The Meskwaki are a Native American people known by Western society as the Fox tribe. They have been linked to the Sauk people of the same language family. In the Meskwaki language, the Meskwaki call themselves Meshkwahkihaki, which means "the Red-Earths", related to their creation story, their homelands were in the Great Lakes region. The tribe coalesced in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Canada. Under French colonial pressures, it migrated to the southern side of the Great Lakes to territory that much was organized by European Americans as the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa; the Meskwaki suffered damaging wars with French and their Native American allies in the early 18th century, with one in 1730 decimating the tribe. In the 19th century, Euro-American colonization and settlement proceeded by the United States, they forced the Meskwaki/Fox west into the tall grass prairie in the American Midwest. In 1851 the Iowa state legislature passed an unusual act to allow the Fox to buy land and stay in the state.
Other Sac and Fox were removed to Indian territory in what became Kansas and Nebraska. In the 21st century, two federally recognized tribes of "Sac and Fox" have reservations, one has a settlement; the name is derived from the Meskwaki creation myth, in which their culture hero, created the first humans out of red clay. They called themselves Meshkwahkihaki in Meskwaki, meaning "the Red-Earths"; the name Fox was derived from a French mistake during the colonial era: hearing a group of Indians identify as "Fox", the French applied what was a clan name to the entire tribe who spoke the same language, calling them "les Renards." The English and Anglo-Americans adopted the French name, using its translation in English as "Fox." This name was used by the United States government from the 19th century. The Meskwaki used Triodanis perfoliata as an emetic in tribal ceremonies to make one "sick all day long." They traditionally smoked it at purification and other spiritual rituals. They smudge Symphyotrichum novae-angliae and use it to revive unconscious people, They used Agastache scrophulariifolia, an infusion of the root being used as a diuretic, used a compound of the plant heads medicinally.
They eat the fruits of Viburnum prunifolium raw, cook them into a jam. They make the flowers of Solidago rigida into a lotion and use them on bee stings and for swollen faces. Meskwaki are of Algonquian origin from the prehistoric Woodland period culture area; the Meskwaki language is a dialect of the language spoken by the Sauk and Kickapoo, within the Algonquian languages family. This broad group includes many tribes around the Great Lakes; the Meskwaki and Sauk peoples are two distinct tribal groups. Linguistic and cultural connections between the two tribes have made them associated in history. Under US government recognition treaties, officials treat the Sac and Meskwaki as a single political unit, despite their distinct identities; the Meskwaki lived along the Saint Lawrence River in present-day Ontario, northeast of Lake Ontario. The tribe may have numbered as many as 10,000, but years of war with the Huron, whom French colonial agents supplied with arms, exposure to new European infectious diseases reduced their numbers.
In response to these pressures, the Meskwaki migrated west, first to present-day eastern Michigan in the area between Saginaw Bay and Detroit west of Lake Huron. They moved further west into what is now Wisconsin; the Meskwaki gained control of the Fox River system in central Wisconsin. This river became vital for the colonial New France fur trade through the interior of North America between northern French Canada, via the Mississippi River, the French ports on the Gulf of Mexico; as part of the Fox–Wisconsin Waterway, the Fox River allowed travel from Lake Michigan and the other Great Lakes via Green Bay to the Mississippi River system. At first European contact in 1698, the French estimated the number of Meskwaki as about 6,500. By 1712, the number of Meskwaki had declined to 3,500; the Meskwaki fought against the French, in what are called the Fox Wars, for more than three decades to preserve their homelands. The Meskwaki resistance to French encroachment was effective; the King of France signed a decree commanding the complete extermination of the Meskwaki, the only edict of its kind in French history.
