nationalized as a part of Snecma in 1949, but the brand lived on for a time as the manufacturer of Gnome et Rhône motorcycles and Gnome et Rhône bicycles. In 1895 the 26-year-old French engineer Louis Seguin bought a license for the Gnom gas engine from the German firm Motorenfabrik Oberursel.
Sold under the French translation, the Gnome was a single-cylinder stationary engine of about 4 hp that ran on kerosene intended to be used in industrial applications. The Gnome used a unique valve system with only one rod-operated exhaust valve, a "hidden" intake valve located on the cylinder head. On 6 June 1905 Louis Seguin and his brother Laurent formed the Société Des Moteurs Gnome to produce automobile engines, they soon started development of one of the first purpose-designed aircraft engines, combining several Gnome cylinders into a rotary engine. The design emerged in the spring of 1909 as the 7-cylinder rotary Gnome Omega, delivering 50 hp from 75 kg. More than 1,700 of these engines would be built in France, along with license-built models in Germany, Britain, the United States and Russia; the Gnome powered Henry Farman's Farman III aircraft to take the world records for distance and endurance, as well as powering the first aircraft to break 100 km/h, as well as the first seaplane to fly in 1910, powering France to become the leading country in aviation at the time.
Léon Lemartin and Jules Védrines were two young engineers who participated in the design and implementation of the Omega, in the milieu of the pioneering days of flight they both went on to become successful pilots. All of the Gnomes were known for their unique solutions to getting fuel to the top of the piston without using piping. Early models used two valves, one in the cylinder head and a second embedded in the piston itself, counterweighted to open at the end of the stroke. Without any springs or pushrods, the valve would pop open on the downstroke, allowing fuel to be drawn into the cylinder from the crankcase area, it was very difficult to service, requiring the cylinder to be disassembled. In order to improve reliability and maintenance models used the Monosoupape system instead, using a single exhaust valve at the top of the cylinder and using a series of ports to allow the fuel mixture into the top of the cylinder when the piston had moved down in the cylinder past the ports; the basic Gnome design was delivered in a series of larger engines.
The Gnome Lambda of 1911 was a larger 80 hp version of the Omega, followed by the 9-cylinder 100 hp Gnome Delta in 1914. Gnome tried a 14-cylinder two-row version, the Double Lambda of 160 hp, but this saw little use though it was copied by Oberursel as the U. III in Germany, used in a few early Fokker fighter designs without success. To deliver more power with the advent of high-power inline engines late in the war, a new nine-cylinder Monosoupape design was delivered in 1918 as the Type-N, delivering 160 hp; this design saw use on the little-known but excellent Nieuport 28. Another French engineer, Louis Verdet, designed his own small rotary engine in 1910 which did not see much use. In 1912 he delivered the 7C, which developed 70 hp from 90 kg; this proved much more popular and he formed Société des Moteurs Le Rhône that year. He soon followed the 7C with a nine-cylinder design delivering 80 hp. Compared to the Gnome's, the Le Rhône was more "conventional", using copper intake manifold pipes to bring the fuel to the top of each engine cylinder, along with intake and exhaust valves.
Like Gnome, the Le Rhône designs were licensed, in this case the 110 hp Le Rhone 9J was produced in Germany bu Oberursel as their Ur. II model as designated by IdFlieg, in the United States. After several years of fierce competition, Gnome and Le Rhône decided to merge. Negotiations started in 1914, on 12 January 1915 Gnome bought out Le Rhône to form Société des Moteurs Gnome et Rhône. Developments of the 9C continued to be their primary product, improving in power to about 110 hp in the Le Rhône 9J by the end of the war; the 9-series was the primary engine for most early-war designs both in French and British service as well as in Germany where somewhat Oberursel had taken out a license just before the war. Oberursel's engine based on the Gnome designs were prefixed with a U, while those based on the Le Rhône a Ur. With the end of the war the company diversified, using their factories to produce chassis and engines for the Rol
The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire, rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône and the Little Rhône; the resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region. The name Rhone continues the name Latin: Rhodanus in Greco-Roman geography; the Gaulish name of the river was *Rodonos or *Rotonos. The Greco-Roman as well as the reconstructed Gaulish name is masculine; this form survives in the Spanish/Portuguese and Italian namesakes, el/o Ródano and il Rodano, respectively. German has adopted the French name but given it the feminine gender; the original German adoption of the Latin name was masculine, der Rotten. In French, the adjective derived from the river is rhodanien, as in le sillon rhodanien, the name of the long, straight Saône and Rhône river valleys, a deep cleft running due south to the Mediterranean and separating the Alps from the Massif Central.
