São Vicente, Cape Verde
São Vicente is one of the Barlavento Islands, the northern group within the Cape Verde archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west African coast. It is located between the islands of Santo Antão and Santa Luzia, with the Canal de São Vicente separating it from Santo Antão; the island is rectangular in shape with an area of 226.7 square kilometres. From east to west it from north to south 16.3 kilometres. The island, of volcanic origin, is flat; the last volcanic activity is considered to have taken place in the Pleistocene. Although eroded, some craters still remain, for instance Viana, its highest point is Monte Verde, located in the eastern part with an altitude of 744 metres. Other mountains include Madeiral and Monte Cara. 92.6% of the island population lives in the urban area of Mindelo, on the Porto Grande Bay, a caldera, breached by the ocean. A small islet, Ilhéu dos Pássaros, is less than one nautical mile off the coast of Porto Grande Bay. There are a few intermittent streams, including Ribeira do Ribeira de Julião.
São Vicente has a dry climate. The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C. The island is dry with only 127 mm annual precipitation in Mindelo. Only the higher area of Monte Verde receives more precipitaion. São Vicente was discovered by the Portuguese discoverer Diogo Afonso on 22 January 1462. Due to its lack of water, the island was used only as a cattle pasture; when the Municipality of Santo Antão was established in 1732, the island of São Vicente was part of it. At that time, it did not have permanent inhabitants. In 1793 the area of Porto Grande Bay was settled, it was only in 1838, when a coal depot was established at Porto Grande Bay to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation. Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure.
Administratively, the island of São Vicente is covered by Concelho de São Vicente. This municipality consists of one freguesia, Nossa Senhora da Luz, which covers the whole island; the municipal seat is the city of Mindelo. The freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: Since 2004, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, in the 1960s Onésimo Silveira, in the late-1990s and the early 2000s Isaura Gomes 2004-2005 and 2008-2011 Augusto Neves In the 1830s, São Vicente had an estimated population of 356. The population of São Vicente in the 2010 census was 76,140, making it the second most populous island of Cape Verde after Santiago; the annual population growth is 1.3%. 92.6% of the population live in urban areas, the highest proportion of all islands. Life expectancy is higher than some other parts of the world; the birth rate is 2.7% and infant mortality rate is 18 per 1000 live births.
The majority of the population is young. The island has 19,923 households, of which there are an average of 3.8 persons per household, lower than Cape Verde's level of 4.2 persons per household. In 2010 15.1% of the households owned an automobile. The economy of the island was always based exclusively on commerce and services. Due to lack of rain, agriculture is at a subsistence level. Fishing has some relevance, but conditions prevent it from being more important, not only for the catch—lobster—but for the associated industries: conserves and salting of fish, naval construction. Porto Grande is the main port of Cape Verde, it has a terminal of containers and refrigeration units that make handling load overflow possible. There is a modern seawater desalination plant, which provides water for public consumption and for naval shipyards. In the industrial sector, the island presents an abundance of manpower though unskilled, resulting from the exodus of inhabitants of other islands to São Vicente.
About 27% of the employed population is unskilled. Qualified employees—company executives, public administrators, managers and directors—make up less than 2% of employees, it is distinguished, however, by a bigger participation of women in decision-making positions than the national average. According to the 2010 census, the island of São Vicente has the largest unemployment rate of the country—14.8%—while the national average is 10.7%. Unemployment affects women more than men; the industrial park of the island—the Industrial Zone of the Lazareto—concentrates diverse types of manufacturing due to foreign investment, in the activities of footwear and fish processing. The National Center of Workmanship of Mindelo supports local craftsmen in the production and commercialization of ceramic parts, articles made of coconut rinds, necklaces of shells and rocks. Many sports are practised in São Vicente, many have spread to the remaining islands; the island is suitable for windsurfing. Cycling, walking trails and
Mosteiros, Cape Verde (municipality)
Mosteiros is a concelho of Cape Verde. Situated in the northeastern part of the island of Fogo, it covers 19% of the island area, is home to 26% of its population, its seat is the city Mosteiros. Its population was 9,524 at the 2010 census, its area is 89.45 km2. The municipality consists of Nossa Senhora da Ajuda; the freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: Mosteiros is situated between the northeastern slopes of the volcano Pico do Fogo and the Atlantic Ocean. The southwestern part of the municipality lies within Fogo Natural Park, which includes the Monte Velha Forest. Mosteiros is an agricultural area, its main product is coffee; the municipality Mosteiros was created in January 1992, when the older Municipality of Fogo was split in two, the southwestern part becoming the Municipality of São Filipe and the northeastern part becoming the Municipality of Mosteiros. The literacy rate is 82.6%. 30.5% of the population are under the age of 15. Since 2004, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde is the ruling party of the municipality.