The First Fox War with the French lasted from 1712-1714. This first Fox War was purely economic in nature, as the French wanted rights to use the river system to gain access to the Mississippi. After the Second Fox War of 1728, the Meskwaki were reduced to some 1500 people, they found shelter with the Sac. In the Second Fox War, the French increased their pressure on the tribe to gain access to the Fox and Wolf rivers. Nine hundred Fox: 300 warriors and the remainder women and children, tried to break out in Illinois to reach the English and Iroquois to the east, but a combined French and hundreds of allied Native American force outnumbered them. On September 9, 1730, most of the Fox warriors were killed; the Sauk and Meskwaki allied in 1735 in defense against their allied Indian tribes. Descendants spread through southern Wisconsin, along the present-day Illinois-Iowa border. In 1829 the US government estimated. Both tribes relocated southward from Wisconsin into Iowa and Missouri. There are accounts of Meskwaki as far sou
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material cloth but plastic or sometimes metal, used as decorative binding and tying. Cloth ribbons are made of natural materials such as silk, velvet and jute and of synthetic materials, such as polyester and polypropylene. Ribbon is used for innumerable useful and symbolic purposes. Cultures around the world use ribbon in their hair, around the body, as ornamentation on non-human animals and packaging; some popular fabrics used to make ribbons are satin, sheer, silk and grosgrain. The word ribbon comes from Middle English ribban or riban from Old French ruban, of Germanic origin. Along with that of tapes and other smallwares, the manufacture of cloth ribbons forms a special department of the textile industries; the essential feature of a ribbon loom is the simultaneous weaving in one loom frame of two or more webs, going up to as many as forty narrow fabrics in modern looms. To affect the conjoined throwing of all the shuttles and the various other movements of the loom, the automatic action of the power-loom is necessary, it is a remarkable fact that the self-acting ribbon loom was known and extensively used more than a century before the famous invention of Cartwright.
A loom in which several narrow webs could be woven at one time is mentioned as having been working in Dantzig towards the end of the 16th century. Similar looms were at work in Leiden in 1620, where their use gave rise to so much discontent and rioting on the part of the weavers that the states-general had to prohibit their use; the prohibition was renewed at various intervals throughout the century, in the same interval the use of the ribbon loom was interdicted in most of the principal industrial centres of Europe. In 1676, under the name of the Dutch loom or engine loom, it was brought to London, although its introduction there caused some disturbance, it does not appear to have been prohibited. In 1745, John Kay, the inventor of the fly-shuttle, conjointly with Joseph Stell, a patent for improvements in the ribbon loom. Since that period, it has benefited by the inventions applied to weaving machinery generally. Ribbon-weaving is known to have been established near St. Etienne as early as the 11th century, that town has remained the headquarters of the industry in Europe.
During the Huguenot troubles, ribbon-weavers from St. Etienne settled at Basel, there, established an industry which in modern times has rivalled that of the original seat of the trade. In the late 19th century a Frenchman known as C. M. Offray— himself from St. Etienne— moved his ribbon business to the United States and set up a company called "C. M. Offray & Sons, Inc" which went on to become a huge manufacturer of ribbons in North America. In Germany, Krefeld is the centre of the ribbon industry. In England. Coventry is the most important seat of ribbon-making, prosecuted at Norwich and Leicester. While satin and other sorts of ribbon have always been used in lingerie, the usage of ribbon in the garment industry, while subject to fashion trends, saw an upsurge in the mid to late 90's; this upsurge led to increased ribbon manufacturing as well as new and improved manufacturing techniques. Due to more competitive production rates, as well as past experience in this field, companies in the Far East – those in China – secured themselves to be the major ribbon suppliers in the world and improved both the quality and the variety of their merchandise to match those of their established European and North American competitors.
Presently, the North American continent remains the largest importer of ribbon and ribbon derivative products. However, due to outsourcing of production of garments by North American garment manufacturers, countries in Asia and South America have started to contribute to the change of the statistical figures of ribbon imports. Inspired by European silk ribbons obtained through trade, Great Lakes and Prairie Native American tribes created art form of appliqué ribbon work. Typewriters and dot matrix printers use a plastic ribbon to hold the ink. Pieces of ribbon are used as symbols of support or awareness for various social causes and are called "awareness ribbons". Ribbons are used such as in a ribbon cutting ceremony. Award ribbon Card printer Dye-sublimation printer Ribbon bar Ribbon cable This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ribbons". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 283
A Hawaiian quilt is a distinctive quilting style of the Hawaiian Islands that uses large radially symmetric applique patterns. Motifs work stylized botanical designs in bold colors on a white background. Hawaiian quilt applique is made from a single cut on folded fabric. Quilting stitches follow the contours of the applique design. Hawaiian quilting derives from an indigenous bed cover textile. Kapa was constructed from the inner bark of local trees. Traditional kapa was beaten and felted dyed in geometric patterns. Quilting may have begun in the Hawaiian islands with the arrival of missionaries and Western fabrics in the 1820s; the climate of Hawaii is unsuitable for cotton cultivation and kapa is unsuitable for quilting so all Hawaiian quilts are constructed from imported material. The earliest written reference comes from Isabella Bird who visited Hawaii in 1870 and wrote a travelogue Six Months in the Sandwich Islands. Another Hawaiian quilt style is the Hawaiian flag quilt known as Ku’u Hae Aloha quilts.
