Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, formally abdicated in 1870, her son, Alfonso XII, became king in 1874. Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set aside the Salic law, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, to reestablish the older succession law of Spain; the first pretender to the throne, Ferdinand's brother Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, fought seven years during the minority of Isabella to dispute her title.
Carlos' and his descendants' supporters were known as Carlists, the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army; the Cortes and the Moderate Liberals and Progressives reestablished constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders and confiscated their property, tried to restore order to Spain's finances. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years. Baldomero Espartero was turned out in 1843 by a military and political pronunciamiento led by Generals Leopoldo O'Donnell and Ramón María Narváez, they formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquín María López y López. This government induced the Cortes to declare Isabella of age at 13. Three years on 10 October 1846, the Moderate Party made their sixteen-year-old queen marry her double-first cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón, the same day that her younger sister, infanta Luisa Fernanda, married Antoine d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier.
The marriages suited France and Louis Philippe, King of the French, who as a result bitterly quarrelled with Britain. However, the marriages were not happy; the Carlist party asserted that the heir-apparent to the throne, who became Alfonso XII, had been fathered by a captain of the guard, Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. Isabella had nine children, but only five reached adulthood: Ferdinand Isabel, Princess of Asturias, who married her mother's and father's first cousin Prince Gaetan, Count of Girgenti. María Cristina Alfonso XII María de la Concepcion María del Pilar María de la Paz, who married her cousin Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria. Francisco de Asís Eulalia de Asís de la Piedad, who married her cousin Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera; the couple was rather caustically described by an English contemporary thus: … The Queen is large in stature, but rather what might be called bulky than stately. There is no dignity either in her face or figure, the graces of majesty are altogether wanting.
The countenance is cold and expressionless, with traces of an unchastened and impulsive character, the indifference it betrays is not redeemed by any regularity or beauty of feature. The King Consort is much smaller in figure than his royal two-thirds, is not a type that could be admired for its manly qualifications. Moderados and Unión Liberals succeeded each other to keep out the Progressives, thus sowing the seeds for the Revolution of 1868. Queen Isabella II interfered in politics, she showed favour to the Church and religious orders. Spain fought two wars during her reign: the war against Morocco in 1859, which ended in a treaty advantageous for Spain and cession of some Moroccan territory, the fruitless Chincha Islands War against Peru and Chile, her reign saw tensions with the United States over the Amistad affair and over the war in the Pacific. By virtue of a royal decree, she opened Iloilo in the Philippines to world trade on September 29, 1855 to export sugar and other products to America and Europe.
At the end of September 1868, the defeat of Isabella's forces at the Battle of Alcolea led to her deposition and exile to France. The revolt against Isabella played out in the battle is known as the Glorious Revolution. In 1870, the provisional government replaced Isabella with Amadeo I, second son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, after much deliberation. Amadeo's abdication under pressure in 1873 led to the period of the First Spanish Repub
José María Queipo de Llano, 7th Count of Toreno
José María Queipo de Llano y Ruiz de Saravia, 7th Count of Toreno, GE, OCIII, OIC, was a nineteenth-century Spanish politician and historian, Prime Minister of Spain. In Spain he is known as Conde de Toreno. Toreno was born at Oviedo on the November 25, 1786, his family belonged to the most ancient nobility of Asturias. His mother, Dorninga Ruiz de Saravia, had property in the province of Cuenca; the son received a better education in classics and modern languages than was usual at that time. The young viscount of Matarrosa, the title he bore in his fathers lifetime, was introduced to the writings of Voltaire and Rousseau by the abbot of the Benedictine house of Montserrat in Madrid, he was present at Madrid when the city rose against the French occupation led by Marshal Murat on 2 May 1808, took part in the struggle, the beginning of the Peninsular War. From Madrid he escaped to Asturias, on May 30 he embarked in a Jersey privateer at Gijon, with other delegates, in order to ask for the help of England against the French.
The deputation was enthusiastically received in London. By December 30 he was back in his father having died in the interval. During the Peninsular War he saw some service in the first occupation of Asturias by the French, but he was occupied by his duties as a member of the Cortes. In 1809 he was at Seville. In the following year he was a leader of the party which compelled the Regency to summon the Cortes to which he was elected by Asturias early in 1811 though he was short several months of the legal age of twenty-five, his election was opposed by some of his own relatives who did not share his opinions, but it was ratified by the Cortes. Toreno was conspicuous among the well-meaning men who framed the liberal and republican constitution of 1812; when the authoritarian King Ferdinand VII returned from prison in France in 1814 Toreno foresaw a reaction, put himself out of reach of the king. He was the more an object of suspicion because his brother-in-law, Juan Díaz Porlier, perished in a wild attempt to support the constitution by force.