The results of the latest elections, in 2016: Azambuja, Portugal Entroncamento, Portugal Haría, Spain Official website ANMCV
São Filipe, Cape Verde (municipality)
São Filipe is a concelho of Cape Verde. Situated in the western part of the island of Fogo, it covers 49% of the island area, is home to 60% of its population, its seat is the city São Filipe. Agriculture is the main employment of the municipality, followed by tourism; the municipality consists of two freguesias: São Lourenço Nossa Senhora da Conceição It was created in 1991, when the older Municipality of Fogo was split in two, the southwestern part becoming the Municipality of São Filipe and the northeastern part becoming the Municipality of Mosteiros. In 2005, an eastern parish of the municipality was split off to become the Municipality of Santa Catarina do Fogo. Eugênio Miranda da Veiga - MpD Luís Pires - PAICV Since 2016, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: The city has the stadium, it has the Estadio 5 de Julho, used for football, a multisport complex named Simão Mendes and a pavilion named Luzia Nunes located in another settlement close to Patim.
Sports clubs in the municipality include Académica do Fogo, Spartak d'Aguadinha, União, Valência and Vulcânicos. Each year, the São Filipe Municipal Cup, a football competition takes place each year in the months of September or October, it features clubs from the municipality. The 2016 edition featured two clubs from outside the municipality. São Filipe is twinned with 10 Portuguese towns: Cinfães Espinho Leiria Matosinhos Moimenta da Beira Montijo Ourém Palmela Sesimbra Viseu Official website of the municipality Official website of the town
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It forms part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, Canary Islands and the Savage Isles. In ancient times these islands were referred to as "the Islands of the Blessed" or the "Fortunate Isles". Located 570 kilometres west of the Cape Verde Peninsula off the coast of Northwest Africa, the islands cover a combined area of over 4,000 square kilometres; the Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants and pirates; the end of slavery in the 19th century led to economic emigration. Cape Verde recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes.
Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to campaign for independence, peacefully achieved in 1975. Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment, its population of around 540,000 is of mixed European, Moorish and African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world outnumbering inhabitants on the islands; the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union.
The name of the country stems on the Senegalese coast. In 1444, Portuguese explorers had named that landmark as Cabo Verde, a few years before they discovered the islands. On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited; the islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian Alvise Cadamosto. In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande.
Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlements. Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships; because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew discontented with the colonial masters, who refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy.
In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, it demanded improvement in economic and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement — led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 — passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in
Tarrafal, Cape Verde (municipality)
Tarrafal is a concelho of Cape Verde. It is situated in the northern part of the island of Santiago, its seat is the town Tarrafal. Its population was 18,565 at the 2010 census, its area is 120.8 km2. The municipality consists of Santo Amaro Abade; the freguesia is subdivided into the following settlements: The municipality was created in 1917, when two northern parishes of the older Municipality of Santa Catarina were split off to become the Municipality of Tarrafal. In 1997, the southeastern part of the municipality was split off to become the Municipality of São Miguel. Under Salazar the Tarrafal Concentration Camp was built on the plain south of town to contain opponents of the political regime. At the federal level, it belongs to the constituency of Santiago North. Since 2004, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: Pany Varela, futsal player Pedro Celestino Silva Soares, footballer Silvino Lopes Évora, writer Mário Lúcio de Sousa, member of the band Simentera Janício Martins, footballer Tarrafal is twinned with the following municipalities in Portugal: Amadora Fundão Grândola Marinha Grande Moita Montijo Câmara Municipal do Tarrafal ANMCV
Boa Vista, Cape Verde
Boa Vista written as Boavista, is a desert-like island that belongs to the Cape Verde Islands. At 631.1 km2, it is the third largest island of the Cape Verde archipelago. The island of Boa Vista is the Cape Verde island located closest to the African continent, being the easternmost island of all; the distance between Boa Vista and Senegal is only 450 km. The capital of Boa Vista, Sal Rei, is located in the north-western part of the island. Boa Vista is known for its beaches and traditional music. Boa Vista is the third largest island after Santo Antão and Santiago, with an area of 631.1 square kilometres. It is situated south of north of Maio; the island is flat, but it has numerous mountains like Monte Estância, Monte Santo António, Rocha Estância, Morro de Areia, Morro Negro, Monte Caçador, Pico Forcado and Monte Vigia. Boa Vista is famous for its large beaches like Atalanta, Chaves, Ervatão, Santa Mónica and Varandinha, its northernmost point is Ponta. Its main river is the Ribeira do Rabil, which has the largest basin area of all Cape Verde at 199 km2.
