SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rhyme

A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in the final stressed syllables and any following syllables of two or more words. Most this kind of "perfect" rhyming is consciously used for effect in the final positions of lines of poems and songs. More broadly, a rhyme may variously refer to other types of similar sounds near the ends of two or more words. Furthermore, the word rhyme has come to be sometimes used as a shorthand term for any brief poem, such as a rhyming couplet or nursery rhyme; the word derives from Old French rime or ryme, which may be derived from Old Frankish rīm, a Germanic term meaning "series, sequence" attested in Old English and Old High German rīm cognate to Old Irish rím, Greek ἀριθμός arithmos "number". Alternatively, the Old French words may derive from Latin rhythmus, from Greek ῥυθμός; the spelling rhyme was introduced at the beginning of the Modern English period from a learned association with Latin rhythmus. The older spelling rime survives in Modern English as a rare alternative spelling.

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. A distinction between the spellings is sometimes made in the study of linguistics and phonology for which rime/rhyme is used to refer to the nucleus and coda of a syllable; some prefer to spell it rime to separate it from the poetic rhyme covered by this article. Rhyme seems to be enjoyed as a repeating pattern, pleasant to hear, it serves as a powerful mnemonic device, facilitating memorization. The regular use of tail rhyme helps to mark off the ends of lines, thus clarifying the metrical structure for the listener; as with other poetic techniques, poets use it to suit their own purposes. The word rhyme can be used in a general sense. In the specific sense, two words rhyme if their final stressed vowel and all following sounds are identical. A rhyme in the strict sense is called a perfect rhyme. Examples are sight and flight and gain, madness and sadness and dove. Perfect rhymes can be classified according to the number of syllables included in the rhyme, dictated by the location of the final stressed syllable.

Single known as masculine: a rhyme in which the stress is on the final syllable of the words double known as feminine: a rhyme in which the stress is on the penultimate syllable of the words dactylic: a rhyme in which the stress is on the antepenultimate syllable In the general sense, general rhyme can refer to various kinds of phonetic similarity between words, to the use of such similar-sounding words in organizing verse. Rhymes in this general sense are classified according to the degree and manner of the phonetic similarity: syllabic: a rhyme in which the last syllable of each word sounds the same but does not contain stressed vowels. Imperfect: a rhyme between a stressed and an unstressed syllable. Weak: a rhyme between two sets of one or more unstressed syllables. Semirhyme: a rhyme with an extra syllable on one word. Forced: a rhyme with an imperfect match in sound. Assonance: matching vowels. Assonance is sometimes referred to as slant rhymes, along with consonance. Consonance: matching consonants.

Half rhyme: matching final consonants. Pararhyme: all consonants match. Alliteration: matching initial consonants. Identical rhymes are considered less than perfect in English poetry. Though homophones and homonyms satisfy the first condition for rhyming—that is, that the stressed vowel sound is the same—they do not satisfy the second: that the preceding consonant be different; as stated above, in a perfect rhyme the last stressed vowel and all following sounds are identical in both words. If the sound preceding the stressed vowel is identical, the rhyme is sometimes considered to be inferior and not a perfect rhyme after all. An example of such a super-rhyme or "more than perfect rhyme" is the identical rhyme, in which not only the vowels but the onsets of the rhyming syllables are identical, as in gun and begun. Punning rhymes, such as bare and bear are identical rhymes; the rhyme may extend farther back than the last stressed vowel. If it extends all the way to the beginning of the line, so that there are two lines that sound similar or identical, it is called a holorhyme.

In poetics these would be considered identity, rather than rhyme. Eye rhymes or sight rhymes or spelling rhymes refer to similarity in spelling but not in sound where the final sounds are spelled identically but pronounced differently. Examples in English are cough and love, move; some early written poetry appears to contain these, but in many cases the words used rhymed at the time of writing, subsequent changes in pronunciation have meant that the rhyme is now lost. Mind rhyme is a kind of substitution rhyme similar to rhyming slang, but it is less codified and is “heard” only when generated by a specific verse context. For instance, “this sugar is n

Schwarziana

Schwarziana is a small genus of South American stingless bees. Like other stingless bees, Schwarziana are eusocial, with large colonies composed of workers and one queen. Unusually for stingless bees, colonies are formed in underground chambers rather than in tree cavities. Workers are 6.5mm long The type species for this genus, S. quadripunctata, was first described by the French entomologist Amédéé Louis Michel le Peletier in 1836. Although placed in the genus Trigona, more recent taxonomic evaluations have since placed it under its current genus, following the 1943 description of Schwarziana by Padre J. S. Moure. However, some still categorize Schwarziana as a subgenus under the related genus Plebeia. Recent morphological studies support Schwarziana as a genus, while Plebeia appears to be paraphyletic

Aram Roston

Aram Roston is an American investigative journalist, author of The Man Who Pushed America to War: The Extraordinary Life and Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi He is a correspondent for Reuters. He has written for Newsweek, The New York Times, GQ, Mother Jones, The Nation, "Playboy Magazine,"The Guardian, The Observer, New Statesman and other publications. In 2010, Roston was awarded the Daniel Pearl Award by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, for a story called "How the US Funds the Taliban." The expose, which ran in November 2009 in The Nation Magazine, sparked a congressional investigation, disclosed how a web of Pentagon contractors in Afghanistan pay millions of dollars in protection money to the Taliban. The Daniel Pearl Award is named after the Wall Street Journal correspondent murdered in 2002 in Pakistan and recognizes outstanding international investigative journalism. In 2016 Roston and his colleague Jeremy Singer-Vine were awarded the Scripps Howard investigative journalism Farfel Award for a BuzzFeed News story called "Fostering Profits," exposing abuses and deaths at the largest for-profit foster care company in the United States, The Mentor Network.

The series sparked a U. S. Senate investigation. Other journalism awards include a 2011 Investigative Reporters and Editors prize, two Emmy awards for investigative business reporting, a merit award from the Society of Silurians, he has been a correspondent for BuzzFeed News from 2014 to 2018, was a correspondent for CNN from 1998 through 2001, a producer for the investigative unit at NBC Nightly News from 2003 through 2008, Newsweek in 2011 and 2012, a police reporter for NY1 News in New York City, has reported from around the world, including assignments in Iraq, Colombia and Afghanistan. The Man Who Pushed America to War: The Extraordinary Life and Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi, Nation Books ISBN 978-1-56858-353-2, ISBN 978-1-56858-415-7 Meet the'Prince of Marbella' - is he supporting Iraq's insurgency?, Aram Roston, The Guardian, October 1, 2006 Crossing Jordan: Iraq fuel deal sparks lawsuit, Aram Roston, investigative producer NBC News, June 18, 2008 Former Iraq security contractors say firm bought black market weapons, T. Christian Miller, ProPublica, Aram Roston, September 18, 2009 How the US army protects its trucks – by paying the Taliban, Aram Roston, The Guardian, November 13, 2009 Aram Roston archive from "BuzzFeed" Aram Roston archive from AlterNet Aram Roston archive from The Huffington Post Aram Roston archive from Mother Jones Aram Roston archive from The Nation Aram Roston archive from Democracy Now!

The Man Who Pushed America to War.