Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell was a King of Deheubarth who came to rule most of Wales. He became the sole king of Seisyllwg in 920 and shortly thereafter established Deheubarth, proceeded to gain control over the entire country from Prestatyn to Pembroke; as a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty. He was recorded as King of the Annals of Ulster. Hywel is esteemed among other medieval Welsh rulers, his name is linked with the codification of traditional Welsh law, which were thenceforth known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name refers to the fact; the historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and recognition of the rights of women. Hywel Dda was a well-educated man by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Welsh and English; the office building and original home of the National Assembly for Wales is named Tŷ Hywel in honour of Hywel Dda. The original Assembly chamber, now known as Siambr Hywel, is used for educational courses and for children and young people's debates.
The local health board of south-west Wales bears his name. Hywel was born around the son of King Cadell of Seisyllwg, he had a brother, the younger of the two. Hywel was reputed to have married Elen, the supposed heiress of King Llywarch of Dyfed, which connection was subsequently used to justify his family's reign over that kingdom. Hywel's father Cadell had been installed as King of Seisyllwg by his father, Rhodri the Great of Gwynedd, following the drowning of the last king in the traditional line, Gwgon, in 872. After Gwgon's death, husband to the dead king's sister Angharad, became steward of his kingdom; this gave Rhodri no standing to claim the kingship of Seisyllwg himself, but he was able to install his son Cadell as a subject king. Cadell died around 911, his lands in Seisyllwg appears to have been divided between his two sons Hywel and Clydog. Hywel already controlled Dyfed by the time he assumed his father's lands in Ceredigion. No king is recorded after the death of Llywarch in 904, Hywel's marriage to Llywarch's only surviving heir ensured that the kingdom came into his hands.
Hywel and Clydog seem to have ruled Seisyllwg together following their father's death and jointly submitted to Edward the Elder of England in 918. However, Clydog died in 920. Hywel soon joined Dyfed into a single realm known as Deheubarth; this became the first significant event of his reign. In 926 or 928 Hywel made a pilgrimage to Rome, becoming the first Welsh prince to undertake such a trip and return. Upon his return he forged close relations with Athelstan of England. From the outset Athelstan's intention was to secure the submission of all other kings in Britain. In his reign, he was able to leverage his close association with Athelstan and the English crown to great effect in his ambitions within Wales. In 942 Hywel's cousin Idwal Foel, King of Gwynedd, determined to cast off English overlordship and took up arms against the new English king, Edmund. Idwal and his brother Elisedd were both killed in battle against Edwin's forces. By normal custom Idwal's crown should have passed to his sons.
He sent Iago and Ieuaf into exile and established himself as ruler over Gwynedd, which likely placed him in control of the Kingdom of Powys, under the authority of Gwynedd. As such Hywel became king of nearly all of Wales except for Gwent in the south. In 943 Hywel's wife Elen died. Hywel's reign was a violent one, but he achieved an understanding with Athelstan of England whereby Athelstan and Hywel ruled part of Wales jointly; such was the relationship between the neighbouring countries that Hywel was able to use Athelstan's mint at Chester to produce his own silver pennies. Following Hywel's death in 948, his kingdom was soon split into three. Gwynedd was reclaimed by the sons of Idwal Foel. Hywel’s name is associated with the laws of Medieval wales, which are known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. None of the law manuscripts can be dated to Hywel’s time, but Hywel’s name is mentioned in the prologues to the laws; these describe how Hywel gathered expert lawyers and priests from each commote in Wales together in Tŷ Gwyn ar Daf in order to revise and codify the Laws of Wales.
