Villa Riachuelo is a barrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the southernmost barrio in Capital Federal, contains the Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez, home of the Argentine Grand Prix until 1998. Villa Riachuelo
South American dreadnought race
A naval arms race among Argentina and Chile—the most powerful and wealthy countries in South America—began in the early twentieth century when the Brazilian government ordered three dreadnoughts, formidable battleships whose capabilities far outstripped older vessels in the world's navies. In 1904, the Brazilian Navy found itself well behind its Argentine and Chilean rivals in quality and total tonnage. Rising demand for coffee and rubber was fueling a large increase in the Brazilian government's revenue, the country's legislature voted to devote some of the proceeds to address this naval imbalance, they believed that building a strong navy would play an essential role in remaking the country into an international power. The Brazilian government ordered three small battleships from the United Kingdom in late 1905, but the appearance of the revolutionary British warship HMS Dreadnought in 1906 scrapped these plans. Instead, the Brazilians ordered three Minas Geraes-class dreadnoughts—warships that would be the most powerful in the world, of a type which became a measure of international prestige, similar to nuclear weapons in the mid-twentieth century.
This action focused the world's attention on the newly ascendant country: newspapers and politicians in the great powers fretted that Brazil would sell the ships to a belligerent nation, while the Argentine and Chilean governments canceled their naval-limiting pact and ordered two dreadnoughts each. Meanwhile, Brazil's third dreadnought faced a good deal of political opposition after an economic downturn and a naval revolt: the crews of both of their brand-new battleships, along with several smaller warships and threatened to fire on Rio de Janeiro if there was no end to what they called the "slavery" being practiced by the Brazilian Navy. Despite these pressures, the shipbuilder Armstrong Whitworth held the Brazilians to their contractual obligations. Construction on the new ship, preliminarily named Rio de Janeiro, was halted several times due to repeated design changes. Brazil's coffee and rubber booms collapsed soon after. Concerned that their ship would be outclassed by larger super-dreadnoughts, they sold the incomplete vessel to the Ottoman Empire in December 1913.
The First World War marked the end of the naval arms race, as the South American countries found themselves unable to purchase additional warships. The Brazilian government ordered a new battleship, Riachuelo, in May 1914, but the conflict canceled the ship; the British purchased the two Chilean battleships. Argentina's two dreadnoughts, having been built in the neutral United States, escaped this fate and were commissioned in 1914–15. Although several South American post-war naval expansion plans called for dreadnoughts, no additional units were constructed. Conflicting Argentine and Chilean claims to Patagonia, the southernmost region in South America, had been causing tension between the two countries since the 1840s; this tension was heightened in 1872 and 1878, when Chilean warships seized merchant ships, licensed to operate in the disputed area by the Argentine government. An Argentine warship did the same to a Chilean-licensed American ship in 1877; this action nearly led to war in November 1878, when the Argentines dispatched a squadron of warships to the Santa Cruz River.
The Chilean Navy responded in kind, war was only avoided by a hastily signed treaty. Each government was distracted in the next few years, Argentina's with intensified military operations against the indigenous population, Chile's with the War of the Pacific against Bolivia and Peru. Still, several warships were ordered by both nations: the Chileans ordered a protected cruiser, while the Argentines contracted for two warships, the central battery ironclad Almirante Brown and protected cruiser Patagonia. In 1887, the Chilean government added £3,129,500 to the budget for its fleet, at the time still centered on two aging central battery ironclads, Almirante Cochrane and Blanco Encalada, from the 1870s, they ordered the battleship Capitán Prat, two protected cruisers, two torpedo boats. The Argentine government responded with an order for two battleships and Libertad, beginning a naval arms race between the two countries, it continued through the 1890s after the expensive Chilean Civil War. The two countries alternated cruiser orders between 1890 and 1895, each marking a small increase in capabilities from the ship previous.
