The Frankfurt Galaxy was a professional American football team that played in the World League of American Football and in the resurrected NFL Europe. The team was based in Frankfurt and played in the Commerzbank-Arena called Waldstadion; the Galaxy was the only team in the league to have remained in operation and in the same city throughout the league's existence. In September 2014 it was announced that the Frankfurt Football Betriebs GmbH had purchased the rights for the Frankfurt Galaxy from the NFL, it plans to rename the Frankfurt Universe, playing in the German Football League 2 into Frankfurt Galaxy and to take the former's spot in the league in 2015. An attempt to do the same in 2007 had failed because the naming rights lay with the NFL. In 1991, the Galaxy was a founding member of the World League of American Football, they hosted the first WLAF game against the London Monarchs at the Waldstadion on March 23, 1991 and scored the first WLAF points with a safety, but lost the game. When the World League resumed in 1995, the Galaxy, the Monarchs, Barcelona Dragons were the only former WLAF teams that continued playing.
Before it folded, Frankfurt Galaxy was the oldest pro football team outside of the NFL and CFL. Frankfurt played in the last NFL Europa game, losing the 2007 World Bowl to Hamburg; the Frankfurt Galaxy's record eight appearances in the 15 World Bowl games were evenly split in the composite standings with four wins and four losses. The Football Database
The Baltimore Ravens are a professional American football team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Ravens compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the team is headquartered in Owings Mills. The Ravens were established in 1996, after Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns, announced plans to relocate the franchise from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1995; as part of a settlement between the league and the city of Cleveland, Modell was required to leave the Browns' history and records in Cleveland for a replacement team and replacement personnel that would take control in 1999. In return, he was allowed to take his own personnel and team to Baltimore, where such personnel would form an expansion team; the Ravens have qualified for the NFL playoffs eleven times since 2000, with two Super Bowl victories, two AFC Championship titles, 15 playoff victories, four AFC Championship game appearances, five AFC North division titles, are the only team in the NFL to hold a perfect record in multiple Super Bowl appearances.
The Ravens organization was led by general manager Ozzie Newsome from 1996 until his retirement following the 2018 season, has had three head coaches: Ted Marchibroda, Brian Billick, John Harbaugh. With a record-breaking defensive unit in their 2000 season, the team established a reputation for relying on strong defensive play, led by players like middle linebacker Ray Lewis, until his retirement, was considered the "face of the franchise." The team is owned by Steve Bisciotti and valued at $2.5 billion, making the Ravens the 27th-most valuable sports franchise in the world. The name "Ravens" was inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's poem The Raven. Chosen in a fan contest that drew 33,288 voters, the allusion honors Poe, who spent the early part of his career in Baltimore and is buried there; as the Baltimore Sun reported at the time, fans "liked the tie-in with the other birds in town, the Orioles, found it easy to visualize a tough, menacing black bird." After the controversial relocation of the Colts to Indianapolis, several attempts were made to bring an NFL team back to Baltimore.
In 1993, ahead of the 1995 league expansion, the city was considered a favorite, behind only St. Louis, to be granted one of two new franchises. League officials and team owners feared litigation due to conflicts between rival bidding groups if St. Louis was awarded a franchise, in October Charlotte, North Carolina was the first city chosen. Several weeks Baltimore's bid for a franchise—dubbed the Baltimore Bombers, in honor of the locally produced Martin B-26 Marauder bomber—had three ownership groups in place and a state financial package which included a proposed $200 million, rent-free stadium and permission to charge up to $80 million in personal seat license fees. Baltimore, was unexpectedly passed over in favor of Jacksonville, despite Jacksonville's minor TV market status and that the city had withdrawn from contention in the summer, only to return with then-Commissioner Paul Tagliabue's urging. Although league officials denied that any city had been favored, it was reported that Taglibue and his longtime friend Washington Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke had lobbied against Baltimore due to its proximity to Washington, D.