The typical flag quilt includes four Hawaiian flags surrounding a royal Hawaiian coat of arms or crown. Flag quilts combine pieced work with appliqued motifs, unlike other traditional Hawaiian quilts, which do not use pieced work. Flag quilts may have originated as early as 1843, when Lord George Paulet claimed the Hawaiian Islands for the British and ordered all Hawaiian flags destroyed. Many of these flag quilts date back to the overthrow of the monarchy, when displaying the Hawaiian flag was considered treason. Quilts bearing symbols of the monarchy were a form of silent resistance. Hawaiian quilters made other styles of quilts including embroidering quilts and crazy quilting; the most famous Hawaiian crazy quilt is the one made by Queen Liliuokalani during her internment after the overthrow of the monarchy. Antique flag quilts fetch higher prices than applique quilts: high quality flag quilts may be valued at $40,000 - $60,000 while applique quilts sell for $9000 – $15,000. Factors that affect price include the quality of the original construction, preservation of the item's color and physical integrity, provenance.
Hawaiian art Serrao, The Hawaiian quilt, A spiritual experience, Reflection on its history, designing, quilting methods and patterns, Mutual Pub. 1997. Severson, Don R. Finding Paradise, Island Art in Private Collections, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, 237-254; the Queen's Quilt Quilting History of Hawaii Bishop Museum Quilt Database A Stitch in Time Article about Hawaiian quilters by Cheryl Tsutsumi. Maui No Ka'Oi Magazine Vol. 12 No.6
Appliqué is ornamental needlework in which pieces of fabric in different shapes and patterns are sewn or stuck onto a larger piece to form a picture or pattern. It is used as decoration on garments; the technique is accomplished either by machine. Appliqué is practised with textiles, but the term may be applied to similar techniques used on different materials. In the context of ceramics, for example, an appliqué is a separate piece of clay added to the primary work for the purpose of decoration; the term originates from the Latin applicō "I apply" and subsequently from the French appliquer "attach". In the context of sewing, an appliqué refers to a needlework technique in which patterns or representational scenes are created by the attachment of smaller pieces of fabric to a larger piece of contrasting colour or texture, it is suitable for work, to be seen from a distance, such as in banner-making. A famous example of appliqué is the Hastings Embroidery. Appliquéd cloth is an important art form in Benin, West Africa in the area around Abomey, where it has been a tradition since the 18th century and the kingdom of Danhomè.
Appliqué is used extensively in quilting. "Dresden Plate" and "Sunbonnet Sue" are two examples of traditional American quilt blocks that are constructed with both patchwork and appliqué. Baltimore album quilts, Broderie perse, Hawaiian quilts, Amish quilts, Egyptian Khayamiya and the ralli quilts of India and Pakistan use appliqué. Applied pieces have their edges folded under, are attached by any of the following: Straight stitch 20-30mm in from the edge. Satin stitch, all around; the patch may be straight stitched on first to ensure positional stability and a neat edge. Reverse appliqué: the attached materials are sewn together cut away where another material covers it on top, before being sewn down onto the edges of the original material. Modern consumer embroidery machines stitch appliqué designs by following a program; the programs have a minimum complexity of two thread colours, meaning the machine stops during stitching to allow the user to switch threads. First, the fabric that will be the background and the appliqué fabric are affixed into the machine's embroidery hoop.
