Faryd Camilo Mondragón Alí is a Colombian retired footballer who last played as a goalkeeper for Deportivo Cali in the Colombian First Division. Since his debut in 1993, he has played over 50 times for the Colombian national team, making him alongside Mario Yepes the last active members of the original 1990s golden generation of Colombian football, he was named in the Colombian squads for the 1992 Olympics, two Copa América tournaments, two CONCACAF Gold Cups, the World Cups of 1994, 1998 and 2014. On 24 June 2014, Mondragón made history by becoming the oldest player to play a FIFA World Cup match at the age of 43 years and 3 days, a record, broken four years by 45-year-old Egyptian goalkeeper Essam El-Hadary. Born in Cali of Lebanese descent, Mondragón began his career began at Deportivo Cali, he moved to Independiente Santa Fe and Cerro Porteño in Paraguay, his career took off when he joined the Argentine first division side Argentinos Juniors in 1993, made his international debut for Colombia.
The following year he moved to Club Atlético Independiente where he won, among other titles, the 1995 Supercopa Libertadores against Flamengo. Apart from some brief periods, he stood at the club until 2001, he was the man behind the FC Metz's escape from relegation from Ligue 1 at the end of the 2000–01 season. However, he was convicted of using a false Greek passport and despite the mitigating circumstances, Mondragón was not allowed to play in France and had to leave the country. Mondragón represented Turkish power Galatasaray from 2001 to 2007, where he won two Süper Lig titles in 2002 and 2006, he was appreciated by the fans for his many saves and his commitment to the success of the team, become known for his prayers before and during games. He came to the fore in many European matches and was selected Player of the week in the Champions League two times. Mondragón transferred from Istanbul to 1. FC Köln in May 2007. After arriving at his new club, he was forced to compete with established Köln goalkeeper Stefan Wessels for a spot in the starting eleven.
One of the reasons that he chose 1. FC Köln it was. After an intense pre-season, Mondragón was named as the new number one for 1. FC Köln; this resulted in Wessels leaving the club for Everton in England. Since Wessels departure, Mondragón established a first choice goalkeeper for the club until Mondragón was relegated to the bench after an altercation with Zvonimir Soldo over his desire to go on international duty; this resulted in Mondragón being sent home from the team hotel and being replaced by young Croatian stopper Miro Varvodić. His contract with Köln was terminated with effect from 31 December 2010, the reason being Mondragón's desire to play in the MLS, he spent the 2011 season with Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer, where he was successful in providing leadership to a young team. On 30 January 2012, Deportivo Cali announced Mondragón had signed a one-year contract to finish his career with his original professional club, he retired after two and a half seasons back at the club.
After making his debut against Venezuela in 1993, Mondragón was a member of the Colombian national teams that competed at the 1992 Summer Olympics and the 1994 and 1998 FIFA World Cup. During the 1998 World Cup, he started in goal for all three of their games, including the final match against England. Despite conceding two goals, he made some impressive saves and in doing so kept the score down to 2–0, with the BBC's South American football correspondent Tim Vickery saying that Mondragón was "single-handedly responsible for the fact that England did not run up a cricket score". At the end of the game, Mondragón broke down in tears and David Seaman, England's goalkeeper, did his best to console him. According to German footballing legend Franz Beckenbauer, Mondragón had been the best goalkeeper of the first round. Along with Carlos Valderrama, the country's most capped player, Mondragón is the only Colombian to have participated in five FIFA World Cup qualification campaigns. In 2010, he was recalled to the Colombian squad at the age of 39 after a five-year absence from international football.
In 2014, he was named in Colombia's squad for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, making him the oldest player at the tournament, in World Cup history, at the age of 43, the only squad member at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. He is the only player to have participated in 6 different World Cup qualifying campaigns since 1993. By coming on as a substitute in the 85th minute of the final group game against Japan on 24 June 2014, he became the oldest player to play in a World Cup game at the age of 43 years and 3 days old, surpassing the record set by Roger Milla for Cameroon at the 1994 World Cup. Mondragón gave a emotional interview afterwards, expressing his gratitude to have been given the opportunity to represent Colombia one last time at a World Cup, his record for oldest player in World Cup history was broken four years at the 2018 World Cup by 45-year-old Egyptian goalkeeper Essam El-Hadary. After Colombia's elimination to the host country Brazil in the quarter-finals, Mondragón confirmed his retirement from football and thanked the fans and nation for the support after stating, "This is my last stadium as a professional player.
