Rhumspringe is a municipality in the district of Göttingen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is part of the Eichsfeld; the source of the river Rhume is at Rhume Spring in Rhumspringe
The Rhume is a 48 km long river in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a right tributary of the Leine, its source is the karstic spring of Rhume Spring in Rhumspringe, south of the Harz mountain range. The water drains with high pressure from the ground of the funnel-shaped well, known for its turquoise colour; the Rhume flows in northwesterly direction through the municipalities of Gieboldehausen, Katlenburg-Lindau and Northeim. It joins the Leine river west of Northeim. Eller Hahle Oder Söse Düne List of rivers of Lower Saxony
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia. The name Harz derives from Hart, Latinized as Hercynia; the Brocken is the highest summit in the Harz with an elevation of 1,141.1 metres above sea level. The Wurmberg is the highest peak located within the state of Lower Saxony; the Harz has a length of 110 kilometres, stretching from the town of Seesen in the northwest to Eisleben in the east, a width of 35 kilometres. It occupies an area of 2,226 square kilometres, is divided into the Upper Harz in the northwest, up to 800 m high, apart from the 1,100 m high Brocken massif, the Lower Harz in the east, up to around 400 m high and whose plateaus are capable of supporting arable farming; the following districts fall wholly or within the Harz: Goslar and Göttingen in the west and Mansfeld-Südharz in the north and east, Nordhausen in the south. The districts of the Upper Harz are Goslar and Göttingen, whilst the Lower Harz is on the territory of Harz and Mansfeld-Südharz districts.
The Upper Harz is higher and features fir forests, whilst the Lower Harz descends into the surrounding area and has deciduous forests interspersed with meadows. The dividing line between Upper and Lower Harz follows a line from Ilsenburg to Bad Lauterberg, which separates the catchment areas for the Weser and Elbe. Only on the southeastern perimeter of the Upper Harz, called the High Harz, does the mountain range exceed 1,000 m above NN on the Brocken massif, its highest peak is the Brocken, its subsidiary peaks are the Heinrichshöhe to the southeast and the Königsberg to the southwest. Other prominent hills in the Harz are the Acker-Bruchberg ridge, the Achtermannshöhe and the Wurmberg near Braunlage. In the far east, the mountains merge into the East Harz foothills, which are dominated by the Selke Valley. Part of the south Harz lies in the Thuringian district of Nordhausen; the Harz National Park is located in the Harz. 600,000 people live in towns and villages of the Harz Mountains. Because of the heavy rainfall in the region the rivers of the Harz Mountains were dammed from an early date.
Examples of such masonry dams are the two largest: the Rappbode Dam. The clear, cool water of the mountain streams was dammed by early mountain folk to form the various mountain ponds of the Upper Harz waterways, such as the Oderteich; the 17 dams in the Harz block a total of twelve rivers. Because the Harz is one of the regions of Germany that experiences the most rainfall, its water power was used from early times. Today the dams are used to generate electricity, to provide drinking water, to prevent flooding and to supply water in times of scarcity. Modern dam-building began in the Harz with the construction of the Söse Valley Dam, built between 1928 and 1931; the dams of the Upper Harz lakes are some of the oldest dams in Germany. → See List of dams in the Harz The largest rivers in the Harz are the Innerste, the Oker and the Bode in the north. The Innerste merges into the Leine and its tributaries are the Nette and the Grane; the rivers Radau and Ilse all discharge into the Oker. The Hassel, the Selke and the Holtemme flow into the Bode.
The Wipper is fed by the Eine. The Rhume is joined by the Oder; the Zorge, the Wieda and the Uffe all flow into the Helme. → See List of hills in the Harz → See List of rock formations in the Harz Climatically a hill range has lower temperatures and higher levels of precipitation than the surrounding land. The Harz is characterised by regular precipitation throughout the year. Exposed to westerly winds from the Atlantic, heavy with rain, the windward side of the mountains has up to 1,600 mm of rain annually; the Harz is the most geologically diverse of the German Mittelgebirge, although it is overwhelmingly dominated by base-poor rocks. The most common rocks lying on the surface are argillaceous shales, slaty greywackes and granite intrusions in the shape of two large igneous rock masses or plutons; the Gießen-Harz surface layer of the Rhenohercynian zone, widespread in the Harz, consists of flysch. Well-known and economically important are the limestone deposits around Elbingerode and the Gabbro of Bad Harzburg.
The landscapes of the Harz are characterised by steep mountain ridges, stone runs flat plateaus with many raised bogs and long, narrow V-shaped valleys, of which the Bode Gorge, the Oker and Selke valleys are the best known. A representative cross-section of all the Harz rocks is displayed on the Jordanshöhe near Sankt Andreasberg near the car park; the formation and geological folding of the Harz hills began during a prominent phase of the Palaeozoic era, in the course of the Hercynian mountain building of the Carboniferous period, about 350 to 250 million years ago. At that time in the history of the Earth, numerous high mountains appeared in Western Euro
A karst spring or karstic spring is a spring, part of a karst hydrological system. Because of their conical or inverted bowl shape, karst springs are known in German-speaking lands as a Topf, reflected in names such as Aachtopf or Blautopf. Karst springs have a large discharge rate, because they are fed by underground drainage from a large catchment basin; because the springs are the terminus of a cave drainage system at the place where a river cave reaches the Earth's surface, it is possible to enter the caves from karst springs for exploration. Large karst springs are located in many parts of the world. An estavelle or inversac is a ground orifice which, depending on weather conditions and season, can serve either as a sink or as a source of fresh water, it is a type of sinkhole. A Vauclusian spring is a spring that originates from a shaft or a cave system, with the water surging upwards under high pressure, it is named after the Fontaine de Vaucluse in southern France. Submarine karst springs known as vruljas, occur worldwide, are most numerous in shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea.
They can be considered to be karst springs. A main feature of karst springs is that water is transported by underground caverns, so that there is minimal filtering of the water and little separation of different sediments. Groundwater emerges at the spring within a few days from precipitation. Storms and general seasonal changes in rainfall have a noticeable and rapid effect on karst springs. Many karst springs dry up during the driest part of the year, are thus known as intermittent springs. Still others are dry most of only flow after heavy rain. Sources that only flow during wet years are known in German as Hungerbrunnen, since folklore claimed a connection between the flow rate of a spring and poor crop yield in a wet year; this appears to be more of a culturally-related superstition, as scientific studies on various Hungerbrunnen have not confirmed such a relationship. An example is the Hungerbrunnen in the parish of Heuchlingen near Gerstetten; the properties of karst springs make. Their uneven flow rate does not support steady rates of consumption in summer when there is lower discharge but higher demand.
In addition, poor filtering and high hardness mean. For these reasons, karst springs are nowadays used for drinking water; the French Realist painter Gustave Courbet painted a number of karst springs among many landscapes he depicted in the Jura region of eastern France. List of karst springs Ponor Karst springs in Germany The Hungerbrunnen in the Leinleiter valley