The story in the prologues lengthens with time, with more details in the versions of the prologue. It seems unlikely that this meeting took place, with the purpose of the prologues being to emphasize the royal and Christian origin and background to the laws, that in the face of criticism of the laws from outside Wales during John Peckham’s period as Archbishop of Canterbury, his name continued to be associated with Welsh law which remained in active use throughout Wales until the appointed date of implementation of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 of Henry VIII of England who asserted his royal descent by blood-line from Rhodri Mawr via Hywel Dda. Opinions vary as to the motives for Hywel's close association with the court of Athelstan. J. E. Lloyd claimed Hywel was an admirer of Wessex, while D. P. Kirby suggests that it may have been the action of a pragmatist who recognized the realities of power in mid-10th century Br
Goodwick is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, Wales west of its twin town of Fishguard. Fishguard and Goodwick form a community; as well as the two towns, it consists of Dyffryn, Stop-and-Call, Harbour Village, Lower Town, Penyraber. A Goodwick electoral ward exists covering the town with a total population of 1,988 at the 2011 census. During the Viking Age, the coasts of Wales were subjected to raids in the latter 10th century. Norse trading posts and settlements were established; the name derives from a combination of the old Norse forms: góðr and vik giving góðrvik. Compare formation with Reykjavík where reykr ='smoke'; the southeast facing hillside of Goodwick is sheltered from prevailing and salty SW winds and therefore well tree-covered compared with the exposed headland above and the wet land of the bay. Many older developments in Goodwick have the name'Goedwig' meaning forest - Goedwig Terrace, Chapel etc, thus an alternative explanation for the name may be that it was Goedwig and Goorvik may just have been a happy coincidence for the invaders.
Goodwick was a small fishing village in the parish of Llanwnda, but in 1887 work commenced on a railway connection and harbour, the village grew to service this. The main industry is now tourism although in the town's industrial past brick making was once an important industry; some fishing still takes place on a small scale but most activity is centered on Milford Haven. Goodwick Sands, the local beach, is where the defeated French invasion force assembled prior to their unconditional surrender on 24 February 1797; the harbour was constructed by blasting 1.6 million tonnes of rock from the hillside to make a 1,000 yards long breakwater. The quarried-out area became the quay; the harbour was opened on 30 August 1906. Planned to be the end of the Great Western Railway's line and its major sea port, replacing Neyland, problems with the harbour prevented larger ocean liners from docking. Accordingly, the harbour has a smaller inner breakwater protecting the remaining open side; the Great Western Railway ordered three new steamers for its service to Rosslare, St David, St George and St Patrick.
In 1909, when the RMS Mauretania visited, the passengers had to disembark and board by tender when transferring to and from the London train. The smaller breakwater was built as part of the preparations for the visit of the RMS Mauretania and is sometimes known as the "Mauretania Mole"; the breakwater led to unanticipated silting, the prospect of future visits from larger liners was abandoned. Directly above the harbour is a small estate known as "Harbour Village", built to house workers during the construction of the harbour; the port now accommodates a ferry service to Rosslare operated by Stena Line. The RNLI, from Fishguard Lifeboat Station operates an all weather Trent class lifeboat, the Blue Peter VII, a class D inshore lifeboat from within the harbour. In October 2011, plans for Fishguard & Goodwick Marina were revealed in the Western Telegraph; the developers Conygar who hope to invest £100 million into the project have submitted plans to Pembrokeshire County Council for a 450 berth marina, 253 new residential flats and a 19-acre platform for the potential expansion of the existing Stena Line port.
The scheme would create a publicly accessible promenade and waterfront, visitor parking as well as workshops and ancillary facilities. If approved most of the proposed new developments will be sited by reclaiming land from the sea bed within the two existing breakwaters near the current'Ocean Lab' and alongside the existing ferry terminal access roads. Conygar have exchanged contracts to acquire an eleven-acre site for a lorry stop and distribution park on the perimeter of the Stena Line owned port. In January 2018, Stena announced it had withdrawn from the project, meaning Conygar could not continue with their plans. A separate settlement, Stop-and-Call has now become contiguous with Goodwick, it is at the point where Goodwick Hill levels out after climbing 330 feet about 3⁄4 mile from the centre of Goodwick. The 1841 Census for the Parish of Llanwnda indicates the presence of three inhabited houses in'Stop and Call'. However, it does not appear on a map. 1850. The will of Margaret Llewelin Lewis of Goodwick, dated 1878, leaves property at'Stopancall'.