I'm proud to be part of this wonderful group. Thank you all for the years of support.". Updated 27 June 2014 IndependienteRecopa Sudamericana: 1995 Supercopa Libertadores: 1995GalatasaraySüper Lig: 2001–02, 2005–06 Turkish Cup: 2004–05Deportivo CaliSuperliga Colombiana: 2014 Mondragón is of Lebanese descent, his first name Faryd means "unique or unmatched" in Arabic
Óscar Eduardo Córdoba Arce is a retired Colombian football goalkeeper who has played more than 70 games for the Colombia national team. He is the only person to never concede a goal in a Copa América edition, did so in 2001. Córdoba started playing professionally with Atlético Nacional in 1988, but transferred to Deportivo Cali in 1989 and loaned to Deportes Quindío in 1990. In 1991, he moved to Millonarios, in 1993 he played for Once Caldas, América de Cali, with which he would win the Colombian Championship in 1997; the Scottish jazz rock/fusion band "Oscar Cordoba" are named in his honour. After the title, he moved to Argentine team Boca Juniors to what was his most successful time, winning the Argentine Championships Apertura 1998, Clausura 1999 and Apertura 2000, the Copa Libertadores 2000 and 2001, the Intercontinental Cup of 2000. In 2000 and 2001 was part of the dream team of America. Ready to make the jump to Europe, Córdoba moved to Italian Perugia Calcio, but after only half season he transferred to Turkish Beşiktaş Istanbul.
In Turkey he played against another Colombian goalkeeper of the Super Lig. After 4 seasons and after winning the 2002–03 Turkish First Football League and the 2005–2006 Turkey Cup, he transferred to Antalyaspor, club in which he announced his retirement after the 2006/07 season. In spite of the announcement, he returned to Colombia and signed for Deportivo Cali to play the following season, his contract with the Colombian side expired after Deportivo Cali were eliminated in the semi-finals of the Copa Mustang in the Apertura of 2008. In December 2008 he was nominated by the American channel Fox Sports as "Outstanding Career" Award given annually by such means the best athletes in the world. Oscar will be awarded with special recognition for Outstanding Career with Argentine striker Gabriel Batistuta. After his experience at Deportivo Cali, Córdoba expressed his interest in either returning to Argentina, returning to Turkey, or retiring from football itself, he signed for Millonarios where he played until his retirement in December 2009.
He won Fox Sports Radio's "Outstanding Career" Award with three other Colombians, including Formula 3 driver Gustavo Yacaman and bronze medal-winning Paralympic athlete Elkin Serna. Córdoba made his debut for the Colombia national team in a friendly against Costa Rica on 31 March 1993, he has gone on to make over 70 appearances for his country, making him the most capped goalkeeper in the history of Colombian international football. In the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification he started in every game and conceded only two goals making him the best goalkeeper in the playoffs, he played a key role in the 2001 Copa América, playing five of six games, winning the tournament with no goals conceded. Along with Miguel Calero, the Colombian side kept their net virgin throughout the tournament, first time to happened in the Copa América, he won the award for best goalkeeper in the tournament. He played in the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. On 10 September 2003 Córdoba surpassed René Higuita's record of 68 caps, to become Colombia's all time record goalkeeper.