C. and that Taglibue had used the initial committee voting system to prevent the entire league ownership from voting on Baltimore's bid. This led to public outrage and the Baltimore Sun describing Taglibue as having an "Anybody But Baltimore" policy. Maryland governor William Donald Schaefer said afterward that Taglibue had led him on, praising Baltimore and the proposed owners while working behind-the-scenes to oppose Baltimore's bid. By May 1994, Baltimore Orioles owner Peter Angelos had gathered a new group of investors, including author Tom Clancy, to bid on teams whose owners had expressed interest in relocating. Angelos found a potential partner in Georgia Frontiere, open to moving the Los Angeles Rams to Baltimore. Jack Kent Cooke opposed the move, intending to build the Redskins' new stadium in Laurel, close enough to Baltimore to cool outside interest in bringing in a new franchise; this led to heated arguments between Cooke and Angelos, who accused Cooke of being a "carpetbagger." The league persuaded Rams team president John Shaw to relocate to St. Louis instead, leading to a league-wide rumor that Tagliabue was again steering interest away from Baltimore, a claim which Tagliabue denied.
In response to anger in Baltimore, including Governor Schaefer's threat to announce over the loudspeakers Tagliabue's exact location in Camden Yards any time he attended a Baltimore Orioles game, Tagliabue remarked of Baltimore's financial package: "Maybe can open another museum with that money." Following this, Angelos made an unsuccessful $200 million bid to bring the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to Baltimore. Having failed to obtain a franchise via the expansion, the city, despite having "misgivings," turned to the possibility of obtaining the Cleveland Browns, whose owner Art Modell was financially struggling and at odds with the city of Cleveland over needed improvements to the team's stadium. Enticed by Baltimore's available funds for a first-class stadium and a promised yearly operating subsidy of $25 million, Modell announced on November 6, 1995 his intention to relocate the team from Cleveland to Baltimore the following year; the resulting controversy ended when representatives of Cleveland and the NFL reached a settlement on February 8, 1996.
Tagliabue promised the city of Cleveland that an NFL team would be located
2005 NFL season
The 2005 NFL season was the 86th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 8, 2005 to January 1, 2006; the regular season saw the first regular season game played outside the United States, as well as the New Orleans Saints being forced to play elsewhere due to damage to the Superdome and the entire New Orleans area by Hurricane Katrina. The playoffs began on January 7. New England's streak of 10 consecutive playoff wins and chance at a third straight Super Bowl title was ended in the Divisional Playoff Round by the Denver Broncos, the NFL title was won by the Pittsburgh Steelers, who defeated the Seattle Seahawks 21–10 in Super Bowl XL at Ford Field in Detroit, Michigan on February 5 for their fifth Super Bowl win; this marked the first time that a sixth-seeded team, who by the nature of their seeding would play every game on the road, would advance to and win the Super Bowl. The season formally concluded with the Pro Bowl, the league's all-star game, at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 12.
This marked the final season that ABC held the rights to televise Monday Night Football after thirty-six years of airing the series. When the TV contracts were renewed near the end of the season, the rights to broadcast Monday Night Football were awarded to Disney-owned corporate sibling ESPN. NBC bought the right to televise Sunday Night Football, marking the first time that the network broadcast NFL games since Super Bowl XXXII in 1998. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively; the 2005 season featured the first regular season game played outside the United States when a San Francisco 49ers – Arizona Cardinals game was played at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City on October 2. The game drew an NFL regular season record of 103,467 paid fans, it was a home game for the Cardinals because the team sold out at their then-home field, Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona. This season was the last year.
Due to the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the Louisiana Superdome and the greater New Orleans area, the New Orleans Saints’ entire 2005 home schedule was played at different venues while the Saints set up temporary operations in San Antonio, Texas. The Saints’ first home game scheduled for September 18 against the New York Giants was moved to September 19 at Giants Stadium, where the Giants won 27–10; the impromptu “Monday Night doubleheader” with the game scheduled was a success, was made a permanent part of the schedule the next year when Monday Night Football made the move to ESPN. As a result of the unscheduled doubleheader, the NFL designated its second weekend, September 18 and 19, as “Hurricane Relief Weekend’, with fund raising collections at all of the league's games; the Saints’ remaining home games were split between the Alamodome in San Antonio and Louisiana State University's Tiger Stadium in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Being forced to travel to 13 of their 16 games and practice in substandard facilities and conditions in San Antonio, the Saints finished 3–13, their worst season since 1999.
