Monocotyledons referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons, or dicots. However, molecular phylogenetic research has shown that while the monocots form a monophyletic group or clade, the dicots do not. Monocots have always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names; the APG III system of 2009 recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank. The monocots include about 60,000 species; the largest family in this group by number of species are the orchids, with more than 20,000 species. About half as many species belong to the true grasses, which are economically the most important family of monocots. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced; these include not only major grains, but forage grasses, sugar cane, the bamboos.
Other economically important monocot crops include various palms and plantains, gingers and their relatives and cardamom, pineapple, water chestnut, leeks and garlic. Many houseplants are monocot epiphytes. Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, irises, cannas and tulips, are monocots; the monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, in their seeds. This feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which have two cotyledons. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a useful characteristic, nor is it reliable; the single cotyledon is only one of a number of modifications of the body plan of the ancestral monocotyledons, whose adaptive advantages are poorly understood, but may have been related to adaption to aquatic habitats, prior to radiation to terrestrial habitats. Monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has been disagreement as to membership of this group, despite considerable diversity in terms of external morphology.
However, morphological features that reliably characterise major clades are rare. Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity. On the one hand the organisation of the shoots, leaf structure and floral configuration are more uniform than in the remaining angiosperms, yet within these constraints a wealth of diversity exists, indicating a high degree of evolutionary success. Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including and succulent epiphytes, all in the lilioid monocots, major cereal grains in the grass family and forage grasses as well as woody tree-like palm trees, bamboo and bromeliads, bananas and ginger in the commelinid monocots, as well as both emergent and aroids, as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass. Organisation and life formsThe most important distinction is their growth pattern, lacking a lateral meristem that allows for continual growth in diameter with height, therefore this characteristic is a basic limitation in shoot construction.
Although herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height and mass. The latter include agaves, palms and bamboos; this creates challenges in water transport. Some, such as species of Yucca, develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees utilise an anomalous primary growth form described as establishment growth; the axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis. The limited conductivity contributes to limited branching of the stems. Despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted from epiphytic orchids and bromeliads to submarine Alismatales and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae and Triuridaceae. Other forms of adaptation include the climbing vines of Araceae which use negative phototropism to locate host trees, while some palms such as Calamus manan produce the longest shoots in the plant kingdom, up to 185 m long. Other monocots Poales, have adopted a therophyte life form.
LeavesThe cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll and a distal hyperphyll. In monocots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms. From these, considerable diversity arises. Mature monocot leaves are narrow and linear, forming a sheath
Cattleya is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina. The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals. Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids with cylindrical rhizome from which the fleshy noodle-like roots grow. Pseudobulbs can be spindle-shaped or cylindrical; the leaves can be lanceolate or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, with smooth margin. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme with several flowers. Flowers have petals free from each other. There are four polliniums; the fruit is a capsule with many small seeds. The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after horticulturalist William Cattley. Cattley obtained a specimen of unnamed Cattleya labiata from William Swainson who had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817; the plant bloomed under the care of Cattley and it became the type specimen from which Lindley described C. labiata. Accepted species and subgeneric division within genus Cattleya are: C. aurea C. dowiana. C. gaskelliana. C. iricolor. C. jenmanii. C. labiata C. luteola.
C. mendelii. C. mooreana. C. mossiae C. percivaliana. C. quadricolor C. rex. C. schroederae. C. trianae. C. warneri. C. warscewiczii. C. crispa C. grandis. C. lobata C. perrinii C. purpurata C. tenebrosa. C. virens C. xanthina. C. alaorii. C. bicalhoi. C. jongheana. C. praestans C. pumila C. sincorana. C. lundii. C. alvarenguensis C. alvaroana. C. angereri. C. blumenscheinii. C. bradei. C. briegeri. C. campacii. C. caulescens. C. cinnabarina. C. colnagoi. C. conceicionensis Brazil - Minas Gerais) C. crispata C. endsfeldzii. C. esalqueana. C. flavasulina C. fournieri C. ghillanyi. C. gloedeniana C. gracilis. C. hatae C. hegeriana C. hispidula. C. hoehnei C. itambana. C. kautskyana. C. kettieana C. kleberi C. liliputana. C. locatellii C. longipes. C. luetzelburgii. C. macrobulbosa C. marcaliana. C. milleri. C. mirandae. C. munchowiana. C. neokautskyi C. pabstii C. pendula C. pfisteri. C. presidentensis. C. reginae. C. rupestris. C. viridiflora C. acuensis. C. alagoensis C. brevipedunculata. C. cernua. C. coccinea. C. dichroma. C. mantiqueirae.