The Ordnance Survey six inch map of Pembrokeshire published 1888 shows the settlement of'Stop & Call' comprising only three substantial buildings. A map dating from 1891 shows the area as being moorland, with few buildings. After this, trains only served the station fell into disrepair. Following investment from Network Rail and Pembrokeshire County Council the station has now been re-built and was reopened for passengers again, on 14 May 2012, it is served by the newly introduced local trains. The harbour is used by Stena Line ferries to Rosslare Europort in Ireland. In 2013, the conventional ferry MS Stena Europe has two sailings each way per day, one around lunch time and one in the early hours of the morning; the Stena Lynx III fast ferry operated in the summer only until the end of the 2011 season. Her schedule, for instance in the 2010 season consisted of a morning departure to Rosslare and a late afternoon arrival into Fishguard Harbour; the town is served by the Fishguard
House of Dinefwr
The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri, King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great. With the death of Rhodri Mawr, the kingdom of Gwynedd passed to his eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri. Rhodri's second son Cadell ap Rhodri, looked outside Gwynedd's traditional borders and took possession of the Early Medieval Kingdom of Dyfed by the late 9th century, establishing his capital at the citadel of Dinefwr. Cadell ap Rhodri's descendants are designated Dinefwr after the citadel from which they would rule Dyfed; the Dinefwr dynasty under king Hywel Dda would unite Dyfed and Seisyllwg into the kingdom of Deheubarth in the early 10th century. The Dinefwr dynasty would rule in Deheubarth until their conquest by the Anglo-Normans in the 13th century; this branch would compete with House Aberffraw for supremacy and influence in Wales throughout the 10th, 11th, 12th century, with Powys variously ruled between them. A cadet branch of Dinefwr would establish itself in Powys by the mid 11th century, designated Mathrafal after the castle there
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd rose to dominance and were acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or invasions; the kingdom of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn—the King of Wales from 1055 to 1063—was shattered by a Saxon invasion in 1063 just prior to the Norman invasion of Wales, but the House of Aberffraw restored by Gruffudd ap Cynan recovered and Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd was able to proclaim the Principality of Wales at the Aberdyfi gathering of Welsh princes in 1216. In 1277, the Treaty of Aberconwy granted peace between the two but would guarantee that Welsh self-rule would end upon Llewelyn's death, so it represented the completion of the first stage of the conquest of Wales by Edward I. Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Brittonic polity of Gododdin from Lothian invading the lands of the Brittonic polities of the Deceangli and Gangani in the 5th century.
The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi. The true borders of the realm varied over time, but Gwynedd Proper was thought to comprise the cantrefs of Aberffraw and Cantref Rhosyr on Anglesey and Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Dyffryn Clwyd, Llŷn, Rhos and Tegeingl at the mountainous mainland region of Snowdonia opposite; the name Gwynedd is believed to be an early borrowing from Irish, either cognate with the Old Irish ethnic name Féni, "Irish People", from Primitive Irish *weidh-n- "Forest People"/"Wild People", or Old Irish fían "war band", from Proto-Irish *wēnā. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name, it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix, the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati: "Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate"; the use of terms such as "citizen" and "magistrate" may be cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the "Promontory of the Gangani", a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster may have arrived in Anglesey and elsewhere in northwest Wales, with the name Llŷn derived from Laigin, an Old Irish form that means "of Leinster"; the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey, but broadened to refer to Irish settlers as a whole in North Wales by the 5th century. According to 9th century monk and chronicler Nennius, North Wales was left defenseless by the Roman withdrawal and subject to increasing raids by marauders from the Isle of Man and Ireland, a situation which led Cunedda, his sons and their entourage, to migrate in the mid-5th century from Manaw Gododdin to settle and defend North Wales against the raiders and bring the region within Romano-British control. According to traditional pedigrees, Cunedda's grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, "an epithet which suggests that he wore the cloak of a Roman officer", according to Davies.
Nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons: Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, so forth. However, this overly neat origin myth has been met with skepticism: Early Welsh literature contains a wealth of stories seeking to explain place-names, doubtless the story is propaganda aimed at justifying the right of Cunedda and his descendants to territories beyond the borders of the original Kingdom of Gwynedd; that kingdom consisted of the two banks of the Menai Straits and the coast over towards the estuary of the river Conwy, the foundations upon which Cunedda's descendants created a more extensive realm. Undoubtedly, a Brittonic leader of substance established himself in North Wales, he and his descendants defeated any remaining Irish presence, incorporated the settlements into their domain and reoriented the whole of Gwynedd into a Romano-British and "Welsh" outlook; the Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage, an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion.
The Welsh ruling classes continued to emphasize Roman ancestors within their pedigrees as a way to link their rule with the old imperial Roman order, suggesting stability and continuity with that old order. According to Professor John Davies, "here is a determinedly Brythonic, indeed Roman, air to early Gwynedd." So palpable was the Roman heritage felt that Professor Bryan Ward-Perkins of Trinity College, wrote "It took until 1282, when Edward I conquered Gwynedd, for the last part of Roman Britain to fall a strong case can be made for Gwynedd as the last part of the entire Roman Empire and west, to fall to the barbarians." There was quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. Roman knowledge was lost as the Romano-Britons shifted towards a streamlined militaristic near-tribal society that no longer
Kingdom of Powys
The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It roughly covered the top two thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of the West Midlands. More and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east; the fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, this region is referred to in Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys". The name Powys is thought to derive from Latin pagus'the countryside' and pagenses'dwellers in the countryside' the origins of French "pays" and English "peasant". During the Roman Empire, this region was organised into a Roman province, with the capital at Viroconium Cornoviorum, the fourth-largest Roman city in Britain. An entry in the Annales Cambriae concerning the death of King Cadell ap Brochfael says that the land called Powys was known as Teyrnllwg.
Throughout the Early Middle Ages, Powys was ruled by the Gwerthrynion dynasty, a family claiming descent jointly from the marriage of Vortigern and Princess Sevira, the daughter of Magnus Maximus. Archaeological evidence has shown that, unusually for the post-Roman period, Viroconium Cornoviorum survived as an urban centre well into the 6th century and thus could have been the Powys capital; the Historia Brittonum, written around AD 828, records the town as Caer Guricon, one of his "28 British Towns" of Roman Britain. In the following centuries, the Powys eastern border was encroached upon by English settlers from the emerging Anglian territory of Mercia; this was a gradual process, English control in the West Midlands was uncertain until the late 8th century. In 549 the Plague of Justinian - an outbreak of a strain of bubonic plague - arrived in Britain, Welsh communities were devastated, with villages and countryside alike depopulated. However, the English were less affected by this plague as they had far fewer trading contacts with the continent at this time.
Faced with shrinking manpower and increasing Anglian encroachment, King Brochwel Ysgithrog may have moved the court from Caer Guricon to Pengwern, the exact site of, unknown but may have been at Shrewsbury, traditionally associated with Pengwern, or the more defensible Din Gwrygon, the hill fort on The Wrekin. In 616, the armies of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys. Seeing an opportunity to further drive a wedge between the North Welsh and those of Rheged, Æthelfrith invaded Powys' northern lands. Æthelfrith defeated Selyf and his allies. At the commencement of the battle, Bede tells us that the pagan Æthelfrith slaughtered 1200 monks from the important monastery of Bangor-on-Dee in Maelor because, he said, "they fight against us, because they oppose us by their prayers". Selyf ap Cynan was killed in the battle and may have been the first of the kings of Powys to be buried at the church dedicated to St. Tysilio, at Meifod, thence known as the Eglwys Tysilio and subsequently the dynasty's Royal mausoleum.
