Pwllheli is a community and the main market town of the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd, north-western Wales. It had a population of 4,076 in 2011 of whom 81 %, are Welsh speaking. Pwllheli is the place, it is the birthplace of the Welsh poet Sir Albert Evans-Jones. The town's name means salt water basin; the town was given its charter as a borough by Edward, the Black Prince, in 1355, a market is still held each Wednesday in the centre of the town on'Y Maes'. The town grew around the shipbuilding and fishing industries, the granite quarry at Gimlet Rock. During the 1890s, the town was developed by a Cardiff businessman; this work included the Promenade and houses at West End. A tramway was built linking the town to Llanbedrog; the trams ran until 1927 when the section of track between Carreg-y-Defaid and Tyddyn-Caled was damaged by a storm. Andrews ran the Cardiff Road section in 1928, offered to sell the tramway to Pwllheli Corporation at the end of the season, but they did not take up his offer, he sold the assets, the Corporation removed the tracks during the winter of 1928/29.
For many years a holiday camp run by Butlins operated a few miles from Pwllheli at Pen-y-chain. During the Second World War it became a naval camp, HMS Glendower, it operated a hospital for wounded servicemen at Brynberyl on the Pwllheli to Caernarfon road two miles out of town. After the war, Butlins re-established the holiday camp; the camp, now renamed Hafan y Môr, is now run by the Haven group. Pwllheli is the main town of the Llŷn Peninsula, has a range of shops and other services; as a local railhead with a market every Wednesday, the town is a gathering point for the population of the whole peninsula. Ysgol Cymerau, primary school Ysgol Glan y Môr, secondary school Ysgol Glan y Môr was formed by the merger in 1969 of the former Pwllheli Grammar School at Penrallt and the Frondeg Secondary Modern School in Upper Ala Road, to form a comprehensive school based at two separate sites in the town; the junior pupils were located at the Penrallt site and the senior pupils at a new complex in Cardiff Road.
This new school was subsequently expanded to accommodate all pupils under the Ysgol Glan y Môr name. The Penrallt site was redeveloped as the Pwllheli campus of Coleg Meirion-Dwyfor; the façade of the main building of the old grammar school was retained and incorporated into the design of the current college buildings. Thus the'old school' is seen from the town square as it has been since the former Pwllheli County School moved to Penrallt in the early 20th century. Coleg Meirion-Dwyfor Pwllheli railway station is the terminus of the Cambrian Coast Railway running to Machynlleth with services continuing to Shrewsbury and Birmingham; the station is served by Transport for Wales. The rail link to Caernarfon via the Carnarvonshire Railway was axed under the Beeching cuts and closed in December 1964. Pwllheli is connected to the wider road network by the A497 to Porthmadog and the A499 to Caernarfon. From there, major roads lead away from Gwynedd to the rest of Wales. Bus services in the town are operated by Arriva Buses Wales and Nefyn Coaches and serve most of the town as well as the rest of the wider Llŷn Peninsula area.
Clynnog & Trefor run services to Caernarfon where connections can be made to Bangor and the wider North Wales area. Pwllheli bus station is situated in the town centre. Plas Bodegroes a Michelin starred restaurant Two Blue Flag beaches Penarth Fawr a 15th-century house Marina Hafan y Môr, a former Butlins holiday camp now operated by Haven Pwllheli Market Clwb Golff Pwllheli - a par 69 links and parkland golf course Pwllheli Sailing Club - hosts national and international events Neuadd Dwyfor - theatre and cinema located in Penlan StreetPwllheli has a section of the Wales Coast Path along its shoreline. Pwllheli hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1925 and 1955, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1875. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 80% of the population speak Welsh, with the highest percentage of Welsh speakers in the 10-14 age bracket, 94%. Pwllheli is home to association football team Pwllheli F. C. rugby union team Pwllheli RFC and Running Club Llŷn Striders.
