Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany covering an area of 19,846 km2 and a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse, Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes, many castles and palaces.
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.
To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.
On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional sea
Marlboro is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA within the United States, by Philip Morris International outside the United States. Richmond, Virginia, is the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Marlboro is the global best-selling cigarette brand since 1972. Philip Morris cigarette maker, opened a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell many of its cigarette brands; the mark "Marlboro" was registered in the United States in 1908 although no cigarette was marketed under this name until 1923. In 1924, the brand was launched, they are first marketed as "America's luxury cigarette" and were sold in hotels and resorts. Around the 1930s, it was starting to be advertised as a women's cigarette, based on the slogan "Mild As May"; the name was taken from a street in London. However, as early as 1885, a brand called "Marlborough" was being marketed as a "ladies' favorite" by Philip Morris & Co. In the 1930s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.
To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips". Shortly before World War II, the brand's sales stagnated at less than 1% of tobacco sales in the US and was withdrawn from the market. After the war, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield were the only common cigarettes. After scientists published a major study linking smoking to lung cancer in the 1950s, Philip Morris repositioned Marlboro as a men's cigarette in order to fit a market niche of men who were concerned about lung cancer. At the time, filtered cigarettes were considered safer than unfiltered cigarettes, but had been until that time only marketed to women. Men at the time indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women; the red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The emblem is placed on top of the pack and has the popular Latin expression Veni, vici, authored by Julius Caesar.
The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc; the cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. In the late 1960s, Marlboro "Longhorn 100's" were introduced. Although colour-coded with gold, they were full flavor cigarettes, not lights. In 1972, Marlboro became the best-selling brand of tobacco in the world. In order to comply with a 2006 court ruling in United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. et al. Philip Morris is now prevented from using words such as "Lights", "Ultra-Lights", "Medium", "Mild", or any similar designation that yields a false impression that they are safer than regular full flavour cigarettes.
Thus Marlboro and other cigarette companies must use only color-coding instead. Philip Morris responded to the popularity of Pall Mall, the number three brand, by pushing Marlboro Special Blends, a lower-priced cigarette. In 2013, Philip Morris International introduced "Marlboro 2.0". The pack design was changed; the Marlboro 2.0 packs are available in Europe and some parts of Africa and Latin America, but not in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In 2015, Philip Morris announced they would introduce a "Firm Filter" to their Marlboro Red, Silver Blue, Ice Blast and White Menthol variants. Philip Morris managing director for the United Kingdom and Ireland, Martin Inkster, said that the Firm Filter technique was added to "offer quality you can feel, it is a cleaner way to stub out your cigarette". In the 1920s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market. To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".
The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett; the proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. Over the years, Philip Morris has made many billboard and magazine adverts. Philip Morris made various sports-related billboards, s
Christian Danner is a former racing driver from Germany. The son of car safety expert Max Danner, Danner started his motor racing career after leaving school in 1977. After having raced in the Renault 5 cup Danner moved to the European Formula Two Championship for the 1981 season. During his years in Formula Two Danner was a constant frontrunner, he failed to win a race. Danner set the F2 lap record of the current configuration of the old Nürburgring. Danner moved to the Formula 3000 championship in 1985. With four wins Danner became the inaugural Formula 3000 championship. 1985 saw Danner made his Formula One debut with Zakspeed. He failed to finish any races due to mechanical failures. For 1986 he signed with minnow Italian outfit Osella but struggled to make an impression with the car and its under powered Alfa Romeo engine. After failing to finish a race in the first six races, Danner moved to Arrows with their powerful BMW turbo engines and scored his first point at the Austrian Grand Prix. Danner returned to Zakspeed in 1987.
The car was both un-competitive and unreliable and when Danner finished a race it was always outside the points. After having raced touring cars in 1988, Danner returned to Formula one in 1989 with Rial Racing; the car was uncompetitive and a fourth place due to a high attrition rate at the 1989 United States Grand Prix was the only highlight of the year. Danner was fired after the Portuguese Grand Prix after only qualifying for four races that year. After his Formula one career Danner became a regular competitor in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, he made his debut in 1988 after failing to find a ride in Formula one. Danner made an impressive start to his touring car career as he won both races at the Hockenheimring driving a BMW M3. After only making sporadic appearances in 1989 and 1990, Danner made a full-time return to the series in 1991, he had a disappointing season and only had one points scoring finish. In 1993 Danner had his best season, he finished fifth in the points standings.
He won a race at the Non-Championship round in Donington Park. Danner returned to winning ways in 1995 at the Norisring. Danner kept racing touring cars through 1997. In 1991 he started in one British Touring Car Championship race at Thruxton driving a BMW M3. Danner competed in Japanese Formula 3000 in 1990 driving for Leyton House's F3000 team, he was ranked 14th. In the nineties Danner made several appearances in the Indy Car World Series, his best finish was a seventh place at Homestead Miami in 1995. He took part in the now defunct series, Grand Prix Masters. After his racing career Danner became an F1 commentator for the channel RTL in his native Germany. Christian Danner – Official Website Profile at grandprix.com
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Bertrand Gachot is a French former racing driver. Gachot was born in Luxembourg on 23 December 1962, the son of a French European Commission official and a German mother, he began karting at the age of 15. In 1983 he attended a racing driving school in France. After this, he focused on his racing career. In 1986, he won the British Formula Ford championship. Gachot joined the British Formula Three series in 1987, finishing second in the championship for the West Surrey Racing team, he switched to the Formula 3000 series in 1988, met with some success. In 1991, Gachot was involved in a road rage incident with a taxi driver. Having sprayed the taxi driver with CS gas, Gachot was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for Actual Bodily Harm, but was released after two months after an appeal against sentence was successful. Gachot was considered one of the sport's most promising young drivers, he was signed by the newly formed Onyx team, having played a role in attracting the team's Moneytron sponsorship from businessman Jean-Pierre Van Rossem, was partnered with the experienced Stefan Johansson.
The team was late in getting its car prepared. As a new entrant it was obliged to pre-qualify, it was not until the French Grand Prix that Gachot made it onto the grid, he started 11th and ran in the points until battery problems dropped him to an eventual 13th and last. Despite qualifying for four of the next five events, he was fired by van Rossem after complaining about his lack of testing time. Gachot found employment with the struggling Rial team for the final two races of the season, failing to qualify its ageing chassis for either race; the team folded over the winter. 1990 was more promising, as he switched to the Coloni team. The small Italian outfit had signed an exclusive deal with Subaru to use its new Carlo Chiti-designed and Motori Moderni-built 1235 flat-12 engine, Gachot was selected to drive the sole entry. However, the engine was overweight and underpowered, resulting in a poorly-handling car that ran for more than a few laps. At the season opener in Phoenix, his gear selector rod broke on his first flying lap and he was unable to set a representative time.
Subaru withdrew after the British Grand Prix. After that the car ran with a Cosworth DFR engine, performances improved. Despite this, Gachot was still regarded and was signed to lead the new Jordan Grand Prix team, sponsored by 7-Up and using Ford HB engines; the Gary Anderson-designed 191 was competitive, after some initial reliability problems became a regular points-scorer. He gathered considerable acclaim for his Grand Prix performances, but shortly after he set the fastest lap at the Hungarian Grand Prix, his season was cut short by a court case in the UK, his race seat was filled temporarily by Michael Schumacher. The situation prompted a campaign of support organised by fellow Belgian racing driver Pascal Witmeur; this campaign involved flags, T-shirts worn by members of the public and racing drivers, graffiti in several locations of the Spa-Francorchamps track during the 1991 Belgian Grand Prix, prominent sponsorship on Witmeur's Formula 3000 car. After two months Gachot returned to the F1 paddock.
He travelled to Suzuka to retake his Jordan seat from Alessandro Zanardi. The team refused, though Gachot found employment with Larrousse, replacing the injured Éric Bernard for the Australian Grand Prix, he failed to qualify the unfamiliar car, but impressed the team enough to be offered the seat for the following season. The team ran a Robin Herd-designed Venturi chassis with V12 Lamborghini engines, but suffered reliability and financial problems throughout the season. Gachot and teammate Ukyo Katayama only managed 6 classified finishes between them from 31 starts, colliding with each other twice. Gachot scored the team's only point of the year with 6th place at Monaco, he finished 4th for Mazda at Le Mans. 1993 saw him out of Formula 1. He raced for Dick Simon Racing in CART, placing 12th at the Molson Indy Toronto in a one-off drive, raced in Japanese touring car series for Honda while helping Keith Wiggins' Pacific team prepare to enter Formula One the following season. Gachot, after becoming a shareholder in the team, was signed to drive as number 1 alongside pay driver Paul Belmondo for the 1994 season.
The PR01 was designed as the car for Reynard's proposed entry into the series, used 1992-spec Ilmor V10 engines and was not competitive. After Gachot outqualified Roland Ratzenberger to give the team its debut at the opening round, the Pacifics never again beat fellow newcomers Simtek to the grid. While he had the upper hand over Belmondo after the Canadian Grand Prix, he did not make the grid again that season. Gachot stayed with Pacific for 1995, with the new PR02 chassis, Cosworth ED engines and an influx of experienced personnel after a merger with the remains of Team Lotus. There were only 26 entrants.
Dallara Automobili is an Italian chassis manufacturer for various motor racing series, being most notable for its near-monopoly in Formula Three since 1993. Dallara produces the chassis used by the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, FIA Formula 2 Championship, World Series by Renault, GP3 Series, Super Formula, Formula E and ADAC Formel Masters and is one of the manufacturers in the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. In recent years their engineering activities have expanded both in terms of the racing cars and high performance road cars; the company was founded by designer Gian Paolo Dallara in 1972 in Varano de' Melegari, near Parma and started building chassis for sports car racing and hillclimbing, racing in the smaller engine classes. Dallara designed his first Formula Three car for Walter Wolf Racing in 1978. Dallara had a brief involvement in Formula 3000 in the mid-1980s; the first F3 car under the Dallara name came in 1981, the cars became successful in Italy. Since 1985 Dallara drivers have taken the Italian Formula Three Championship every year except 1990.
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw Dallara make inroads into the German and French markets, winning the German title in 1987 and the French in 1987 and 1992. 1993 was the first year that Dallaras were entered in the British Formula Three Championship and was the beginning of the company's dominance of Formula Three. The new F393 featured major aerodynamic changes compared to its predecessor and introduced a monodamper front suspension layout; the F393 won every race in the Italian and German championships that year, while the British series saw numerous entrants – including champion Kelvin Burt – forced to switch from Reynard or Ralt chassis to Dallara in order to remain competitive. TOMS would win the Japanese championship with its own cars in 1993 and 1994 before switching to Dallara chassis. From on Dallara would dominate the Formula Three market, although Martini had some success in France and Germany in the late 1990s, including Sébastien Bourdais winning the French title in 1999. Since Dallara have won every major Formula Three title, although Ho-Pin Tung won the 2006 Recaro F3 Cup in a Lola against a field that included several current Dallaras.
Dallaras have won the Macau Grand Prix since 1993. In 1988 the company became a Formula One constructor, after being hired by BMS Scuderia Italia to build their chassis; the relationship between the Italian constructor and Beppe Lucchini's racing outfit endured until 1992, with their best result being two third places: one at the 1989 Canadian Grand Prix with Andrea de Cesaris. The Constructors' Championship results were: no classification in 1988, 8th in 1989, 15th in 1990, 8th in 1991 and 10th in 1992 by Pierluigi Martini. Dallara returned to F1 in 1999, building the test-chassis for Honda's planned and aborted return to the series. During 2004, Dallara recruited ex-Jordan and Jaguar F1 designer Gary Anderson, leading to speculation that the Italian company was working on another F1 project. Late in 2004 the nascent Midland team announced that Dallara would be designing and building their Formula One chassis, due to be entered for the 2006 season. Following Midland's purchase of the Jordan team for early entry to F1 in 2005, Dallara continued co-operating with the team technically.
However, the relationship fizzled out as Midland focussed its resources on developing the existing Jordan infrastructure, a new Dallara F1 chassis never appeared. Dallara built the cars for Hispania's entry in the 2010 season; the Hispania team's financial problems—which delayed payment of money owed to Dallara and the completion of the cars—and the alleged low quality of the F110 chassis resulted in the two parties ending their partnership in May 2010. The car was used in all 2010 races without any development except the graphics, they had only one aerodynamic configuration, used for all races, including Monza. Geoff Willis, who joined Hispania in March 2010, criticized the F110, saying that he was disappointed at the quality and level of engineering in the car and that the design of the car was missing a lot of practices employed in the process of building a Formula One car those days. On 15 April 2014 Gene Haas confirmed his new Formula One team, Haas F1 Team, had entered talks to form a partnership with Dallara in 2015 for the build of their first car.
On 21 February 2016, the Haas VF-16 was unveiled. For the 2017 season, Haas once again had Dallara design their car, the VF-17. Dallara debuted as chassis supplier at the IndyCar Series in 1997, has been the single chassis supplier since 2007; the manufacturer has won seventeen of the twenty Indianapolis 500s. In 2013, Dallara reached its milestone 200th Indy car victory at Barber. In 2012 the company opened an engineering center in Speedway, Indiana, at the Speed Zone Redevelopment Area near the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, where they produce and assemble the IndyCar; the same building houses an entertainment center, where visitors can learn how a racing car is manufactured. Dallara was one of the original three chassis constructors when the Indy Racing League debuted its own chassis formula during the 1997 season; the first model year was named the IR7. The cars were most notably differentiated from the competing G-Force chassis by the ovoid shape of the air intake inlet, while the G-Force's was triangular.
The IR8 and IR9 were 1997 model year chassis with update kits. Jim Guthrie won Dallara's first Indy car race at Phoenix on 23 March 1997. Eddie Cheever won Dallara's first In