The program is run and the machine makes a loose basting stitch over both layers of fabric. Next, the machine halts for a thread change, or other pre-programmed break; the user cuts away the excess appliqué fabric from around the basting stitch. Following this, the machine continues on programme, automatically sewing the satin stitches and any decorative stitching over the appliqué for best results. Collage, a technique of art production used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. Khatwa, the name given to appliqué works in Bihar, India. Appliqué armour, in military use, consists of extra protective plates mounted onto the hull or turret of an armoured fighting vehicle. Media related to Applique at Wikimedia Commons
Nakshi kantha, a type of embroidered quilt, is a centuries-old Bengali art tradition of the Bengal Region, notable in Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal and part of Assam. The basic material used is old cloth. Nakshi kanthas are made throughout Bangladesh, but the greater Mymensingh, Bogra, Rajshahi and Jessore areas are most famous for this craft; the colourful patterns and designs that are embroidered resulted in the name "Nakshi Kantha", derived from the Bengali word "naksha", which refers to artistic patterns. The early kanthas had a white background accented with red and black embroidery; the running stitch called. Traditionally, kantha was produced for the use of the family. Today, after the revival of the nakshi kantha, they are produced commercially; the word kantha has no discernible etymological root. The exact time of origin of the word kantha is not known but it had a precursor in kheta. According to Niaz Zaman, the word kantha originated from the Sanskrit word kontha, which means rags, as kantha is made of rags.
Like any other folk art, kantha making is influenced by factors such as materials available, daily needs, climate and economic factors. The earliest form of kantha was the patchwork kantha, the kanthas of the decorative appliqué type evolved from this; the earliest mention of Bengal Kantha is found in the book Sri Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita by Krishnadas Kaviraj, written some five hundred years ago. The famous Bengali poet Jasimuddin had a famous poem'Nakshi Kanthar Math' on Nakshi Kantha Traditionally old sarees and dhotis were used to make kanthas. Kantha making was not a full-time job. Women in every household were expert in the art. Rural women worked at leisure time or during the lazy days of the rainy season, so taking months or years to finish a kantha was normal. At least five to seven sarees were needed to make a standard-size kantha. Today the old materials are replaced by new cotton cloths. Traditionally the thread was collected from the old sarees; that is done today. When a kantha is being made, first the sarees are joined together to attain the required size, layers are spread out on the ground.
The cloths are smoothed, no folds or creases are left in between. During the process, the cloth is kept flat on the ground with weights on the edges; the four edges are stitched and two or three rows of large running stitches are done to keep the kantha together. At this stage, the kantha can be stitched at leisure time. Designs and motifs were not drawn on the cloth; the design was first outlined with needle and thread, followed by focal points, the filling motifs were done. In a kantha with a predominant central motif the centre was done first, followed by corner designs and the other details. In some types of kanthas wooden blocks were used to print the outline; the blocks are replaced today by patterns drawn in tracing papers. Modern Kantha-stitch craft industry involves a complex multi-staged production model; the following is how kanthas are categorized, according to the stitch type: The running stitch kantha is the indigenous kantha. They are subdivided into par tola. Nakshi kanthas are further divided into motif or scenic kanthas.
The name was derived from Persian word lehr. This type of kantha is popular in Rajshahi; these kanthas are further divided into Kautar khupi, borfi or diamond. The Lik or Anarasi type of kantha is found in the Jessore areas; the variations are lik tan, lik tile, lik jhumka, lik lohori. This type of kantha was introduced by the English during the British Rule in India; the stitch used in these kanthas is the cross-stitch. This type of kantha is found only in Rajshahi area; the popular motif used is the undulating vine motif. The earliest and most basic stitch found in kanthas is the running stitch; the predominant form of this stitch is called the kantha stitch. The other forms of stitches used are the Chatai or pattern darning, Kaitya or bending stitch, weave running stitch, darning stitch, Jessore stitch, threaded running stitch, Lik phor or anarasi or ghar hasia stitches; the stitches used in modern-day kantha are the arrowhead stitch. Stitches like the herringbone stitch, satin stitch and cross-stitch are used.
Kanthas denote quilts used as wrappers. However, depending on the size and purpose, kanthas may be divided into various articles, each with its specific names; the various types of kantha are as follows: Quilt: A light quilted covering made from the old sarees/dhotis/lungis and sometimes from sheet cloths. Large spread: An embellished quilt embroidered in traditional motifs and innovative style Puja floor spread: Cloth spread for sitting at a place of worship or for an honoured guest. Cosmetic wrapper: A narrow embroidered wrapper to roll and store away a woman's comb, eye kohl, sandal paste, oil bottle, etc. A tying string is used to bind the wrap, as in day satches. Wallet: Small envelope-shaped bag for keeping money, betel leaves, etc. Cover for Quran (ghilaf in A
Khayamiya is a type of decorative appliqué textile used to decorate tents across the Middle East. They are now made in Cairo, along a covered market known as the Street of the Tentmakers; this street is located south of Bab Zuweila, has been in continuous use since the Mamluk era. Khayamiya are elaborately patterned and colourful appliques applied to the interior of tents, serving a dual function of shelter and ornament, they resemble quilts, possess the three layers typical of quilts - a heavy'back', a background'top', elaborate applique over the'top'. Functionally, they can be compared to curtains, though their recent roles have diversified to cater for touristic purposes; these now include cushion covers, bags and other applications. Khayamiya feature hand-stitched cotton appliqué over a heavy cotton back; this back is intended to be protective and durable against a hot and dusty climate. The hand-stitching is performed by skilled tentmakers while seated cross-legged, using needles and thread.