Before railroads and highways were developed, the Rhône was an important inland trade and transportation route, connecting the cities of Arles, Valence and Lyon to the Mediterranean ports of Fos-sur-Mer, Marseille and Sète. Travelling down the Rhône by barge would take three weeks. By motorized vessel, the trip now takes only three days; the Rhône is classified as a Class V waterway for the 325 km long section from the mouth of the Saône at Lyon to the sea at Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. Upstream from Lyon, a 149 km section of the Rhône was made navigable for small ships up to Seyssel; as of 2017, the part between Lyon and Sault-Brénaz is closed for navigation. The Saône, canalized, connects the Rhône ports to the cities of Villefranche-sur-Saône, Mâcon and Chalon-sur-Saône. Smaller vessels can travel further northwest and northeast via the Centre-Loire-Briare and Loing Canals to the Seine, via the Canal de la Marne à la Saône to the Marne, via the Canal des Vosges to the Moselle and via the Canal du Rhône au Rhin to the Rhine.
The Rhône is infamous for its strong current when the river carries large quantities of water: current speeds up to 10 kilometres per hour are sometimes reached in the stretch below the last lock at Vallabrègues and in the narrow first diversion canal south of Lyon. The 12 locks are operated daily from 5:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. All operation is centrally controlled from one control centre at Châteauneuf. Commercial barges may navigate during the night hours by authorisation; the Rhône rises as an effluent of the Rhône Glacier in the Valais, in the Swiss Alps, at an altitude of 2,208 metres. From there it flows south through Gletsch and the Goms, the uppermost, valley region of the Valais before Brig. Shortly before reaching Brig, it receives the waters of the Massa from the Aletsch Glacier, it flows onward through the valley which bears its name and runs in a westerly direction about thirty kilometers to Leuk southwest about fifty kilometers to Martigny. Down as far as Brig, the Rhône is a torrent.
Between Brig and Martigny, it collects waters from the valleys of the Pennine Alps to the south, whose rivers originate from the large glaciers of the massifs of Monte Rosa and Grand Combin. At Martigny, where it receives the waters of the Drance on its left bank, the Rhône makes a strong turn towards the north. Heading toward Lake Geneva, the valley narrows, a feature that has long given the Rhône valley strategic importance for the control of the Alpine passes; the Rhône marks the boundary between the cantons of Valais and Vaud, separating the Valais Chablais and Chablais Vaudois. It enters Lake Geneva near Le Bouveret. On a portion of its extent Lake Geneva marks the border between Switzerland. On the left bank of Lake Geneva the river receives the river Morge; this river marks the border between Switzerland. The Morge enters Lake Geneva at a village on both sides of the border. Between Évian-les-Bains and Thonon-les-Bains the Dranse enters the lakewhere it left a quite large delta. On the right bank of the lake the Rhône receives the Veveyse, the Venoge, the Aubonne and the Morges besides others.
Lake Geneva ends in Geneva. The average discharge from Lake Geneva is 251 cubic metres per second. In Geneva, the Rhône receives the waters of the Arve from the Mont Blanc. After a course of 290 kilometres the Rhône leaves Switzerland and enters the southern Jura Mountains, it turns toward the south past the Bourget Lake which it is connected by the Savières channel. At Lyon, the biggest city along its course, the Rhône meets its biggest tributary, the Saône; the Saône carries 400 cubic metres per the Rhône itself 600 cubic metres per second. From the confluence, the Rhône follows the southbound
RMS Rhone was a UK Royal Mail Ship owned by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. She was wrecked off the coast of Salt Island in the British Virgin Islands on 29 October 1867 in a hurricane, killing 123 people, she is now a popular Caribbean wreck dive site. RMSP ships carried mail, passengers and cargo on regular scheduled routes, its first services had been between Southampton and the Caribbean, but in 1851 it added a new route between Southampton and Rio de Janeiro. This growing trade, a number of ships lost at sea, created a need for new ships. In June 1863 RMSP ordered Rhone from the Millwall Iron Works on the Isle of Dogs and her sister ship Douro from Caird & Company in Greenock; the pair was to work the Rio de Janeiro route. They were similar but not identical. Both were handsome ships, but Rhone was considered to have finer lines. At this time the Admiralty supervised Royal Mail Ship contracts. During building the Admiralty surveyor criticised Rhone's bulkheads and water tight compartments.
Revisions were made, the ship was completed to the surveyor's satisfaction. Rhone had an iron hull, was 310 feet long, had a 40-foot beam and 2,738 GRT, she was a sail-steamer, rigged as a two-masted brig. Her compound steam engine developed 500 NHP and gave her a speed of 14 knots on her sea trials. In her contract the ship cost £25 17s 8d per ton and her engine cost £24,500. Rhone was an innovative ship, she had a bronze propeller, only the second made of this alloy. She had a surface condenser in order to save and re-use water in her boilers and steam engine, she was the first ship so equipped to visit Brazil, so in port in 1865 the Emperor of Brazil, Pedro II, came aboard and visited her engine room to see it. Rhone's passenger capacity was 30 second class and 30 third class. On 9 October 1865 she left Southampton on her maiden voyage to Brazil. At first she suffered from overheated bearings, but once this was resolved she became a fast and reliable ship, her next five voyages were to Brazil. Rhone proved her worth by weathering several severe storms.