If King Cynddylan of Pengwern hailed from the royal Powys dynasty forces from Powys may have been present at the Battle of Maes Cogwy in 642. According to the ninth-century cycle of englyn-poems Canu Heledd, the region around Pengwern was sacked soon after, its royal family slaughtered and most of its lands were annexed by Mercia, some by Powys. However, this account is now thought to represent ninth-century imaginings of what must have been going on in the seventh, inspired by Powys's political situation in the ninth century. Powys enjoyed a resurgence with successful campaigns against the English in 655, 705-707 and 722, wrote Davies; the court was moved to Mathrafal Castle in the valley of the river Vyrnwy by 717 by king Elisedd ap Gwylog. Elisedd's successes led King Æthelbald of Mercia to build Wat's Dyke; this endeavour may have been with Elisedd's own agreement, for this boundary, extending north from the Severn valley to the Dee estuary, gave Oswestry to Powys. King Offa of Mercia seems to have continued this consultive initiative when he created a larger earth work, now known as Offa's Dyke.
Davies wrote of Cyril Fox's study of Offa's Dyke: In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent. On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh, and for Gwent Offa had the dyke built "on the eastern crest of the gorge with the intention of recognizing that the river Wye and its traffic belonged to the kingdom of Gwent. This new border moved Oswestry back to the English side of the new frontier, Offa attacked Powys in 760 at Hereford, again on 778, 784 and 796. Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Dee and the River Conwy, known as the Perfeddwlad or "Midlands". Powys was united with Gwynedd when king Merfyn Frych of Gwynedd married princess Nest ferch Cadell, sister of king Cyngen of Powys, the last representative of the Gwertherion dynasty. With the death of Cyngen in 855 Rhodri the Great became king of Powys, having inherited Gwynedd the year before.
This formed the basis of Gwynedd's continued claims of overlordship over Powys for the next 443 years. Rhodri the Great ruled over most of modern Wales until his death in 878, his sons would in t
Deheubarth was a regional name for the realms of south Wales as opposed to Gwynedd. It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales and not as a named land. In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Hen Ogledd, the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated. Deheubarth was united around 920 by Hywel Dda out of the territories of Seisyllwg and Dyfed, which had come into his possession. On, the Kingdom of Brycheiniog was added. Caerleon was the principal court of the area, but Hywel's dynasty fortified and built up a new base at Dinefwr, near Llandeilo, giving them their name. After the high-water mark set by Hywel, Dinefwr was overrun. First, by the Welsh of the north and east: by Llywelyn ap Seisyll of Gwynedd in 1018.
In 1075, Rhys ab Owain and the noblemen of Ystrad Tywi succeeded in treacherously killing their English-backed overlord Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. Although Rhys was overrun by Gwynedd and Gwent, his cousin Rhys ap Tewdwr – through his marriage into Bleddyn's family and through battle – reëstablished his dynasty's hegemony over south Wales just in time for the second wave of conquest: a prolonged Norman invasion under the Marcher Lords. In 1093, Rhys was killed in unknown circumstances while resisting their expansion into Brycheiniog and his son Gruffydd was thrown into exile. Following the death of Henry I, in 1136 Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd for the purpose of a revolt against Norman incursions, he took part in Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd's victory over the English at Crug Mawr. The newly liberated region of Ceredigion, was not returned to his family but annexed by Owain; the long and capable rule of Gruffydd's son the Lord Rhys – and the civil wars that followed Owain's death in Gwynedd – permitted the South to reassert the hegemony Hywel Dda had enjoyed two centuries before.
On his death in 1197, Rhys redivided his kingdom among his several sons and none of them again rivalled his power. By the time Llywelyn the Great won the wars in Gwynedd, in the late 12th century, lords in Deheubarth appear among his clients. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, the South was divided into the historic counties of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire by the Statute of Rhuddlan. In the arena of the church, Sulien was the leader of the monastic community at Llanbadarn Fawr in Ceredigion. Born ca. 1030, he became Bishop of St David's in 1073 and again in 1079/80. Both of his sons followed him into the service of the church. At this time the prohibition against the marriage of clerics was not yet established, his sons produced a number of original Latin and vernacular poems. They were active in the ecclesiastical and political life of Deheubarth. One son, Rhygyfarch of Llanbadarn Fawr, wrote the Life of Saint David and another, was a skillful scribe and illuminator, he may have written the Life of St. Padarn.