Pwllheli is a hub for water sports, due in part to a large and modern marina, Pwllheli Sailing Club, Plas Heli - the Welsh National Sailing Academy. The town has South Beach and Glan don. South Beach stretches from Gimlet Rock, across the Promenade and West End, towards Penrhos and Llanbedrog. Glan don Beach is located on the eastern side of the river mouth and runs for 3 miles from behind the marina workshops and out towards Penychain; the town has a popular golf club, located on the beautiful Llŷn coastline. Official Website for Pwllheli Memories of Butlin's at Pwllheli www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Pwllheli and surrounding area list of ships built at Pwllheli at Rhiw.com
The Nantlle Ridge is the name given to a small range of mountains in Snowdonia, north Wales which runs south-west from the village of Rhyd Ddu for a distance of about 9 km, ending above Nebo in the Nantlle Valley. The Nantlle Ridge offers excellent hill walking with fewer crowds than on the more popular parts of Snowdonia, it can be started from either end. There are no great technical difficulties, although a little scrambling may be required on some parts of the ridge. Starting from the Rhyd Ddu end, the Nantlle Ridge is composed of the following peaks: Y Garn; the crag of Craig yr Ogof is popular with rock climbers. Terry Marsh The summits of Snowdonia ISBN 0-7090-5248-0 Nantlle Ridge Walk on Mud and Routes www.geograph.co.uk: photos of the Nantlle Ridge and surrounding area
Yr Aran is a mountain peak on a ridge radiating south from Snowdon, Wales' highest mountain, with beautiful views of the summit of Snowdon, Moel Hebog and the Nantlle Ridge. Although no paths are marked on maps, the ascent is made as a detour from the Rhyd Ddu path or the Watkin Path up Snowdon. Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Yr Aran and surrounding area
Penrhyndeudraeth is a small town and community in the Welsh county of Gwynedd. The town is close to the mouth of the River Dwyryd on the A487 nearly 3 miles east of Porthmadog, had a population of 2,150 at the 2011 census, increased from 2,031 in 2001. An older settlement of a few cottages at Upper Penrhyn was called Cefn Coch and that name is perpetuated by the Penrhyndeudraeth primary school, known as Ysgol Cefn Coch; the ground on which it stands was a malarial swamp encircling a huge stagnant pool. The present town owes its existence as a commercial centre to a local landowner, David Williams of Castell Deudraeth near Minffordd, who in the mid-19th century drained the swamp and dried the pool and constructed many streets. Adopting a scheme of town planning evolved by the builder of Tremadog and his Italian craftsmen, Williams gave Penrhyndeudraeth broad streets and wide open spaces; the main square is a road junction with choice of four roads - one leading to the station, one to Porthmadog, one to Maentwrog and the other to Llanfrothen and the Pass of Aberglaslyn.
Williams' daughter Alice Williams built the first Institute Hall for one of the first British Women's Institutes in the country in Penrhyndeudraeth. The lower half of Penrhyndeudraeth used to be a lake, drained to create the area where the village's High Street is today; the names of terraces in Penrhyndeudraeth, such as Glanllyn and Penllyn, refer to a time when the site was underwater. There is an area named Penlan, which may point to the reason why the lower half of Penrhyndeudraeth is flat, it is believed that the lower half of Penrhyndeudraeth was founded on a spot behind the Royal Oak pub where the old Pierce & Sons garage is located. Prior to the many 19th century land reclamation projects and the building of the Ffestiniog Railway, both of which spurred economic growth, the few local inhabitants relied on agriculture and small-scale copper mining; some men worked boats on the River Dwyryd. Local women at that time gathered cockles in the estuary for sale in local markets. Penrhyndeudraeth is still known locally by the people of Blaenau Ffestiniog and Porthmadog, as Penrhyn Cocos.
Halfway between Penrhyndeudraeth and Minffordd, next to the Snowdonia National Park Headquarters, but standing apart, is Hendre Hall, where in 1648 Humphrey Humphreys was born. He became Bishop of Bangor from 1689 to 1701 and of Hereford, he died in 1712. One of the family carvings at the Holy Trinity Church Penrhyndeudraeth is of him and there is an oak chest which Richard Humphreys gave to Llanfrothen Church whilst working as its warden in 1690; the property named "Cae Ednyfed", between Penrhyndeudraeth and Minffordd, was once the property of Ednyfed Fychan, commander-in-chief to Llywelyn ap Iorwerth. The town has not always been religious. Early in the history of the Methodists, they established chapels, fellowship meetings were established. There is a history of revivalists such as Daniel Rowland who held meetings at Tyddyn Isaf and the poet Dafydd Siôn Siâms who publicly cursed the new religion before himself being converted, he chastised the Methodists mercilessly before burning all their critical poetic works in a public bonfire in the village square.
The Old Methodists' original communion chalice is to be seen in the National Library in Aberystwyth. The town was in two Anglican parishes and Llandecwyn. Holy Trinity church was built in 1858 and a new parish of Penrhyndeudraeth was created in 1897. For nearly 75 years the explosives works were the economic backbone of the village; the population depended on employment offered by the slate industry at Blaenau Ffestiniog and the trade in raw materials through the busy harbour at Porthmadog. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward extends north to Llanfrothen with a total population of 2,587. The main manufacturing industry in Penrhyndeudraeth was established in 1872 to make guncotton. Cookes Explosives Ltd, which became part of the Imperial Chemical Industries, dealing with increased demand for munitions during World War I, set up a new explosives factory at Penrhyndeudraeth, bringing an economic boom to the town; the plant produced thousands of tons of munitions for the war and explosives for quarrying and mining.