Boa Vista is notable for its desert Deserto de Viana and its dune fields. Boa Vista is surrounded by a number of uninhabited islets, the largest of, Ilhéu de Sal Rei; the uninhabited island Boa Vista was discovered by António de Noli and Diogo Gomes in 1460. Until the end of the 16th century the only human activity on the island was breeding wild cattle; the island's first settlement, now known as Povoação Velha, was established in 1620 for its salt deposits, which were exploited by the English. In 1820, after many pirate attacks, the population moved to Porto Inglês renamed Sal Rei, founded at the end of the 18th century; as did much of the Cape Verdean economy, the exploitation of salt on Boa Vista relied on slavery. A Portuguese-British commission to end slavery was established in Boa Vista in 1842, but slavery was not abolished until 1876; until 1935 the municipality of Boa Vista covered the island of Sal. In 1975, Cape Verde declared its independence. Administratively, the island of Boa Vista is covered by Concelho da Boa Vista.
This municipality consists of two freguesias: São João Baptista. The municipal seat is the city Sal Rei; the island's two parishes are subdivided into 9 population zones for statistical purposes: Since 2016, the local party BASTA is the ruling party of the municipality. The results of the latest elections, in 2016: In the 1830s, the population of Boa Vista was estimated at 4,000. In 2015 Boa Vista's population was 14,451. Most of the population live in Sal Rei, but there are several smaller settlements with 10 to 100 people. With 23.3 inhabitants per km2, it is the least-dense populated island in the archipelago. The population of Boa Vista consist of a mixture of different nationalities: Creole and Caucasians; the Creoles are the biggest group of inhabitants, with no less than 70%, as a lot of Portuguese enter into a relation with the slaves of the African continent, during the colonization of Portugal, settled in Boa Vista afterwards. Before, the inhabitants of Boa Vista survived off date farming.
Nowadays they still earn money from date farming but from tourism. A lot of people do work in this touristic sector as a taxi driver, an employee in one of the hotel chains or as a salesman of souvenirs in Sal Rei; the income from tourism has risen since the coming of the international airport in 2007. There are several hotels and beach resorts on the island; the airport of Boa Vista is Aristides Pereira International Airport, about 5 km southeast of Sal Rei. There are ferry services from the port of Sal Rei; the island has 64 km of national roads, the single first class national road connects Sal Rei and Rabil. Boa Vista is not as abundant in flora and fauna as the other larger or more humid islands such as Santiago and Santo Antão. However, 37% of its area is a protected area, the highest proportion of all inhabited Cape Verde islands. There are 14 protected areas on Boa Vista, including beaches that are important nesting areas for loggerhead sea turtles and birds. There are several endemic species, e.g. Boa Vista wall gecko, Conus boavistensis, Conus salreiensis) and Plesiocystiscus bubistae.
There are several football clubs on Boa Vista, organised in the Boa Vista Regional Football Association. Aristides Pereira, Cape Verde's first president Germano Almeida, a Cape Verdean writer Boa Vista, Cape Verde portal Tourist site, Boavista Official Câmara Municipal da Boa Vista
Ribeira Grande, Cape Verde (municipality)
Ribeira Grande is a concelho of Cape Verde. Situated in the northern part of the island of Santo Antão, it covers one fifth of the island area, is home to nearly half of its population, its seat is the city. The municipality consists of four freguesias: Nossa Senhora do Rosário Nossa Senhora do Livramento Santo Crucifixo São Pedro Apóstolo The municipality has a rugged landscape, stretching from the mountains in the interior of the island to the north coast, it has several deep river valleys, including those of Ribeira da Garça, Ribeira Grande and Ribeira da Torre. It borders the municipality Paul to the east and Porto Novo to the south; the protected areas Cova-Paul-Ribeira da Torre Natural Park, Moroços and Cruzinha lie within the municipality.. In 1732 the Municipality of Santo Antão was created, with its seat in the town Ribeira Grande. In 1867 this was divided into the municipality of Ribeira Grande; these were merged in 1895 into one municipality. The municipalities of Paul and Ribeira Grande were recreated in 1917.
Since 2008, the Movement for Democracy is the ruling party of the municipality. Its current president is Orlando Delgado; the results of the latest elections, in 2016: António do Espírito Santo Fonseca, president of the National Assembly from 1996 to 2001 Gabriel Mariano, Capeverdean essayist, novelist & poet Manuel de Novas, Capeverdean poet Torres Novas, Portugal Ponta do Sol, Madeira Islands Official website ANMCV Interview with the president of the Municipal Council of Ribeira Grande Orlando Delgado - Olhos de Zepra