Argentina escalated the race in July 1895 by buying an armored cruiser, from Italy. Chile responded by ordering its own armored cruiser, O'Higgins, six torpedo boats; the race slowed for a few years after a boundary dispute in the Puna de Atacama region was mediated in 1899 by the American ambassador to Argentina, William Paine Lord, but more ships were ordered by both countries in 1901. The Argentine Navy bought two more armored cruisers from Italy, the Chilean Navy replied with orders for two Constitución-class pre-dreadnought battleships from British shipyards; the Argentines replied by signing letters of intent with Ansaldo in May 1901 to buy two larger battleships. The growing dispute disturbed members of the British government, as war looked like a real possibility
An arroyo called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain. Flash floods are common in arroyos following thunderstorms. In Latin America any small river might be called an arroyo if it flows continually all year and is never dry; the terms rambla or wadi are used in Spain, North Africa, Western Asia. Arroyos provide a water source to desert animals; the desert dry wash biome is restricted to the arroyos of the southwestern United States. Arroyos can be constructed flood control channels; the term applies to a sloped or mountainous terrain in xeric and desert climates. In addition: in many rural communities arroyos are the principal transportation routes. Flash flooding can cause the deep deposition of sediment on flooded lands; this can lower the groundwater level of the surrounding area, making it unsuitable for agriculture. However a shallow water table lowered in desert arroyo valleys can reduce saline seeping and alkali deposits in the topsoil, making it suitable for irrigated farming.
In the U. S. state New Mexico, the Doña Ana County Drainage Ordinance defines an arroyo as "a watercourse that conducts an intermittent or ephemeral flow, providing primary drainage for an area of land of 40 acres or larger. Research has been conducted in the hydrological modeling relative to arroyos. Natural arroyos are made through the process known as arroyo-cutting; this occurs in arid regions such as New Mexico, where heavy rains can lead to enlargement of rivers cutting into surrounding rock creating ravines which are dry under normal weather conditions. It is argued, whether these excessively stormy periods are the sole cause of arroyo-cutting as other factors such as long-term climate changes must be taken into account. Arroyo cutting which occurred in the 1900s in the southwestern United States caused serious farming issues such as a lowered water table and the destruction of agriculture and grazing lands. In agricultural areas in climates needing irrigation, farmers traditionally relied on small constructed arroyos, zanjas or aqueduct channels and ditches for the distribution of water.
An example of larger constructed arroyos is in New Mexico. There are several miles of open-air concrete lined drainage channels that drain an area into the main North Diversion Channel, a tributary of the Rio Grande joining upstream of Albuquerque. After the San Juan Project Water Treatment Plant here, the Rio Grande's flow exceeding that needed for the river's silvery minnow habitat is available for municipal water supply diversion. Signs are posted at the constructed arroyos warning to keep out due to danger of flash flooding; the Arroyo Seco and Los Angeles River are more famous examples in Southern California of former natural arroyo seasonal watercourses that became constructed open drainage system arroyos. Wadi
Brazilian submarine Riachuelo (S22)
Riachuelo was an Oberon-class submarine in the Brazilian Navy. Riachuelo was ordered in 1972, separately from her two sister boats; the submarine, built by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering at their shipyard in Barrow, was laid down on 26 May 1973, launched on 6 September 1975. She was commissioned into the Brazilian Navy in early 1977. Riachuelo was decommissioned in 1997, she is now displayed at the Navy Cultural Centre in Rio de Janeiro. The Submarine Heritage Centre - Brazilian "O" Class
Lojas Riachuelo is a Brazilian department store company founded in 1947 in the city of Natal, Brazil. The company operates 302 stores; the company its headquartered in Natal, have a central office in São Paulo and has 3 distribution centers, in Natal and Guarulhos. In 1979, the company was purchased by the Grupo Guararapes, the largest textile group in Latin America which controls the Natal shopping center Midway Mall and the financial company Midway Financeira; the Riachuelo's major competitors are Marisa, Lojas Renner, Cia. Hering and C&A The company owns and operates an Embraer Legacy 650 aircraft. Official website