He was called up to the Colombia national football team for his final time in October 2009 as the third goalkeeper in a FIFA World Cup qualifier for the CONMEBOL. América de CaliCategoría Primera A: 11996–97Copa Libertadores: runner up1996Boca JuniorsArgentine Primera División: 31998 Apertura, 1999 Clausura, 2000 AperturaCopa Libertadores: 22000, 2001Intercontinental Cup: 12000BeşiktaşSüper Lig: 12002–03Turkish Cup: 12005–06ColombiaCopa América:2001IndividualMost Valuable Player, 2000 Copa Libertadores Best Goalkeeper, 2000 and 2001 Copa Libertadores Best Goalkeeper, 2001 Copa América Named to the América dream team, 2000 and 2001 First and only goalkeeper in Copa América history to keep a perfect clean sheet Óscar Córdoba at National-Football-Teams.com International statistics at rsssf
Leonel Álvarez (footballer, born 1965)
Leonel de Jesús Álvarez Zuleta is a former Colombian football defensive midfielder. He played 101 times for the Colombia national team between 1985 and 1995, making him the third most capped player in Colombian international football, he was the head coach of Colombia national football team. Alvarez is the only coach to have been champion twice with Independiente Medellín. Álvarez began his career with Independiente Medellín in 1983. In 1989, he was part of the Atlético Nacional team that won the Copa Libertadores in 1989, he won a Colombian league title with América de Cali in 1990 and another in 1995. He has played for Veracruz of Mexico and Real Valladolid of Spain. Álvarez signed with Major League Soccer before the league's inaugural 1996 season, was allocated to the Dallas Burn. In his year with the team, Álvarez he scored three goals and five assists for the team from a defensive midfield position, was named as part of the MLS Best XI. Álvarez moved to Mexico for the 1997 season. He returned to Dallas Burn in 1998.
Álvarez played for the Revolution throughout 2001 before the team decided not to renew his contract for the 2002 season. Late in his career, he returned to Colombian football, where he played for Deportes Quindío and for Deportivo Pereira. Álvarez appeared in a total of 101 games for the Colombia, making his debut on 14 February 1985 against Poland. He appeared for Colombia in the 1994 World Cups, playing in a total of seven games. Additionally, he played in the Copa América for his native country in 1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, he began his coaching career as technical assistant at one of his former clubs. In 2008, he worked as the assistant coach at Independiente Medellín, the team he began his career with, working as Santiago Escobar's understudy. After Escobar was fired Álvarez was given his first head coach opportunity. In his debut season as a coach, he helped make Medellín champions. In May 2010 he was named the assistant coach of the Colombia national team. In September 2011, he was appointed head coach of the team, following the resignation of Hernán Bolillo Gómez.
He got off to a good start by beating Bolivia, but was sacked on 14 December that year after the Colombian squad recorded a 1–1 draw with Venezuela and a 2–1 loss with Argentina in the World Cup qualifying campaign. In July 2012, he was appointed as Itagui's new coach. Scores and results lists Colombia's goal tally first. Leonel Álvarez at National-Football-Teams.com International statistics at rsssf
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Colombia national football team
The Colombia national football team represents Colombia in international football competitions and is overseen by the Colombian Football Federation. It is a member of the CONMEBOL and is ranked 12th in the FIFA World Rankings; the team are nicknamed Los Cafeteros due to the coffee production in their country. Since the mid-1980s, the national team has been a symbol fighting the country's negative reputation; this has made the sport popular and made the national team a sign of nationalism and passion for many Colombians worldwide. Colombia is known for having a passionate fan base. Colombia had its strongest period during the 1990s. A 1993 match resulted in a 5–0 win over Argentina which began a special "mutual respect" rivalry between both nations; the goalkeeper René Higuita achieved fame from his eccentric scorpion kick clearance against England at Wembley Stadium in 1995. Stars from Colombia's team included Faustino Asprilla. During this era Colombia qualified for the 1990, 1994, 1998 World Cups, only reaching the second round in 1990.
