LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress
The LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress is made up of senators and deputies that are members of their respective chambers. It convened on September 1, 2015 and concluded on August 31, 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 election for a period of six years and therefore exercised their position in the previous legislature; the formation of the LXIII legislature is as follows: Members of the Senate are elected for a period of six years, three for each of the states and the Federal District, 32 more for a national list, giving a total of 128 Senators. For the internal government of the Senate, senators are grouped by political party for which they were elected in parliamentary groups, each of, headed by a coordinator; the coordinators of all groups in turn form the Board of Policy Coordination of the Senate. The 128 Senators who make up the LXII Legislature are: National Action Party:: Fernando Herrera Ávila Institutional Revolutionary Party: Emilio Gamboa Pattern Party of the Democratic Revolution: Miguel Barbosa Huerta Ecologist Green Party of Mexico: Jorge Emilio González Martínez Labor Party: Manuel Bartlett Díaz The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 elected legislators for a period of 3 years and nonreeligible for the immediate period.
300 deputies are elected by direct vote for each one of the Electoral Districts of the country, the other 200 by a system voted in each of the Constituencies lists. The composition of the Chamber of Deputies in the Legislature LXIII is as follows:: Jesús Zambrano Grijalva: Javier Bolaños Aguilar: Jorge Carlos Ramírez Marín National Action Party: Marko Cortés Mendoza Institutional Revolutionary Party: César Camacho Quiroz Party of the Democratic Revolution: Francisco Martínez Neri Ecologist Green Party of Mexico: Jesús Sesma Suárez Citizen's Movement: Clemente Castañeda Hoeflich New Alliance: Alfredo Valles Mendoza National Regeneration Movement: Rocío Nahle García Social Encounter Party Alejandro González Murillo Senate of Mexico Chamber of Deputies of Mexico Politics of Mexico Official page of the Camera of Deputies Official page of the Senate
San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León, part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that tend to relocate to the periphery of the metropolitan area, it is the third-largest city in the state, behind Guadalupe. It houses the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, one of the most prestigious public schools in Mexico and Latin America. San Nicolás, although less populated than Monterrey, has the higher population density. San Nicolás de los Garza was founded on 5 February 1597 and given the name of Estancia de Pedro de la Garza Estancia de San Nicolás, Estancia de San Nicolás de los Garza; the first people that inhabited the terrain were Amerindian nomads. They were the Ayalas and the Alincheños. San Nicolás was founded right after Monterrey, when Diego de Montemayor granted permission to inhabit the area to his secretary, Diego Díaz de Berlanga.
Pedro de la Garza. The members of these families are considered the first settlers of the city. Diego Díaz de Berlanga was the person that redacted Monterrey's Foundation Act, authorized the first land permissions to its first settlers. In 1830 the area was declared to the category of village, with the name of San Nicolás de los Garza, in honor of the patron saint of the town. On 12 May 1970 it was declared a city. San Nicolás de los Garza is a municipality governed by a democratically elected Presidente Municipal for a period of 3 years with no right to reelection; the political environment is one of civility. Since the decade of the 80's, the PAN has remained in office; the City Council of San Nicolás de los Garza is an organ integrated by the Mayor, the Regidores and the Síndicos. The Mayor is the executor of the determinations of the City Council and the person directly in charge of the public municipal administration; the Regidores represent the community and their mission is to collectively define the city policies in all the subjects affecting it.
The Síndicos are in charge of watching and defend the city interests, as well as in charge of watching the City Treasury status and the municipal patrimony. The current Mayor of San Nicolás is Pedro Salgado Almaguer, elected in the past municipal election and will remain in office until 2016; the political parties with representation in the city are the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI, the National Action Party or PAN, the Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD, the Labor Party or PT, the Green Party, Socialdemocratic Party and Nueva Alianza. In the first part of the 20th century, several important Mexican companies built factories in the municipality, making San Nicolás an industrial center. Companies like Cemex, Vitro, Peñoles and Hylsa were known for their large facilities in the city. In the 1970s, San Nicolás increased its reputation as a good place to live, the municipality experienced a tide of house construction; this house construction boom was possible because there were a lot of lands available within the territory of the city.
In the 1980s several industrial facilities moved to other municipalities to Apodaca, still within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, but farther from downtown. At the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, huge commercial centers or malls were constructed to serve the large population; the first economic activity became commerce instead of industrial production. The most important malls are La Fe, Las Plazas Outlet, Plaza Fiesta Anahuac and Universidad Avenue; the city count with several commercial centers in construction. The main campus of the UANL, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León is located in this municipality; this university is the third largest Mexican university and is among the most recognized schools in Mexico, ranked by the Reader's Digest-AC Nielsen Survey 2005 as the top university in the northeast region of Mexico. Its main campus is called Ciudad Universitaria with an approximate area of 67,630,000 square meters; the UANL system comprises 26 colleges, 22 post-graduate divisions, 24 high schools, 1 center of bilingual education and 3 technical high schools.