Brazilian battleship Riachuelo
Riachuelo was a Brazilian ironclad battleship completed in 1883. She was named in honour of the Battle of Riachuelo in 1865. Built in the United Kingdom, the ship entered service with the Brazilian Navy in 1883 and remained in service until 1910. Riachuelo was built after the Brazilian Minister of the Navy, Admiral Jose Rodrigues de Lima Duarte, presented a report to the national legislature on the importance of modernising the Brazilian Navy by acquiring new battleships, with the intention to order two from British shipyards. Riachuelo was constructed by Samuda Brothers in London, being laid down on 31 August 1881, launched on 7 June 1883 and commissioned into the Brazilian Navy on 19 November 1883; the smaller Aquidabã was launched in 1885. Riachuelo was constructed with a steel hull, was the first battleship with a compound armour belt, following shortly after the Argentine armoured corvette ARA Almirante Brown. Both Riachuelo and Aquidabã had an unusual design that became popular in the 1870s and 1880s: the two main gun turrets were placed off the centreline, en echelon, with the forward turret offset to port and the aft turret to starboard.
The superstructure ran the full length of the vessel, higher than both turrets, with two funnels and three rigged masts. Aquidabã can be distinguished by its single funnel; these two modern battleships made the Brazilian Navy the strongest in the western hemisphere. Hilary A. Herbert, the chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee in order to push the U. S. to increase its naval spending and build its first battleships warned Congress in 1883: “if all this old navy of ours were drawn up in battle array in mid-ocean and confronted by the Riachuelo it is doubtful whether a single vessel bearing the American flag would get into port”. A similar design was followed by USS Texas, launched in 1889 and 1892 respectively. By the time they were completed in 1895, developments in battleship design made them obsolete; when the Republic of Brazil was declared in 1889, Riachuelo escorted the Brazilian Imperial Family to exile in Europe. Riachuelo and Aquidabã, the two most powerful vessels in the Brazilian Navy, were both in dock for repairs in 1891 during the first Revolta da Armada, led by Custódio José de Mello, which forced the dictatorial President, Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, to resign in favour of Marshal Floriano Peixoto.
Riachuelo was modernised and rearmed in Toulon in 1893–94, where structural alterations included the replacement of the three rigged masts with two unrigged fighting masts. Riachuelo returned to active service in 1896, led the so-called "White Squadron" of President Campos Sales on his official visit to Argentina in 1900, accompanied by the cruisers Barroso and Tamoio, its last important mission in 1907 was to convey the Brazilian Naval Commission to take delivery of the new battleships, Minas Geraes and São Paulo. Riachuelo sank on the way. Brazil: Riachuelo class Battleship, World Battleships List: Other Nations' Dreadnoughts Haze Gray Mystery Picture #162 Answer, Roger; the late Victorian Navy: the pre-dreadnought era and the origins of the First World War. ISBN 978-1-84383-372-7
Battle of the Riachuelo
The Battle of the Riachuelo was the biggest naval Battle fought by two South American countries and a key point in the Paraguayan War. By late 1864, Paraguay had scored a series of victories in the war; the Paraguayan fleet was a fraction of the size of Brazil's before the battle. It arrived at the Fortress of Humaitá on the morning of June the 9th. Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López prepared to attack at Riachuelo the ships supporting allied land troops. Nine ships and seven cannon-carrying barges, totaling 45 guns, plus 22 guns and two Congreve rocket batteries from river bank located troops, attacked the Brazilian squadron, nine ships with a total of 58 guns; the Paraguayans had planned a surprise strike before sunrise since they were aware that the gross of Imperial Brazilian troops would offboard their steamers in order to sleep on land, leaving thus a small garrison of men to guard and watch their fleet. The original plan had been that, under the dark of the night, the Paraguayan steamers would sneak up to the docked Brazilian vessels and board them outright.