Following the murder of Andrés Escobar after the 1994 World Cup, Colombia's team faded in the latter half of the 1990s. They were the champions of the 2001 Copa América, which they hosted and set a new Copa América record of conceding no goals and winning each match. Prior to that success, they were runners-up to Peru in the 1975 Copa América. In total, Colombia has gained a top four result in seven Copa Américas. Colombia was the first team to win FIFA best mover in 1993 where the achievement was first introduced and the second team after Croatia to win it twice in 2012. Colombia missed three World Cups between 2002 and 2010. During the 2014 World Cup qualifiers, Colombia showed improvement over the 2011 Copa América, bringing its rank up to the top ten for the first time since 2002 and into the top five for the first time since 2004. After a 16-year-long wait, in 2014 Colombia returned to the World Cup, where they were able to advance to the quarter-finals, the furthest Colombia has made it in a World Cup.
Colombia's midfielder James Rodríguez won two awards, the Golden Boot for most goals and Best Goal of the Tournament. Colombia played its first official matches at Caribbean Games; the Colombia national football team was composed by all the players of the Club Juventud Bogotana. Alfonso Novoa was the manager of Colombia until 23 February; the first game was played on 10 February 1938 against Mexico. Colombia was defeated 1–3. Colombia was able to obtain the bronze medal, with three losses; the same year, Colombia played at the I Bolivarian Games in Bogotá, where they finished fourth with one win and three losses. Fernando Paternoster was the manager of the side's first foreign manager. Colombia did not play again until 1945, when they participated for the first time at the South American Championship, finishing in fifth place; this time, Colombia was composed by players of Junior de Barranquilla save for Antonio de la Hoz and Pedro Ricardo López. Roberto Meléndez was coach of Colombia throughout the tournament.
The first match of Colombia in the professional era was played on 6 April in the 1949 South American Championship, a 3–0 defeat against Paraguay. Austrian coach Friedrich Donnenfeld was the manager of Colombia during the tournament; as Junior was chosen to represent Colombia in the tournament, he became in the first European manager of the Colombia national team. The team, repeated their losing streak since, as in the previous tournament, ended eighth with two draws and five losses, scoring four goals. After a withdrawal in 1938 and getting banned in 1954, Colombia participated for the first time in qualifying for the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, their first match was on 16 June 1957 against Uruguay in a 1 -- 1 draw. Colombia lost their next matches. At the 1962 World Cup, Colombia lost 2 -- 1 against Uruguay. Luis Cubilla and Jorge Sasía scored for Uruguay at the 56th and 75th minute while Francisco Zuluaga scored a 19th-minute penalty goal for Colombia. In the second match, they earned a 4–4 draw with the Soviet Union, champions of the 1960 European Nations' Cup.
In this game, Colombia scored four goals against Soviet goalkeeper Lev Yashin considered the best goalkeeper in football history. In that game, Marcos Coll scored the only olympic goal in World Cup history so far; the Colombian campaign in 1962 ended with a 5–0 defeat against Yugoslavia, who finished in fourth place in the tournament. After the 1962 World Cup, Colombia didn't qualify for over 28 years before they returned at 1990 edition. At 1990 World Cup, Colombia defeated United Arab Emirates 2–0, lost to Yugoslavia 1–0, earned their place in the round of 16 after a 1–1 draw with West Germany, who would win the World Cup. Colombia would be eliminated in their next match against Cameroon with a 2–1 defeat in extra time. For the 1994 World Cup, Colombia finished top of their qualifying group without having lost a match, which included a historic 5–0 win over Argentina in Buenos Aires. Expectations of the team were high, some naming them as favourites to win the tournament. Colombia was assigned to the Group A with the hosts United States and Switzerland.
During the tournament, Colombia only earned
Liga Deportiva Universitaria referred to as Liga de Quito, LDU, is an Ecuadorian professional football club based in Quito. They play in the highest level of the Ecuadorian professional football league, they play their home games at the Estadio Rodrigo Paz Delgado, more referred to as Casa Blanca. Rival clubs include Quito-based clubs El Nacional, Deportivo Quito and Universidad Católica. Liga Deportiva Universitaria has its roots in the semi-pro sports teams in 1918 competing as “Universitario” at the Central University of Ecuador, was founded on January 11 of 1930, they began winning nine Pichincha titles. Their provincial success continued into the national league, where they have won 11 national title having won their most recent title in 2018, they are the most successful Ecuadorian club in international competitions, where they were the first Ecuadorian club to win the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana, the Recopa Sudamericana. They are one of only six teams —Boca Juniors, River Plate, Internacional and São Paulo being the other five— to have achieved the CONMEBOL treble, winning all three continental club tournaments.