Adán Zapata, rapper Alicia Villarreal, singer César Paz Sr. coach of the 1957 Little League World Series champions, held in Williamsport, United States. Édgar González, pitcher for the Arizona Diamondbacks Grupo Pesado, Group of Musica Grupera Manuel Uribe Garza, world's fattest man José Juan Cantú Cárdenas, businessman San Nicolás de los Garza serves as the home of Tigres UANL, a Liga MX professional football team associated with UANL whose rivals are C. F. Monterrey. San Nicolás de los Garza has five sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International, Inc: Denton, United States Kansas City, United States Seguin, United States Taipei, Taiwan Winnipeg, Canada Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática Nuevo León Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México Gobierno Municipal de San Nicolás de los Garza official website
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico
The Ecological Green Party of Mexico is a green-conservative political party in Mexico. In the 2012 Legislative elections, the party took 34 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and nine seats in the Senate. During the 2012 Presidential election, PVEM supported Enrique Peña Nieto, the candidate from the Institutional Revolutionary Party, elected. In 2018, PVEM supported Todos por México Everyone for Mexico coalition, along with Panal. José Antonio Meade, the coalition's candidate, came in third in a four-way race, with 16.43% of the vote. In 2008, the PVEM initiated an advertising campaign in favor of reintroducing the death penalty in Mexico; this led to the European Green Party's withdrawal of recognition of the PVEM as a legitimate green party. During an interview, PVEM candidate Gamaliel Ramirez verbally attacked an gay candidate for Guadalajara mayor and called for criminal laws against homosexuality to be established. In the following days, Ramirez issued a written apology after the party expressed disappointment at his remarks.
While the party has pledged to support LGBT rights issues, 3 representatives abstained from a vote on Mexico City granting legal recognition to same-sex couples. The PVEM is widely criticized because its current leader, Jorge Emilio González Martínez, was appointed for being the son of former leader Jorge González Torres, for supporting the political and business agenda of Mexican businessman Víctor González Torres, owner of the Farmacias Similares drugstore franchise and González Martínez's uncle. In January 2015, the National Electoral Institute ordered the PVEM and theater chains Cinemex and Cinépolis to cease airing PVEM advertisements, on the grounds of fairness in electoral contests; when the PVEM and the theaters did not comply, the INE imposed a fine of $35 million on the PVEM and $7 million on both theater chains. Official website Death penalty debate grows in Mexico Mexico to rethink death penalty
Senate of the Republic (Mexico)
The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators: Two for each of the 32 states elected under the principle of relative majority. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote; the party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District assigns a senator to occupy the third seat, according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute. Senators serve six-year terms. Special elections are rare; until 2018, the Senate was renewed every six years since senators are barred from immediate reelection. As of 2018, Senators can now serve a second term. In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term; the current session is known as the LXIV Legislatura.
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators will serve during the 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies. According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements: Being a Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of their rights. Be twenty-five years old on election day Being from the state in the election, or neighbor of him with an effective residence of more than six months prior to the date of the election, or in the case of candidates is made by proportional representation of any of the states that as the constituency, with the same details. Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election. Not be a secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election.
Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election. Not a minister of some religious cult. Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately, they are elected by secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, 2, Second Formula; the formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity. There are 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election. For their internal government has two main instances, namely: Board: Composed of a Chairman, three Vice-Chairpersons and four Secretaries, elected for each regular session of the House, the chairman is the President of the Senate and is the head and representative of the Chamber.
Political Coordination Board: Considered the true governing body of the Chamber consists of a chairman and six members, which always include the Coordinators of the different parliamentary factions of political parties represented in the Senate. For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue; the most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Finance, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 to coordinate their work. A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected, divided into two legislatures of three years each. From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.
The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters. The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature.
Nuevo León the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey, it is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U. S.–Mexico border adjacent to the U. S. state of Texas. The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, itself named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León. Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. Nuevo León was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of any permanent settlements.
Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor. Nuevo Leon became one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain; the capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states. Nuevo León has an extreme climate, there is little rainfall throughout the year; the territory covers 64,220 square kilometres, can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos and Santa Clara mountain ranges, the Pilón, Ascensión, Río Blanco valleys.
As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality; the flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, prairie dogs, foxes and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species; as of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 79 years for women. Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, 98% have all utilities; the remaining 2% is the small indigenous population, isolated and lives in the mountain regions.
Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, but it has a sizable Protestant population. The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an perfect record for finished secondary education, 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard. Institutions of higher education include: Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Tecnológico Nacional de México Centro de Estudios Universitarios Universidad Regiomontana Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey Universidad de Monterrey Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey Highly industrialized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland.
In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita of any Mexican state, was therefore higher than the Mexican national average. One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income, it is home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex, Maseca, Banorte, ALFA (Sigma, Nemak and Hylsa, i-service, Vitro SA, FEMSA, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. Nuevo León boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt"
Mauricio Fernández Garza
Mauricio Fernández Garza is a Mexican politician and businessman directly related to the Fernández Ruiloba wealthy and prominent family. He was the mayor of San Pedro Garza García, former senator and current member of the board of Grupo Alfa, a Monterrey-based chemical and auto-parts producer, he is well known for his art contribution to Nuevo León. Fernández Garza graduated with a bachelor's degree in Industrial Engineering from Purdue University, specialized in economics at the Autonomous University of Nuevo León and received a master's degree in business administration from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Studies, he is the founder and president of Comercializadora de Puros, Uniser and the Museo del Ojo in García, Nuevo León. In June 2005 he sold one of his companies, Especialidades Cerveceras, S. A. to Fomento Económico Mexicano, world's second-largest Coca-Cola bottler. Fernández ran for governor of Nuevo León in 2003, he defeated former treasurer Fernando Elizondo in the National Action Party state primaries but lost the gubernatorial election against the candidate of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, Natividad González Parás.
He won the election. His administration began on October 31 of 2009, his successor to the mayorship of San Pedro Garza García will be independent candidate Miguel Treviño. During his campaign, Mauricio focused on promoting his anti-crime policies, as the growing crime wave was of concern for many citizens of San Pedro, the wealthiest municipality/city in Mexico. During his campaign, he stated that the city was controlled by the Beltran Leyva drug cartel - these statements caused much controversy, he mentioned that the relative peace seen in the city was due to Beltran family members living in the city, their pacts with other cartels to keep San Pedro a "safe zone". During his commencement speech, he mentioned that the man who issued him a death threat had been killed in Mexico City; this was done. One of his main strategies against the rising crime rate was the implementation of an "intelligence" body, which operated in secrecy and was financed by the city's wealthy businessmen; the mayor himself called the group "El Grupo Rudo," which translated from Spanish to "The Rough Group."
This group created much controversy. The leader of this group was accused of torture by one of Mauricio's bodyguards, was killed by a member of an organized group; the son of the ex-governor Alfonso Martinez Dominguez, Fransico Martinez Cardenas, was in charge of collecting the money from the businessmen. The group was soon disintegrated, however many claim. In an effort to reduce the increase in kidnappings and delinquency, he formalized a database that kept track of all domestic servant employees; the goal was to keep track of all of these employees, which number the thousands and work in the wealthy family's homes. One of the arguments in favor of such a database was that many of the kidnappings and robberies occurred because of tips given by the employees. Many human right groups rose in protest. PYOSA Alberto Fernández Garza Alberto Fernández Ruiloba Jorge Fernández Ruiloba
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP of US$123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800, it is considered a Beta World City and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is regarded as its most "Americanized"; as an important industrial and business center, the city is home to many Mexican companies, including Grupo Avante, Lanix Electronics, Ocresa, CEMEX, Vitro, OXXO, FEMSA, DINA S. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery, Grupo ALFA. Monterrey is home to international companies such as Siemens, Ternium, Toshiba, Whirlpool, Toyota, Babcock & Wilcox, British American Tobacco, Dell, Boeing, HTC, General Electric, Johnson Controls, Gamesa, LG, SAS Institute, Danfoss and Teleperformance, among others.
Monterrey is at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey was founded by Diego de Montemayor in 1596. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city has experienced great industrial growth. Before the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation-state, the population consisted of some indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey sits was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area unexplored by the Spanish colonizers; the first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, who named the city Santa Lucia, but they were unsuccessful because the Spanish were attacked by the natives and fled.
The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain that would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey; the New Kingdom of León extended westward from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, around 1,000 kilometers northward. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of 13 families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now; the new city's name was chosen to honor the wife of Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, ninth Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey's Coat of Arms shows an Indian throwing an arrow to the sun in front of Cerro de la Silla mountain.
This represents a native ceremony performed at sunrise. During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens; the city facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies. In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation due to its balanced ties between Europe, the United States, the capital. In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, Monterrey was selected as its capital, but the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the governor of the state annexed Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican–American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after repelling U. S. forces' first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño. During the last decade of the 19th century, Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry, it was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital, now one of northeast Mexico's best public hospitals, affiliated with the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey; the brewery Cervecería Cuaut