No confrontation other than the one carried out by the boarding party was planned, the Paraguayan steamers were only there to provide cover from the inland battling forces. The Paraguayan fleet left the fortress of Humaitá on the night of June 10, 1865, headed to the port of Corrientes. López had given specific orders that they should stealthily approach the docked Brazilian steamers before sunrise and board them, thus leaving the Brazilian ground forces bereft of their navy early on during the war. For this, López sent nine steamers: Tacuarí, Ygureí, Marqués de Olinda, Paraguarí, Salto Guairá, Rio Apa, Yporá, Pirabebé and Yberá. However, some two leagues after leaving Humaitá, upon reaching a point known as Nuatá-pytá, the engine of the Yberá broke down. After losing some hours in an attempt to fix it, it was decided to continue with only the remaining 8 steamers; the fleet arrived at Corrientes after sunrise, due to a dense fog, the plan was still executable since most, if not all, Brazilian forces were still on land.
However, not following López' orders, Captain Meza ordered that instead of approaching and boarding the docked steamers, the fleet was to continue down the river and fire at the camp and docked vessels as they passed by. This new course of action proved catastrophic; the Paraguayans passed in a line parallel to continued downstream. Upon Captain Meza's order, the entire fleet opened fire on the docked Brazilian steamers; the land troops hastily, upon realization that they were under attack, boarded their own ships and began returning fire. One of the Paraguayan steamers was hit in the boiler and one of the "chatas" was damaged as well. Once out of range, they turned upstream and anchored the barges, forming a line in a narrow part of the river; this was intended to trap the Brazilian fleet. Admiral Barroso noticed the Paraguayan tactic and turned down the stream to go after the Paraguayans. However, the Paraguayans started to fire from the shore into Belmonte; the second ship in the line, inadvertently turned upstream and was followed by the whole fleet, thus leaving Belmonte alone to receive the full firepower of the Paraguayan fleet, which soon put it out of action.
Jequitinhonha ran aground after the turn. Admiral Barroso, on board the steamer Amazonas, trying to avoid chaos and reorganize the Brazilian fleet, decided to lead the fleet downstream again and fight the Paraguayans in order to prevent their escape, rather than save Amazonas. Four steamers followed Amazonas; the Paraguayan admiral left his position and attacked the Brazilian line, sending three ships after Araguari. Parnaíba remained near Jequitinhonha and was attacked by three ships that were trying to board it; the Brazilian line was cut in two. Inside Parnaíba a ferocious battle was taking place. Barroso, at this time heading upstream, decided to turn the tide of the battle with a desperate measure; the first ship that faced Amazonas was the Paraguarí, rammed and put out of action. He rammed Marquez de Olinda and Salto, sank a "chata". At this point Paraguari was out of action. Therefore, the Paraguayans tried to disengage. Beberibe and Araguari pursued the Paraguayans damaging Tacuary and the Pirabebé, but nightfall prevented the sinking of these ships.
Jequitinhonha had to be put afire by Marquez de Olinda. In the end, the Paraguayans lost four steamers and all of their "chatas", while the Brazilians only lost the Jequitinhonha, coincidentally the ship responsible for the confusion. After the battle, the eight remaining Brazilian steamers sailed down river. President López ordered Major José Maria Brúguez with his batteries to move inland to the south to wait for and attack the passing Brazilian fleet. So the fleet had to run the gauntlet. On August 12, Brúguez attacked the fleet from the high cliffs at Cuevas; every Brazilian ship was hit, 21 men were killed. The Paraguarí, rammed by the Amazonas, was set ablaze by the Brazilians. A few months López ordered the Yporá to retrieve the hull, tow it to the Jejui River and sink it there. Under orders from López, one month after the battle, the Yporá returned to the scene and, again under the cover of the night and stealthily so as to not alarm another Brazilian steamer, in the location, boarded the remains of the Jequ