C. pygmaea. C. wittigiana. C. lawrenceana. C. lueddemanniana. C. wallisii C. araguaiensis C. aclandiae C. amethystoglossa C. bicolor C. dormaniana C. elongata C. forbesii C. granulosa C. guttata. C. harrisoniana. C. intermedia. C. kerrii. C. loddigesii. C. nobilior. C. porphyroglossa. C. schilleriana. C. schofieldiana C. tenuis. C. tigrina. C. velutina C. violacea. C. walkeriana. C. maxima. Accepted natural hybrids are: This section is incomplete. Hybrids of Cattleya and other genera are placed in the following nothogenera: Brassocattleya = Brassavola × Cattleya Brassolaeliocattleya = Brassavola × Cattleya × Laelia Cattleytonia = Cattleya × Broughtonia Rhyncholaeliocattleya = Rhyncholaelia × Cattleya LightCattleyas need light, but not direct sunlight. TemperatureDay temperatures must be between 25-30 °C and night temperatures not lower than 10-12 °C. HumidityMust be between 40-70% with good ventilation. WateringWater only if substrate is dry, it can be done once a week. FertilizingCattleyas can survive without fertilizing.
However, it is advisable to use nitrogen-base
Brassolaeliocattleya, abbreviated Blc. in the horticultural trade, is the orchid nothogenus for intergeneric hybrid greges containing at least one ancestor species from each of the three ancestral genera Brassavola R. Br. Cattleya Lindl. and Laelia Lindl. and from no other genera. As the name was used in 1999, there were many greges which were among the most spectacular of cultivated orchids, being valued for the large showy labellum. By 2009, the Brassavola parents most used in producing Brassolaeliocattleyas had been moved into the genus Rhyncholaelia, the "Laelia" parents most used in producing Brassolaeliocattleyas had been moved into the genus Cattleya; as a result, most of the greges that were classified as Brassolaeliocattleyas in 1999 are now classified in the nothogenus Rhyncholaeliocattleya, although others are now placed in several nothogenera
The term grex, derived from the Latin noun grex, gregis meaning'flock', has been coined to expand botanical nomenclature to describe hybrids of orchids, based on their parentage. Grex names are one of the three categories of plant names governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants; the horticultural nomenclature of grexes exists within the framework of the botanical nomenclature of hybrid plants. Interspecific hybrids occur in nature, are treated under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants as nothospecies, they can optionally be given Linnean binomials with a multiplication sign "×" before the species epithet for example Crataegus × media. An offspring of a nothospecies, either with a member of the same nothospecies or any of the parental species as the other parent, has the same nothospecific name; the nothospecific binomial is an alias for a list of the ancestral species, whether the ancestry is known or not. For example: a hybrid between Cattleya warscewiczii Rchb.f.
1854 and Cattleya aurea Linden 1883 can be called Cattleya × hardyana Sander 1883 or Cattleya hardyana. An offspring of a Cattleya × hardyana pollenized by another Cattleya × hardyana would be called Cattleya × hardyana. Cattleya × hardyana would be the name of an offspring of a Cattleya × hardyana pollenized by either a Cattleya warscewiczii or a Cattleya aurea, or an offspring of either a Cattleya warscewiczii or a Cattleya aurea pollenized by a Cattleya × hardyana. × Brassocattleya is a nothogenus including all hybrids between Cattleya. It includes the species Brassocattleya × arauji known as Brassocattleya arauji, which includes all hybrids between Brassavola tuberculata and Cattleya forbesii. An earlier term was nothomorph for subordinate taxa to nothospecies. Since the 1982 meeting of the International Botanical Congress, such subordinate taxa are considered varieties; because many interspecific barriers to hybridization in the Orchidaceae are maintained in nature only by pollinator behavior, it is easy to produce complex interspecific and intergeneric hybrid orchid seeds: all it takes is a human motivated to use a toothpick, proper care of the mother plant as it develops a seed pod.
Germinating the seeds and growing them to maturity is more difficult, however. When a hybrid cross is made, all of the seedlings grown from the resulting seed pod are considered to be in the same grex. Any additional plants produced from the hybridization of the same two parents belong to the grex. Reciprocal crosses are included within the same grex. If two members of the same grex produce offspring, the offspring receive the same grex name as the parents. If a parent of a grex becomes a synonym, any grex names that were established by specifying the synonym are not discarded. All of the members of a specific grex may be loosely thought of as "sister plants", just like the brothers and sisters of any family, may share many traits or look quite different from one another; this is due to the randomization of genes passed on to progeny during sexual reproduction. The hybridizer who created a new grex chooses to register the grex with a registration authority, thus creating a new grex name, but there is no requirement to do this.