The last time an NFL franchise had to play at an alternate site was in 2002, when the Chicago Bears played home games in Champaign, Illinois, 120 miles away, due to the reconstruction of Soldier Field. The last NFL team to abandon their home city during a season was the hapless 1952 Dallas Texans, whose franchise was returned to the league after drawing several poor crowds at the Cotton Bowl, they played their final “home” game at the Rubber Bowl in Akron, against the Bears on Thanksgiving. The Sunday, October 23 game between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Miami Dolphins at Dolphins Stadium was rescheduled to Friday, October 21 at 7:00 pm EDT to beat Hurricane Wilma's arrival to the Miami, Florida area; the Chiefs won the game, 30–20, became the first visiting team to travel and play on the same day. Since the game was planned for Sunday afternoon, it is one of the few times in history that the Dolphins wore their road jerseys in a home game played at night; the “horse-collar tackle”, in which a defender grabs inside the back or side of an opponent's shoulder pads and pulls that player down, is prohibited.
Named the “Roy Williams Rule” after the Dallas Cowboys safety whose horse collar tackles during the 2004 season caused serious injuries to Philadelphia Eagles wide receiver Terrell Owens, Tennessee Titans wide receiver Tyrone Calico, Baltimore Ravens running back Musa Smith. Peel-back blocks below the waist and from the back are now illegal. Unnecessary roughness would be called for blocks away from the play on punters or kickers, similar to the same protection quarterbacks have after interceptions; when time is stopped by officials prior to the snap for any reason while time is in, the play clock resumes with the same amount of time that remained on it – with a minimum of 10 seconds. The play-clock would be reset to 25 seconds. During field goal and extra point attempts, the defensive team will be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct if it calls consecutive timeouts in an attempt to "ice" the kicker; the second timeout request was only denied by officials, thus could be used to distract the kickers.
Players cannot run, dive into, cut, or throw
The World League of American Football renamed the NFL Europe League and NFL Europa, was a professional American football league which operated between 1991 and 2007. It was backed by the largest league in the United States; each season culminated with the World Bowl. The World League of American Football was founded in 1989 to serve as a type of spring league. Seven of the ten teams were based in North America, the other three in Europe; this format lasted for two seasons, with no league in 1993–94. The WLAF returned in 1995 with six teams, all in Europe, in 1998 the league was rebranded as the NFL Europe League or NFL Europe, until 2006. For the league's last season, 2007, it changed its name to NFL Europa; the league's squads were predominantly assigned by NFL teams, who wanted these younger, developmental players to get additional game experience and coaching. The NFL assumed the expenses of coaches living in Europe; the European six-team format was maintained for 12 seasons, from 1995 to 2008, but by 2008 five teams were based in Germany.
Making a reported $30 million loss per season, with teams such as the inaugural league champion London Monarchs having gone defunct, on 29 June 2008, the NFL announced the end of NFL Europa. A previous proposed league in the 1970s, the Intercontinental Football League, had contained many elements of the eventual all-European league. West German entrepreneur Adalbert Wetzel and sports coach Bob Kap secured the release of several NFL players to the IFL for a planned 1975 season; the IFL would have involved teams in Barcelona, West Berlin, Munich and Istanbul, but was cancelled due to economic and political problems. The World League of American Football was formed in 1989, by a unanimous vote of NFL owners, as a spring developmental league, the "brainchild" of commissioner Paul Tagliabue; this came after the NFL had played popular American Bowls in London's Wembley Stadium and elsewhere since 1986. Of the 28 NFL teams, 26 paid $50,000 each in start-up costs for the WLAF. Team payrolls and budgets were controlled by the WLAF office but not all teams were owned by the league.