One storm in 1866 destroyed the cutter and two lifeboats on her port side, damaged the cutter and the mail boat on her starboard side, damaged much of her deck furniture, killed two horses and broke one sailor's leg. In January 1867 Rhone made her final voyage to Brazil, after which RMSP transferred her to the Caribbean route, which at the time was more lucrative and prestigious. On 19 October 1867 Rhone drew alongside RMS Conway in Peter Island for bunkering; the original coaling station they needed had been moved from the Danish island of St. Thomas due to an outbreak of yellow fever. On the day of the sinking, Rhone's Master, Frederick Woolley, was worried by the dropping barometer and darkening clouds, but because it was October and hurricane season was thought to be over and Conway stayed in Great Harbour; the storm which subsequently hit was known as the San Narciso Hurricane and retrospectively categorised as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The first half of the storm passed without much event or damage, but the ferocity of the storm worried the captains of Conway and Rhone, as their anchors had dragged and they worried that when the storm came back after the eye of the storm had passed over, they would be driven onto the shore of Peter Island.
They decided to transfer the passengers from Conway to the "unsinkable" Rhone. As was normal practice at the time, the passengers in Rhone were tied into their beds to prevent them being injured in the stormy seas. Conway got away before Rhone but was caught by the tail end of the storm, foundered off the south side of Tortola, but Rhone struggled to get free. It was ordered to be cut loose, lies in Great Harbour to this day, with its chain wrapped around the same coral head that trapped it a century and a half ago. Time was now critical, Captain Woolley decided that it would be best to try to escape to the shelter of open sea by the easiest route, between Black Rock Point of Salt Island and Dead Chest Island. Between those two islands lay Blonde Rock, an underwater reef, a safe depth of 25 feet, but during hurricane swells, there was a risk that Rhone might founder on that; the Captain took a conservative course. However, just as Rhone was passing Black Rock Point, less than 250 yards from safety, the second half of the hurricane came around from the south.
The winds shifted to the opposite direction and Rhone was thrown directly into Black Rock Point. It is said that the initial lurch of the crash sent Captain Woolley overboard, never to be seen again. Local legend says. Whether or not it is his, a teaspoon is visible entrenched in the wreck's coral; the ship broke in two, cold seawater made contact with her hot boilers, running at full steam, causing them to explode. The ship sank swiftly, the bow section in 80 feet of the stern in 30 feet. Of the 145 crew and passengers on board, twenty-five people survived the wreck; the bodies of many of the sailors were buried in a nearby cemetery on Salt Island. Due to her mast sticking out of the water, her shallow depth, she was deemed a hazard by the Royal Navy in the 1950s and her stern section was blown up. Rhone is now a popular dive site, the area around her was turned into a national park in 1980. Rhone has received a number of citations and awards over the years as one of the top recreational wreck div
Rhône is a French department located in the central Eastern region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. It is named after the river Rhône; the Rhône department was created on August 12, 1793 when the former département of Rhône-et-Loire was split into two departments: Rhône and Loire. The eastern border of Rhône was the city of Lyon itself, so that the communes east of Lyon belonged to neighboring departments. With the growth of Lyon and the spilling of the urban area into the suburban communes of Lyon, such as Villeurbanne, the limits of the department were judged impractical as they left the suburbs of Lyon outside of Rhône. Thus, Rhône was enlarged several times to incorporate into it the suburbs of Lyon from neighboring department: In 1852, four communes from Isère were incorporated into Rhône. In 1967, 23 communes of Isère and six communes of Ain were incorporated into Rhône. In 1971, one commune from Isère was incorporated into Rhône. With these enlargements, the area of the Rhône department increased from 2,791 km² to the current 3,249 km².
At the 1999 French census, the original Rhône department would have had only 1,071,288 inhabitants, which means that the population in the territories added in the last two centuries was 507,581 inhabitants in 1999. In 2015 the Metropolis of Lyon was separated from the Rhône department. Lyon, although no longer part of the department, remains its administrative center. Rivers include the Saône; the neighboring departments are Isère, Loire and Saône-et-Loire. Before the Metropolis of Lyon was separated from the department, over 75% of its population lives within the Greater Lyon, which included all of the largest cities of the Rhône department, apart from Villefranche-sur-Saône. Lyon: 491,268 inhabitants Villeurbanne: 145,034 inhabitants Vénissieux: 60,159 inhabitants Vaulx-en-Velin: 42,726 inhabitants Saint-Priest: 42,535 inhabitants Caluire-et-Cuire: 41,357 inhabitants Bron: 38,881 inhabitants Villefranche-sur-Saône: 35,640 inhabitants The President of the Departmental Council is Christophe Guilloteau, a member of the Republicans.
This list includes representatives from Lyon Metropolis created in 2015 as a separate department. Cantons of the Rhône department Communes of the Rhône department Arrondissements of the Rhône department French language Arpitan language Prefecture website General Council website 69.pagesd.info - Webportal and directory of communes and web sites of the Rhône département website