Individual plants may be given cultivar names to distinguish them from siblings in their grex. Cultivar names are given to superior plants with the expectation of propagating that plant; the rules for the naming of greges are defined by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The grex name differs from a species name in that the gregaric part of the name is capitalized, is not italicized, may consist of more than one word. Furthermore, names of greges are to be in a living language rather than Latin. For example: an artificially produced hybrid between Cattleya warscewiczii and C. dowiana is called C. Hardyana gx. An artificially produced seedling that results from pollinating a C. Hardyana gx with another C. Hardyana gx is a C. Hardyana gx. However, the hybrid produced between Cattleya Hardyana gx and C. dowiana is not C. Hardyana gx, but C. Prince John gx. In summary: C. Hardyana gx = C. warscewiczii × C. dowiana C. Eleanor gx = C. Hardyana gx × C. warscewiczii C. Prince John gx = C. dowiana × C.
Hardyana gx When the name of a grex is first established, a description is required that specifies two particular parents, where each parent is specified either as a species or as a grex. The grex name applies to all hybrids between those two parents. There is a permitted exception if the full name of one of the parents is known but the other is known only to genus level or nothogenus level. New grex names are now established by the Royal Horticultural Society, which receives applications from orchid hybridizers; the concept of grex and nothospecies are not equivalent. While greges are only used within the orchid family, nothospecies are used for any plant. Forthermore, a grex and nothospecie
Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter was a German taxonomist and author of several works on orchids. He went on botanical expeditions in Africa, New Guinea and Central America and Australia, his vast herbarium was destroyed during the bombing of Berlin in 1945. Rudolf Schlechter was born on 16 October 1872 in the third of six children, his father Hugo Schlechter was a lithographer. After finishing school at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium he started a horticulture education, first at the gardening market of Mrs. Bluth and at the University of Berlin garden. There he worked as an assistant till the autumn of 1891. Rudolf Schlechter began his career of botanical fieldwork by leaving Europe in 1891 to journey to Africa and subsequently across Indonesia and Australia. Throughout his career he has focused on expanding his research collection of orchids, he was a leader of expeditions in German Africa, investigating the Caoutchouc industry, but continually collecting plant specimens. He lived extensively in German New Guinea in the first decade of the new century.
Before World War I he settled in Berlin, marrying his wife Alexandra Schlechter and becoming curator of Berlin's botanical garden in Dahlem. He is estimated to have proposed one thousand new species in the Orchidaceae family alone. Die Orchideen von Deutsch-Neu-Guinea, 1914 Die Orchideen, ihre Beschreibung, Kultur und Züchtung, 1915 Orchideologiae sino-japonicae prodromus, 1919 Orchidaceae Powellianae Panamenses, 1922 Die Orchideenflora der südamerikanischen Kordillerenstaaten, 1919–1929 Monographie und Iconographie der Orchideen Europas und des Mittelmeergebietes, 1925–1943 Blütenanalysen neuer Orchideen, 1930–1934
In plant systematics Epidendroideae is a subfamily of the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Epidendroideae is larger than all the other orchid subfamilies together, comprising more than 15,000 species in 576 genera. Most Epidendroid orchids are tropical epiphytes with pseudobulbs. There are, some terrestrials such as Epipactis and a few myco-heterotrophs, which are parasitic upon mycorrhizal fungi, they contain the remaining orchids with a single, fertile anther, fully incumbent to suberect. The anther form arises from early anther bending; the incumbent anther is pointed backward in many genera. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains. The pollinia are without; the stigma are three-lobed. The apical part of the middle stigma lobe forms a stipe; the ovary is unilocular. The leaves are distichous or spiraling; the Epidendroideae are difficult to classify. They have been divided in “lower epidendroids” and “higher epidendroids”. Epiphytes are plants which grow on top of other plants.
They are not parasitic. By growing on other plants, the epiphytes can reach to the light better or where they can avoid struggling for light. Many mosses and lichens are epiphytes, as are 10 per cent of all seed plants and ferns. Epiphytes are common in some groups of plants, such as ferns, mosses and algae. Over half of the 20,000 species of orchids are epiphytes. Most epiphytic seed plants and ferns are found in tropical and subtropical rainforests because they need high humidity to survive; the areas which most epiphytes grow are the montane rainforests. Epiphytic orchids are found on many positions of the host tree, depending on species requirements and size, some large species will grow in a fork, whereas some small species scramble through thin branches, other species will climb up the trunk etc. etc. The trees provide many habitats with different conditions of temperature and light. In temperate places, epiphytes are most common in moist forests, such as the rainforests in Queensland. Epiphytes are not adapted to droughts in the same way are other flora, because they don’t have access to the ground, but they still have some mechanisms to help them survive.