The WLAF was set up as a professional American football league for North America and Europe: six teams from the United States, three European teams, one Canadian team. In 1991 parties in Moscow and Japan expressed an interest in additional franchises. Teams were aligned in three divisions: North American West: Birmingham Fire, Sacramento Surge, San Antonio Riders North American East: Montreal Machine, New York/New Jersey Knights, Orlando Thunder, Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks European: Barcelona Dragons, Frankfurt Galaxy, London MonarchsThe WLAF played two seasons in the spring of 1991 and 1992, with 10 teams playing a 10-game regular season with the World Bowl championship game. Rules unique to WLAF included assigning increasing point value to field goals based on distance, a requirement that at least one player of non-US nationality participate in at least every other series of downs. New ideas were tested, like using the two-point conversion rule on the professional field before adopting it in the NFL in 1994.
Other minor tweaks in gameplay, such as a shorter kickoff tee, were first used in the WLAF. Several technical innovations, such as helmet mounted cameras and one-way radios, enabling coaches to tell plays directly to quarterbacks, were developed; the average game attendance for the first season was 25,361, 24,216 in the second season. The original WLAF was noticed in the United States, having a "minor-league or developmental image" and low TV ratings. In the non-U. S. Cities of London, Barcelona and Montreal, crowds surpassed early expectations; the Monarchs' home attendance led the league, the 1991 World Bowl played at Wembley Stadium was attended by 61,108. In May 1991, the Los Angeles Times's Chris Dufresne said American fans were less than Europeans to "shell out hard-earned dollars for games featuring roster-cut leftovers" and suggested there was a post-USFL backlash in Orlando and San Antonio; the WLAF lost $7 million in 1991. The playoff format consisted of four teams: the three divisional champions, plus a wild card with the best overall non-division winning record.
The two teams emerging from the WLAF semi-final playoffs met at the end of the season in the World Bowl. The first two World Bowl locations were predetermined before the season; the average WLAF salary for 10 games plus playoffs was $40,000, but some of the top players made close to $100,000. Operations of the WLAF were suspended after the 1992 season as the league lost money and the involved NFL owners were not willing to invest more. However, the NFL still needed another pro football league to help their cause in the antitrust and free agency lawsuit with the National Football League Players' Association; the three Europe-based teams dominated in 1991, with a combined 24–6 record, while no North American team managed better than 5–5. The London Monarchs won the World Bowl; the Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks lost all 10 games and their franchise, moved to Ohio for 1992. The WLAF's second season was confirmed to go ahead on 23 October 1991, six months before it kicked off. In 1992, fortunes changed and none of the European teams had winning seasons.
Despite this, the European fans remained loyal, but the NFL owners suspended the WLAF after the season. Paul Tagliabue mentioned plans to bring it back with only European teams in 1994. British sports writer Matt Tench cited "an amb
2007 Frankfurt Galaxy season
The 2007 Frankfurt Galaxy season was the 15th and final season for the franchise in the NFL Europa League. The team was led by head coach Mike Jones in his fourth year, played its home games at Commerzbank-Arena in Frankfurt, Germany, they finished the regular season in second place with a record of three losses. In World Bowl XV, Frankfurt lost to the Hamburg Sea Devils 37–28; the National Football League announced the closure of its European branch on June 29. After the completion of the regular season, the All-NFL Europa League team was selected by the NFLEL coaching staffs, members of a media panel and fans voting online at NFLEurope.com. Overall, Frankfurt had seven players selected; the selections were: Bobby Harris, offensive tackle Rhys Lloyd, placekicker Matt McChesney, guard Brandon Middleton, wide receiver Shirdonya Mitchell, cornerback J. T. O'Sullivan, quarterback Matt Sinclair, linebackerAdditionally, O'Sullivan was named offensive co-MVP alongside running back Derrick Ross of the Cologne Centurions.
O'Sullivan started all ten games and led the league in passer rating, passing yards while tying for the lead with 16 touchdown passes. He completed 174 of 254 passes with seven interceptions and rushed 31 times for 110 yards and two touchdowns
New York Giants
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The Giants compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, which it shares with the New York Jets in a unique arrangement. The Giants hold their summer training camp at the Quest Diagnostics Training Center at the Meadowlands Sports Complex; the Giants were one of five teams that joined the NFL in 1925, is the only one of that group still existing, as well as the league's longest-established team in the Northeastern United States. The team ranks third among all NFL franchises with eight NFL championship titles: four in the pre–Super Bowl era and four since the advent of the Super Bowl, along with more championship appearances than any other team, with 19 overall appearances, their championship tally is surpassed only by the Green Bay Packers and Chicago Bears.