Small pieces of fabric are cut to size. Khayamiya are completed by a single tentmaker regardless of the size of the piece; these can range from basic cushion covers to intricate whole-wall hangings several metres across. Large projects can subsequently take several months to complete; the tentmakers are protective of their creative innovations, as successful new designs are copied by their competitive neighbours. Popular design motifs include geometric and curvilinear arabesque patterns derived from Islamic ornaments, scenes inspired by Pharaonic art papyrus and lotus motifs. Egyptian folkloric subjects such as Goha, Nubian musicians, the whirling dervishes are popular touristic souvenirs, as are stylised depictions of fish and birds. Calligraphic patterns, based upon texts from the Qur’an, are shaped into objects and animals. Khedival panels made in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century feature larger blocks of appliqué and wider stitching, though touristic and contemporary khayamiya feature finer and more elaborate handwork.
The correct spelling is in Arabic, but English approximations of this term are diverse, including Khiamiah, Khiamiyya, Kheyyemiah and Khayyāmia. The Arabic word Khayma, meaning'tent', is linked to the Persian خیام Khayyām. Popular alternative descriptions in English include the'work of the Tentmakers of Cairo','Tentmaker applique' or simply'Egyptian applique'. Medhat Adel Emam has discussed the origin of the term as it applies to distinctly Egyptian Arabic with Turkish influences. Large decorated'pavilions' in Khayamiya are known as suradeq. Historic specimens of khayamiya are rare, they were made to be placed outside in dry heat and dust, were regarded as replaceable - hence not valued for collection or preservation. Khedival examples are held in the collection including the British Museum. There are references to Khayamiya in photographic records and European orientalist paintings from the nineteenth century and earlier. Literary references to their use, including illustrations, can be seen in medieval manuscripts.
There is archaeological evidence to suggest that textiles comparable to khayamiya have been created and used in Egypt since the Pharaonic era. Despite their historic legacy, the'tentmaker' occupation is now endangered; this is due to competition from imported mass-printed fabrics bearing similar decorative patterns. These printed sheets are now used across Egypt as temporary screens for special events, notably during Ramadan, festivals and funerals, in place of the original handmade Khayamiya; the majority of Khayamiya created in recent years are marketed to tourists visiting Egypt. In the 2000s, the first international exhibitions of Egyptian khayamiya were held in Australia, the UK, the USA; these were curated by an Australian quiltmaker and teacher. The Egyptian artist Moataz Nasr features Khayamiya-inspired aspects in his contemporary mixed-media artwork. Susan Hefuna's installation "I Love Egypt!" applies Khayamiya within the context of contemporary installation art. From 2009, the Egyptian artist Hani el-Masri collaborated with the Tentmakers to produce a 5m x 8m interpretation of the One Thousand and One Nights.
The Algerian artist Rachid Koraïchi has collaborated with the Tentmakers of Cairo to create large calligraphic banners, such as his Invisible Masters series. As Koraïchi stated in 2011: "When we talk about an Islamic craft tradition, we're not talking about the art of the 19th century that took place in an artist's studio and on canvas. Here we're talking about things that come out of everyday life... It's not a world in which the artist lives apart." The culture of the artisan - still present, but disappearing in the streets of Koraichi's native Algeria and surrounding Maghreb countries - offers an insight into how art can be drawn directly from a day-to-day world, yet heightened by the dedication of craft. "If you look at the foundations of western art," Koraichi continued, "it was based on a whole tradition of craft that went into churches. It's the same with mosques, in that they were built by those who could work with stone and weaving; these are sources that we can see but the question we have is how to take those disappearing traditions and make them present again in the living moment."
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