In 1949, R. T. Cooke applied for a licence to store explosives at Croesor Quarry, in Penrhyndeudraeth. Many lives were lost in accidents at the works, there is a slate plaque to remember them and everyone who worked there; the prolonged miners' strike of 1984 and the competition from foreign coal imports resulted in wholesale pit closures which, in turn, reduced the demand for mining explosives to the point where production was no longer economic and the site was cleared in 1997. It is now a nature reserve notable for the presence in summer of nightjars. Another 19th-century industry in the district is Garth Quarry at Minffordd, established in 1870 to make granite setts for road building in towns and cities. Like the explosives industry, the quarry relied on the coming of the Cambrian Railways in 1872; the quarry now produces roadstone and railway ballast. The town is at the junction of the A487 with the A4085 which connects with Beddgelert and Caernarfon; the first section of this road is narrow and rises steeply through Upper Penrhyn.
In places it is so narrow. To the sout
Dolgellau is a market town and community in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, lying on the River Wnion, a tributary of the River Mawddach. It is traditionally the county town of the historic county of Merionethshire, which lost its administrative status when Gwynedd was created in 1974. Dolgellau is the main base for climbers of Cadair Idris; the site of Dolgellau was, in the pre-Roman Celtic period, part of the tribal lands of the Ordovices, who were conquered by the Romans in AD 77–78. Although a few Roman coins from the reigns of Emperors Hadrian and Trajan have been found near Dolgellau, the area is marshy and there is no evidence that it was settled during the Roman period. There are, three hill forts in the vicinity of Dolgellau, of uncertain origin. After the Romans left, the area came under the control of a series of Welsh chieftains, although Dolgellau was not inhabited until the late 11th or 12th century, when it was established as a "serf village" by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn — it remained a serf village until the reign of Henry Tudor.
A church was built in the 12th century, although Cymer Abbey, founded in 1198 in nearby Llanelltyd, remained the most important religious centre locally. Dolgellau gained in importance from this period onwards, was mentioned in the Survey of Merioneth ordered by Edward I. In 1404 it was the location of a council of chiefs under Owain Glyndŵr. After a visit by George Fox in 1657, many inhabitants of Dolgellau converted to Quakerism. Persecution led a large number of them to emigrate to Pennsylvania in 1686, under the leadership of Rowland Ellis, a local gentleman-farmer; the Pennsylvanian town of Bryn Mawr, home to a prestigious women's liberal arts college, is named after Ellis's farm near Dolgellau. The woollen industry was long of the greatest importance to the town's economy; the industry declined in the first half of the 19th century, owing to the introduction of mechanical looms. Another important contributor to the local economy was tanning, which continued into the 1980s in Dolgellau, though on a much reduced scale.
The town was the centre of a minor gold rush in the 19th century. At one time the local gold mines employed over 500 workers. Clogau St. David's mine in Bontddu and Gwynfynydd mine in Ganllwyd have supplied gold for many royal weddings. Dolgellau was the county town of Merionethshire until 1974 when, following the Local Government Act of 1972, it became the administrative centre of Meirionnydd, a district of the county of Gwynedd; this was abolished in 1996 by the Local Government Act 1994. Today, the economy of Dolgellau relies chiefly on tourism, it is believed that Dolgellau Cricket Club, founded in 1869 by Frederick Temple, is one of the oldest cricket clubs in Wales. For nearly a century Dolgellau was the home of Dr Williams School, a pioneering girls' secondary school; this was funded from the legacy of Daniel Williams the Welsh nonconformist of the 17th/18th century. The name of the town is of uncertain origin, although dôl is Welsh for "meadow" or "dale", gelli means "grove" or "spinney", is common locally in names for farms in sheltered nooks.
This would seem to be the most derivation, giving the translation "Grove Meadow". It has been suggested that the name could derive from the word cell, meaning "cell", translating therefore as "Meadow of cells", but this seems less considering the history of the name; the earliest recorded spelling is "Dolkelew", although a spelling "Dolgethley" dates from 1285. From until the 19th century, most spellings were along the lines of "Dôlgelly" "Dolgelley", "Dolgelly" or "Dolgelli". Thomas Pennant used the form "Dolgelleu" in his Tours of Wales, this was the form used in the Church Registers in 1723, although it never had much currency. In 1825 the Registers had "Dolgellau", which form Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt adopted in 1836. While this form may derive from a false etymology, it became standard in Welsh and is now the standard form in both Welsh and English, it was adopted as the official name by the local rural district council in 1958. Shortly before the closure of the town's railway station it displayed signs reading variously Dolgelly and Dolgellau.
Dolgellau is home to Coleg Meirion-Dwyfor. The site it occupies was home to Dr Williams' School, a direct grant grammar school for girls aged 7–18 established in 1875, it was named after its benefactor Dr Daniel Williams, a Nonconformist minister from Wrexham, who gave his name to Dr Williams's Library in Euston, London. The school closed in 1975. Dolgellau Grammar School, a boys' school, had been established in 1665 by the Rector of Dolgellau, Dr John Ellis, at Pen Bryn, before moving to its present site on the Welshpool road. In 1962, it became a comprehensive school under the name Ysgol y Gader, it has 310 pupils and, according to the latest inspection report by Estyn, it has a GCSE pass rate of 75%, which puts it in joint 11th place in Wales, makes it o
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t
Beddgelert is a village and community in the Snowdonia area of Gwynedd, Wales. The population of the community taken at the 2011 census was 455, it is reputed to be named after the legendary hound Gelert. It stands in a valley at the confluence of the River River Colwyn. Just above the confluence of the rivers, in the centre of the village, is the old stone bridge with two arches; the River Gwynant exists in the area. Many of the houses and hotels are built of local dark stone. To the west is Moel Hebog and its neighbours to the north and a series of hills rising to the top of Snowdon. A lane of the A4085 between Caernarfon and Porthmadog runs through the village; the outdoor equipment company Gelert originated in Bryncir moved to Beddgelert but moved its headquarters to nearby Porthmadog. The folk tale of the faithful hound "Gelert" is associated with the village. A raised mound in the village is a significant tourist attraction, but the grave was built by the late 18th-century landlord of the Goat Hotel, David Pritchard, who created it in order to encourage tourism.
Similar legends can be found in other parts of Asia. The village is named after an early Christian missionary and leader called Celert who settled here early in the 8th century; the earliest record of the name Beddgelert appears on a document dated 1258, the name recorded is "Bekelert". In a document of 1269 it is recorded as "Bedkelerd"; the Church of St. Mary stands at the end of Stryd yr Eglwys; this was a part of an Augustinian Monastery, but is all that remains since the rest of the monastery was burnt down during Edward I's war of conquest. Rebuilding was not completed at the time of the suppression of the monastery in about 1536. Parts of the building is still in active use today. Beddgelert is a significant tourist attraction, its picturesque bridge crossing the River Colwyn just upstream of its confluence with the River Glaslyn, it is the nearest village to the scenic Glaslyn gorge, an area of tumultuous river running between steep wooded hills. Much of the area is, becoming invaded by the alien plant, Rhododendron ponticum which provides a covering of pink blossom in May and June, but, blanketing out the native flora.
Attempts have been made to control its spread by burning. River levels on the River Glaslyn in Beddgelert are monitored by the Environment Agency, in order to give advance warning of flood conditions lower down the valley. Beddgelert has a range of hotels with public bars, guesthouses and restaurants; the car park in the village provides the easiest access route for climbing Moel Hebog, the mountain which directly overlooks the village. Part of the restored Welsh Highland Railway runs through the village. In April 2009 the railway station was reopened to the public; the line links the village with Porthmadog to the south. Other local attractions include the Sygun Copper Mine; the village is linked with the Rupert Bear stories, as Alfred Bestall wrote and illustrated some of the stories whilst he lived in the village, in a cottage at the foot of Mynydd Sygun. There is a small area known as ‘Rupert Garden’ in the village, dedicated to the Bear. Many films have made use of the scenery around Beddgelert.
Other more modern films such as Tomb Raider 2: Lara Croft and the Cradle of Life have been filmed here. Renowned bards who lived in the area in the 15th–16th centuries include Dafydd Nanmor, Rhys Nanmor and Rhys Goch Eryri. More from the 19th to the 20th centuries both Glaslyn and Carneddog lived in Nantmor. Nantmor is still home to poets, including Nia Powell and Cynan Jones; the strong woman and harpist Marged ferch Ifan is said to have been born here as she was baptised at the local church in 1696. Alfred Bestall, one of the illustrators and storytellers of the comic strip character Rupert Bear, lived in the village for many years. On September 21, 1949 a meteorite struck the Prince Llewelyn Hotel in the early hours of the morning, causing damage to the roof and a bedroom in the hotel; the following week the Caernarvon & Denbigh Herald reported the incident: STRANGE HAPPENING.- About 3 a.m. on the morning of September 21st, a piece of metal weighing about 5 pounds fell through the roof of Prince Llewelyn Hotel to a bedroom below.
The noise was heard throughout the village, up to the present no explanation has been forthcoming for the mysterious happening. The proprietor of the hotel, a Mr Tillotson, subsequently sold half the meteorite to the British Museum and half to Durham University, which had placed an advertisement in the local papers asking for information and offering a reward for any recovered fragments of the meteorite. There have only been two such verified meteorite falls in Wales: the Beddgelert incident, an earlier incident fourteen miles away in Pontllyfni in 1931, at the other end of the Nantlle Ridge. Notes Bibliography Beddgelert Travel Guide Beddgelert Snowdonia Guide www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Beddgelert and surrounding area Map sources for Beddgelert