Throughout their history, the Giants have featured 28 Hall of Fame players, including NFL Most Valuable Player award winners Mel Hein, Frank Gifford, Y. A. Tittle, Lawrence Taylor. To distinguish themselves from the professional baseball team of the same name, the football team was incorporated as the "New York National League Football Company, Inc." in 1929 and changed to "New York Football Giants, Inc." in 1937. While the baseball team moved to San Francisco after the 1957 season, the football team continues to use "New York Football Giants, Inc." as its legal corporate name, is referred to by fans and sportscasters as the "New York Football Giants". The team has acquired several nicknames, including "Big Blue", the "G-Men", the "Jints", an intentionally mangled contraction seen in the New York Post and New York Daily News, originating from the baseball team when they were based in New York. Additionally, the team as a whole is referred to as the "Big Blue Wrecking Crew" though this moniker and refers to the Giants defensive unit during the 80s and early 90s.
The team's heated rivalry with the Philadelphia Eagles is the oldest of the NFC East rivalries, dating all the way back to 1933, has been called the best rivalry in the NFL in the 21st century. The Giants played their first game as an away game against All New Britain in New Britain, Connecticut, on October 4, 1925, they defeated New Britain 26–0 in front of a crowd of 10,000. The Giants were successful in their first season, finishing with an 8–4 record. In its third season, the team finished with the best record in the league at 11–1–1 and was awarded the NFL title. After a disappointing fourth season owner Mara bought the entire squad of the Detroit Wolverines, principally to acquire star quarterback Benny Friedman, merged the two teams under the Giants name. In 1930, there were still many who questioned the quality of the professional game, claiming the college "amateurs" played with more intensity than professionals. In December 1930, the Giants played a team of Notre Dame All Stars at the Polo Grounds to raise money for the unemployed of New York City.
It was an opportunity to establish the skill and prestige of the pro game. Knute Rockne reassembled his Four Horsemen along with the stars of his 1924 Championship squad and told them to score early defend. Rockne, like much of the public, expected an easy win, but from the beginning it was a one-way contest, with Friedman running for two Giant touchdowns and Hap Moran passing for another. Notre Dame failed to score; when it was all over, Coach Rockne told his team, "That was the greatest football machine I saw. I am glad none of you got hurt." The game raised $100,000 for the homeless, is credited with establishing the legitimacy of the professional game for those who were critical. It was the last game the legendary Rockne coached. In a 14-year span from 1933 to 1947, the Giants qualified to play in the NFL championship game 8 times, winning twice. During this period the Giants were led by Hall of Fame coach Steve Owen, Hall of Fame players Mel Hein, Red Badgro and Tuffy Leemans; the period featured the 1944 Giants, which are ranked as the #1 defensive team in NFL history, "...a awesome unit".
They gave up only 7.5 points per game and shut out five of their 10 opponents, though they lost 14-7 to the Green Bay Packers in the 1944 NFL Championship Game. The famous "Sneakers Game" was played in this era where the Giants defeated the Chicago Bears on an icy field in the 1934 NFL Championship Game, while wearing sneakers for better traction; the Giants played the Detroit Lions to a scoreless tie on November 7, 1943. To this day, no NFL game played since has ended in a scoreless tie; the Giants were successful from the latter half of the 1930s until the United States entry into World War II. They added their third NFL championship in 1938 with a 23–17 win over the Green Bay Packers, they did not win another league title until 1956, the first year the team began playing at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx borough of New York City. Aided by a number of future Pro Football Hall of Fame players such as running back Frank Gifford, linebacker Sam Huff, offensive tackle Roosevelt Brown, as well as all-pro running back Alex Webster.
The Giants' 1956 championship team not only included players who would find their way to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, but a Hall of Fame coaching staff, as well. Head coach J
Rochester Community and Technical College
Rochester Community and Technical College, is a public two-year college located in Rochester, Minnesota. It serves more than 8,000 students annually; the college was founded in 1915 on a motion by Dr. Charles Mayo to the Rochester School Board and is Minnesota's oldest original community college. RCTC offers more than 70 programs and over 130 credential options; the College has partnered with Winona State University to establish more than a dozen “Path to Purple” programs that allow students to complete a four-year degree without leaving Rochester. RCTC is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. On August 23, 1915, Dr. Charles Mayo made a motion at a meeting of the Rochester School Board to add two years of university work to the high school; the board voted unanimously for adoption. The original school consisted of four faculty members and 17 students. Classes were held in what was called the “University Department” or the “Southern University.”
In June 1917, Rochester Junior College graduated its first 10 students at a joint commencement program with the high school. After joining the Minnesota State Junior College System, Rochester Junior College’s name was changed in 1964 to Rochester State Junior College; the state legislature renamed the College Rochester Community College in 1973. The start of what was to become Rochester Area Vocational Technical Institute dates back to 1944 when adult vocational classes were first introduced as part of the Rochester Evening College. By 1966 construction of a separate facility for RSJC was underway; the original technical college building of 78,000 square feet was completed in 1969. When the technical college opened in 1969, it offered 15 program majors and enrolled 213 students. In 1971 a 14,000 square feet addition to the technical college doubled the size of the cafeteria, added four classrooms and a carpentry shop, expanded the machine shop. In 1987 Rochester Area Vocational Technical Institute became Rochester Technical Institute.
A 70,000 square foot, two-story addition to the technical college was completed in 1987 and provided facilities to accommodate the move toward the restructured, credit-based delivery of instruction. It included classrooms and labs for all health and services programs, classrooms for the custom training services division, a child-care center, student commons, media center, reading room, student services office, offices for administration. In 1989, Rochester Technical Institute was renamed Rochester Technical College. On July 1, 1991, Rochester Technical College merged with Austin Technical College and Faribault Technical College to form Joint Vocational Technical District 2501 known as Minnesota Riverland Technical College. Minnesota Riverland Technical College-Rochester and Rochester Community College consolidated on July 1, 1996 to form Rochester Community and Technical College. RCTC offers certificates, associate of arts degrees, associate of fine arts degrees, associate of science degrees, associate of applied science degrees.
Because of the proximity of Mayo Clinic to RCTC, many of the programs offered are medically focused, a few are awarded in conjunction with the Mayo School of Health Sciences, including Cardiovascular Invasive Specialist, Clinical Research Coordinator, Clinical Neurophysiology Technology, Histology. RCTC offers a number of continuing education and custom training program for individuals and industry. Services include designing specific training for organizations, allied health continuing education, entrepreneurship offerings, small business development, continuing education of general interest. RCTC’s accreditation with the Higher Learning Commission is current, having been reaffirmed in 2017. RCTC follows HLC’s Academic Quality Improvement Program in order to maintain its accreditation status. Several programs of study are accredited, including many of the medically related programs; the Student Life program is one of the state's oldest and has more than 25 clubs, fine arts opportunities in music and theater, many other options for student involvement.
The RCTC Yellowjackets are the athletics team of RCTC athletic program is nationally recognized with ten varsity sports ranked nationally. The RCTC campus consists of the RCTC Main Building, Heintz Center, the Rochester Regional Sports Center and Stadium; the Main Building contains several sections: Art Hall, Coffman, College Center, East Hall, Endicott Hall, Goddard Library, Health Sciences, Hill Theater, Memorial Hall, Plaza Hall and Technology, Singley Hall, Student Services. The Career and Technical Education Center at Heintz Center construction is scheduled to be complete Summer of 2016. Construction of a replacement for Memorial and Plaza Halls began in 2018; the $22.9 million project features construction of new space, renovation of existing spaces, demolition of four buildings including Plaza Hall, Memorial Hall, the old Maintenance Garage, the old Child Care Center. The anticipated completion date is July 31, 2020