Goronwy Foel House of Dinefwr List of Welsh kings The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6 Deheubarth at Castle Wales
Rhys ap Tewdwr
Rhys ap Tewdwr was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area, now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093. Rhys ap Tewdwr, a member of the House of Dinefwr, claimed the throne of Deheubarth following the death of his second cousin Rhys ab Owain, beheaded after the battle of Gwdig against Caradog ap Gruffydd in 1078, he was a grandson of Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, a great-grandson of Einion ab Owain, thus a descendant of Hywel Dda, king of the Britons. He married more than once, but only the name of his last wife, Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of the Mathrafal dynasty of Powys, is known. Issue by early alliances: Goronwy Howel OwainIssue by Gwladys ferch Rhiwalon: Gruffydd Gwenllian Nest who married Gerald de Windsor, Constable of Pembroke, progenitors of the FitzGerald and de Barry dynasties of Ireland; these Hiberno-Norman, or Cambro-Norman, families have been Peers of Ireland since at least the 14th century.
Efa Ardden. In 1081 Caradog ap Gruffydd invaded Deheubarth and drove Rhys to seek sanctuary in the St David's Cathedral. Rhys however made an alliance with Gruffudd ap Cynan, seeking to regain the throne of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, at the Battle of Mynydd Carn in the same year they defeated and killed Caradog ap Gruffydd and his allies Trahaearn ap Caradog of Gwynedd and Meilyr ap Rhiwallon; the same year William the Conqueror visited Deheubarth, ostensibly on a pilgrimage to St David's, but with a major show of power as well, traversing the width of southern Wales, it seems he came to an arrangement with Rhys, whereby Rhys paid him homage and was confirmed in possession of Deheubarth. Rhys paid William £40 a year for his kingdom, ensuring good future relations with William that lasted until the end of William's lifetime. Rhys was content with the arrangement as it meant that he only had to deal with the jealousy of his fellow Welsh princes. In 1088 Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys forced Rhys to flee to Ireland.
However, Rhys returned the same year with a fleet from Ireland and defeated the men of Powys, in a battle in which two of Cadwgan's brothers and Rhiryd, were killed. The Chronicle of the Princes claims that Cedifor ap Gollwyn, a man who traced his ancestry to the original kings of Dyfed ), commanded substantial authority in Dyfed; when Cedifor died, in 1091, his sons demanded that Rhys surrender the throne to Gruffudd ap Maredudd, the son of a former king of Deheubarth. This triggered a revolt, but Rhys was able to defeat the rebels in a battle at St. Dogmaels, killing Gruffydd. Rhys was unable to withstand the increasing Norman pressure; the Welsh Bruts state that "Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth, was slain by the Frenchmen who were inhabiting Brycheiniog." The Brut y Tywysogion adds "and with him fell the kingdom of the Britons". This passage lends evidence to the belief that the conquest of Brycheiniog, led by Bernard de Neufmarche, was finished by Eastertide 1093; the battle of Brecon opened the way to the conquest of Deheubarth.
Upon Rhys's death, the Normans seized much of south Wales, fighting over the spoils with the chieftains of Powys and Gwynedd. Rhys's eldest son, was allowed to inherit a small portion of his father's kingdom. Rhys's daughter Nest was one of the numerous concubines of Henry I, to whom she bore a son, thereafter the wife of Gerald FitzWalter of Pembroke. Through his son Gruffydd, Rhys was an ancestor of the Tudor dynasty. Kings of Wales family trees The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, University of Wales Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6 Remfry, P. M. A Political Chronology of Wales 1066 to 1282 A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest, Volume 2, John Edward Lloyd, 1911