LDU is the only team to win all three mentioned cups one after another between the years 2008 to 2010 causing them to be rated as the best South American team of 2008 and 2009. Liga de Quito was additionally the runner-up at the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup. Liga de Quito's roots lie in a semi-pro sports team based out of the Central University of Ecuador on October 23rd of 1918, headed by Dr. César Jácome Moscoso. Under the leadership of Dr. Bolívar León, the club was founded on January 11, 1930. In the early days, Liga participated in a variety of disciplines, including soccer, athletics, baseball, ping-pong, chess; the club's initial budget was about 500 sucres. The first team's players were students from the university, had to pay for their own uniforms and expenses. Dr. León designed the first uniform, placing its crest, a white "U" on an inverted red and blue triangle, on a white shirt, honoring the team's beginnings at the university. Amongst Liga's first players were Carlos Andrade Marín, Oswaldo Mosquera, Alfonso Cevallos, Alfonso Troya and "El Mono" Icaza.
In 1932, Liga won their first football title at an amateur Pichincha tournament. Five teams participated: Liga, Gimnástico, Atlético, Cleveland. Liga won all their games, in the final match, played at the Estadio El Ejido, defeated Gladiador by a score of 4–0. Playing for Liga were Jorge Zapater, Eduardo Flores, Alfonso Cevallos, César González, Jorge Vallarino, Jorge Naranjo, Bolívar "Ñato" León, Alejandro Dávalos, Humberto Yáñez, Humberto Freire, Ernesto Guevara, with Bolívar León as coach. Liga would win amateur titles in 1952 and 1953, before the league turned professional the following year. By 1955, the amateur football association in Pichincha had evolved into the Asociación de Fútbol No Amateur de Pichincha, which subsequently organized a professional league for their member clubs from Quito and Ambato; the inaugural Campeonato Professional Interandino was held in 1954. Liga won the league's first title, under the management of Lucho Vásquez; the club finished as the runner-up in 1955 and 1956, before winning again in 1958 under Argentine Roberto Ortega.
The club won four titles during the 1960s, in 1960, 1961, 1966, 1967, finished as runner-up in 1962, 1963, 1964. Liga had the most successful run of any professional Interandino-era club, accumulating a total of 6 regional titles. In 1957 and from 1960 onwards, winning the Interandino title qualified a team to participate in a tournament which crowned a national champion of Ecuadorian professional football. Liga first participated after winning the Interandino cup that year; the team's three subsequent Interandino victories did not lead to a national title. Foreign players became integral to the squad during the 1960s. International players included Paulista José Gomes Nogueira in 1960, Chilean Román Soto in 1961, Paraguayan José María Ocampo in 1966. In 1967, all regional tournaments were discontinued in favor of a single national tournament. Liga won its first national championship in 1969, one year after joining the new league, under the leadership of Brazilian José Gomes Nogueira. Liga's ranks at the time included Francisco "El Tano" Bertocchi, Jorge Tapia, Armando "Tito" Larrea, Carlos Ríos, Santiago Alé, Enrique Portilla, Ramiro Tobar.
Liga's victory granted the club its first Copa Libertadores participation in 1970, where it reached the second phase of the tournament, with'"El Tano" Bertocchi tying for the title of top goalscorer of the tournament. Liga's success was short-lived. At the time, only four teams from the province of Pichincha could play in the top flight; as the worst-performing Pichincha team, Liga took part in a playoff match against the best-performing Pichincha team in Serie B, Universidad Católica, for a berth in the next season's Serie A tournament. Liga lost the match, relegating it to Serie B for the 1973 season, at the end of which the club faced a second relegation, down to the Segunda Categoria of Ecuadorian football; the club was able to gain promotion back to the Serie B in time for the 1974 season. After winning the first stage of the 1974 Serie B, Liga retu
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia