Castejón de Sos
Castejón de Sos, in Benasquese: Castilló de Sos, is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality had a population of 731 inhabitants. Official website
Comarcas of Aragon
Here is a list of the administrative comarcas in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. They were delimited in 1999, with substantial changes over a proposed division. Comarcal council Comarcas of SpainSee lists of municipalities in Aragon by province: List of municipalities in Huesca List of municipalities in Teruel List of municipalities in Zaragoza Comarcas of Aragon and legal links about their creation. Comarcal division, basic data
Arén, in Catalan: Areny de Noguera, or in Aragonese: Arén de Noguera, is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 364 inhabitants; these include uninhabited villages: Former Arén municipality: Arén, Campamento de Arén, Berganuy, Claraválls and Soliva. Former Cornudella de Baliera municipality: Rivera de Vall, San Martín, El Sas, Casa Consistorial, Puimolar, L'Hostalet, Soperún, Iscles and Tresserra. Former Betesa municipality: Betesa, Santa Eulalia, Los Molins de Betesa and Obís. Mountains of Sis Arén on Diputación de Huesca
Aran is an administrative entity in Catalonia, consisting of the Aran Valley, 620.47 square kilometres in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida. This valley constitutes one of only two areas of contiguous Spain that are located on the northern side of the Pyrenees. Hence, this valley holds the only Catalan rivers to flow into the Atlantic Ocean; the Garonne river flows through Aran from its source on the Pla de Beret near the Port de la Bonaigua. It is joined by the Joèu river, it reappears in the Val dera Artiga de Lin before reaching the Aran valley through France and to the Atlantic Ocean. The Noguera Pallaresa river, whose source is only a hundred meters from that of the Garonne, flows the opposite way towards the Mediterranean. Aran borders France on the north, the Spanish Autonomous Community of Aragon to the west and the Catalan comarques of Alta Ribagorça to the south and Pallars Sobirà to the east; the capital of the comarca is Vielha, with 5,474 inhabitants.
The entire population of the valley is about 9,991. As of 2001, a plurality of people in Aran spoke Spanish as their native language, followed by Aranese Catalan with 7.56% having a different native language. Speakers of languages other than the local Aranese are people born outside the valley, or their children. In 1313, James II of Aragon granted administrative and political autonomy to the Aran Valley, the legal details of which are described in a Latin manuscript called the Querimonia; the devolution of power was a reward for the Aranese pledging allegiance to James II in a dispute with the kingdoms of France and Mallorca over control of the valley. This situation was suppressed in 1834, when the Valley was integrated into the new Province of Lérida, in the context of creation of the liberal state. On 19 October 1944, Spanish Communist Party guerrillas invaded the valley in an attempt to bring about the fall of the Spanish dictatorship, they took control of several villages until October 27, 1944, but were forced to retreat back into France after Franco sent reinforcements to defend Vielha.
Before the construction of the Vielha tunnel, opened in 1948, the Aran valley had no direct communication with the south side of the mountains during winter. In 1990 the autonomy of Aran was restored by the Parliament of Catalonia, as well the establishment of the Occitan as official language. In 2015 the powers of Aranese institutions were increased. Aranese is the standardized form of the local Gascon variety of the Occitan language. Aranese has been taught at school since 1984. Like several other minority languages in Europe that faced decline, Aranese is experiencing a renaissance; the name Aran comes from Basque haran. Maps and road signs in Spain use the name "era Val d'Aran" to refer to the valley, where era is the Aranese singular feminine article; the same practice goes for all towns and other locations in Aran, for example, the Aranese spelling Vielha is used instead of Catalan and Spanish Viella to refer to the capital of Aran. Basque toponyms reveal; the growing influence of Latin began to drive Basque out after the turn of the first millennium.
Administratively, Aran is a "unique territorial entity" equivalent to a comarca with additional powers, informally referred to as a comarca. This status was most formalised in February 2015; the area is divided into six administrative divisions called terçons. The current arrangement of the divisions dates from the 15th century. Since 1991, Aran has an autonomous government called the Conselh Generau; the major political parties are the Unity of Aran - Aranese Nationalist Party, the Aranese Democratic Convergence (the local chapter of the. The Occitan Republican Left party was founded in 2008; the main economic activity in the valley is tourism. Other primary sectors of the economy include forest products, cattle ranching and agriculture, all of which have become progressively less important since the opening of ski resorts. Many native animals of Aran are in danger of extinction. There are programs to reintroduce and/or protect: Brown bear Rock ptarmigan Aran rock lizard Bearded vulture Page of the Conselh Generau d'Aran Information from the Generalitat de Catalunya Touristic information about the Val d'Aran Smith, Dominic.
"Language planning in the Val d’Aran: The recent work of the Conselh Generau d’Aran’s ‘Oficina de Foment e Ensenhament der Aranés’ and its effects on the Aranés-speaking population.". 2003
Somontano de Barbastro
Somontano de Barbastro is a comarca in Province of Huesca, Spain. Somontano borders the counties of Sobrarbe and Alto Gállego to the north, Ribagorza and La Litera to the east, Cinca Medio to the southwest, the Monegros desert to the south and Hoya de Huesca to the west; as its Latin name suggests, meaning "beneath the mountain", lies at the foothills of the Pyrenees. The area is abundantly irrigated by four important rivers which flow down from the north: the Alcanadre, Cinca, Ésera and the river Vero; the primary economy of the county has always been agricultural and livestock farming based. Wheat and grains, as well as olives are the primary crops, its wine production received a denominación de origen in 1984. The city of Barbastro, home to about 85% of the county's population, is a regional hub for the food industry and chemical industry; the county is home to the Sierra de Guara, a vast Open Space preserve with canyons and gorges and over 60 limestone caves with prehistoric cave paintings, which led UNESCO to declare it as a World Heritage Site in 1998.
Abiego, Alquézar, Azlor, Barbuñales, Bierge, Castejón del Puente, Colungo, Estadilla, El Grado, Hoz y Costean, Laluenga, Lascellas-Ponzano, Olvena, Peralta de Alcofea, Pozán de Vero, Salas Altas, Salas Bajas, Santa María de Dulcis and Torres de Alcanadre Somontano D. O. wine area Official comarca website in English
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Capella is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Spain. According to the 2009 census, the municipality has a population of 382 inhabitants. Capella, 312 Llaguarres, 75 Pociello, 17