Some become dormant for months at a time. They contain absorptive plants that are capable at taking up water when it is available and preventing drought when water is scarcer. CAM can be impeded by higher night-time temperatures, dehydrated tissues, high saturation deficits in the surrounding air, which lower the "stomata conductance" of the epiphytes, reducing the CO2 uptake, which in turn reduces growth and reproduction and induces carbon loss. Higher temperatures, strain on evaporation, contact to light cause CAM-idling, the epiphyte closing its stomata when it becomes stressed, that brings down the range of habitats a species can inhabit. Epiphyte species work biomasses are much more sensitive to different relative moisture levels than other plants; the Epidendroideae subfamily is divided into two clades or subgroups known as the higher epidendroids and the lower epidendroids. The higher epidendroids are monophyletic and polyphyletic; the tribes are listed below: This classification has a rather ephemeral nature and is prone to frequent revision.
Changes are to occur as new morphological and genetic data become available. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae - evidence from rbcL nucleotide sequences Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes on the tree of life
Asparagales is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web. The order takes its name from the type family Asparagaceae and is placed in the monocots amongst the lilioid monocots; the order has only been recognized in classification systems. It was first put forward by Huber in 1977 and taken up in the Dahlgren system of 1985 and the APG in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Before this, many of its families were assigned to the old order Liliales, a large order containing all monocots with colourful tepals and lacking starch in their endosperm. DNA sequence analysis indicated that many of the taxa included in Liliales should be redistributed over three orders, Liliales and Dioscoreales; the boundaries of the Asparagales and of its families have undergone a series of changes in recent years. In the APG circumscription, Asparagales is the largest order of monocots with 14 families, 1,122 genera, about 36,000 species; the order is circumscribed on the basis of molecular phylogenetics, but is difficult to define morphologically, since its members are structurally diverse.
Most species of Asparagales are herbaceous perennials, although some are climbers and some are tree-like. The order contains many geophytes. According to telomere sequence, at least two evolutionary switch-points happened within the order. Basal sequence is formed by TTTAGGG like in majority of higher plants. Basal motif was changed to vertebrate-like TTAGGG and the most divergent motif CTCGGTTATGGG appears in Allium. One of the defining characteristics of the order is the presence of phytomelanin, a black pigment present in the seed coat, creating a dark crust. Phytomelanin is found in most families of the Asparagales; the leaves of all species form a tight rosette, either at the base of the plant or at the end of the stem, but along the stem. The flowers are not distinctive, being'lily type', with six tepals and up to six stamina; the order is thought to have first diverged from other related monocots some 120–130 million years ago, although given the difficulty in classifying the families involved, estimates are to be uncertain.
From an economic point of view, the order Asparagales is second in importance within the monocots to the order Poales. Species are used as food and flavourings, as cut flowers, as garden ornamentals. Although most species in the order are herbaceous, some no more than 15 cm high, there are a number of climbers, as well as several genera forming trees, which can exceed 10 m in height. Succulent genera occur in several families. All species have a tight cluster of leaves, either at the base of the plant or at the end of a more-or-less woody stem as with Yucca. In some cases the leaves are produced along the stem; the flowers are in the main not distinctive, being of a general'lily type', with six tepals, either free or fused from the base and up to six stamina. They are clustered at the end of the plant stem; the Asparagales are distinguished from the Liliales by the lack of markings on the tepals, the presence of septal nectaries in the ovaries, rather than the bases of the tepals or stamen filaments, the presence of secondary growth.
They are geophytes, but with linear leaves, a lack of fine reticular venation. The seeds characteristically have the external epidermis either obliterated, or if present, have a layer of black carbonaceous phytomelanin in species with dry fruits; the inner part of the seed coat is collapsed, in contrast to Liliales whose seeds have a well developed outer epidermis, lack phytomelanin, display a cellular inner layer. The orders which have been separated from the old Liliales are difficult to characterize. No single morphological character appears to be diagnostic of the order Asparagales; the flowers of Asparagales are of a general type among the lilioid monocots. Compared to Liliales, they have plain tepals without markings in the form of dots. If nectaries are present, they are in the septa of the ovaries rather than at the base of the tepals or stamens; those species which have large dry seeds have a dark, crust-like outer layer containing the pigment phytomelan. However, some species with hairy seeds, berries, or reduced seeds lack this dark pigment in their seed coats.
Phytomelan is not unique to Asparagales but it is common within the order and rare outside it. The inner portion of the seed coat is completely collapsed. In contrast, the morphologically similar seeds of Liliales have no phytomelan, retain a cellular structure in the inner portion of the seed coat. Most monocots are unable to thicken their stems once they have formed, since they lack the cylindrical meristem present in other angiosperm groups. Asparagales have a method of secondary thickening, otherwise only found inDioscorea. In a process called'anomalous secondary growth', they are able to create new