Toreno remained in exile till the outbreak of the revolution of 1820. Between that year and 1823 he was in Spain serving in the restored Cortes, experience had abated his radical ardour; when the French intervened in 1823 Toreno had again to go into exile, remained abroad till the king published the amnesty of October 15, 1832. He returned home in July 1833, but remained on his estates till the king's death on September 29; as hereditary standard bearer of Asturias it fell to him to proclaim the young queen, Isabella II. In 1834 his now moderate opinions pointed him out to the queen regent, Maria Christina, as a useful man for office. In June 1834 he was minister of finance, became the 2nd Prime Minister of Spain on June 7, his tenure of the premiership lasted only till September 14 of the same year, when the regents attempt to retain a despotic government under a thin constitutional veil broke down. The greater part of the remainder of his life was spent in voluntary exile, he died in Paris on September 16, 1843.
Toreno is chiefly remembered as the author of the History of the Rising and Revolution of Spain, which he began between 1823 and 1832 and published in 1836-1838 in Paris. It was one of the earliest and more comprehensive studies of the Peninsular War written by a Spaniard who held a prominent role in those events. Raymond Carr, Spain 1808-1975 José Luis Comellas,'Las Cortes de Cádiz y la constitución de 1812', Revista de Estudios Politicos 126, 69-112 W. Fehrenbach,'Moderados and Exaltados: the liberal opposition to Ferdinand VII, 1814-1823', Hispanic American Historical Review 50, 52-69 Miguel Artola Gallego, La España de Fernando VII Jonathan Harris,'Los escritos de codificación de Jeremy Bentham y su recepción en el primer liberalismo español', Télos. Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas 8, 9-29 Gabriel H. Lovett and the Birth of Modern Spain, 2 vols Sebastian Miñano, Histoire de la révolution d'Espagne de 1820 à 1823, 2 vols; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Toreno, José Maria Quiepo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia, Count of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz
Salustiano de Olózaga y Almandoz was a Spanish politician and writer who served as Prime Minister of Spain and was appointed three times ambassador to France
Luis González-Bravo y López de Arjona
Luis González Bravo y López de Arjona was a Spanish politician, intellectual, author and journalist graduated from law school, who served twice as Prime Minister of Spain, or President of the Government of Spain, from 1843 to 1844 and in 1868. He held other important offices, such as once serving as Minister of State and Foreign Affairs, twice as Minister of Home Affairs, he was appointed Ambassador of Spain to the United Kingdom in Queen Victoria's rule, Ambassador of Spain to Portugal. He was the Spanish Prime Minister responsible for granting Chile its independence, he was a member of the Moderate Party, occupied three times the post of Spanish Congressman or Member of Parliament, for Cádiz, Jaén, the Canary Islands. He was provisional Minister of Justice for five days, he was head of the Spanish civil troops "Milicia Nacional". He was Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and Knight of the Order of Charles III, he founded four newspapers in Spain, was the noted Spanish poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's benefactor.
On 25 April 1844, as Prime Minister of Spain and Minister of State and Foreign Affairs President Luis González Bravo, together with Queen Isabella II of Spain made the peace negotiations and Treaty to recognise the Spanish American Independence of Chile as a country, for its official recognition by the Spanish Kingdom, called the Tratado de Paz y Amistad, in the government of President of Chile Manuel Bulnes. The signing plenipotentiaries were Luis González Bravo for Spain, General José Manuel Borgoño for Chile, it was the first Latin American independence peace treaty signed in Queen Isabella II's government since her proclamation of accession to the throne. President Luis González Bravo was the first stable Prime Minister or President of the Government of Queen of Spain Isabella II of Bourbon's effective kingdom as of her coronation in 1843, her kingdom's last Prime Minister or President of the Government, 25 years in 1868. Prime Minister Luis González Bravo was one of the few politicians who remained faithful to Queen Isabella II throughout her ruling years, standing by her from the beginning of her effective monarchy, to the last days of her reign in 1868.
In September 1868, upon facing the first battle of the revolution, he advised Queen Isabella II to substitute him in the country's presidency for an experienced army general as Prime Minister, to better fight the ready to strike armed forces organized against her government. The Queen named Captain José Gutiérrez de la Concha as Prime Minister of Spain, who only lasted eleven days in power, from 19 September to 30 September 1868, his troops being defeated on 28 September, when the revolution took over the country. Queen Isabella II and Prime Minister González Bravo were offered exile with their spouses and children in France by Emperor Napoleon III; the Queen was exiled in Paris, where she died in 1904. Luis González Bravo lived in Biarritz with his wife and two daughters, died there from coronary heart disease in 1871. In France, as a last resort to rescue and preserve the Bourbon monarchy in Spain in face of the revolutionary takeover and Queen Isabella II of Bourbon's exile, he supported the Carlists two years before his death.
Months in 1870, Queen Isabella II abdicated her crown in favour of her first son King Alfonso XII of Spain, so as to perpetuate the House of Bourbon dynasty in Spain, which came back into power in 1874 with him leading the Spanish Monarchy Restoration. A talented and prolific columnist, Luis González Bravo founded four newspapers in Spain: El Guirigay, La Legalidad, El Contemporáneo and Los Tiempos, he was columnist for the newspapers El Español and El Eco del Comercio. A fervent and generous literature supporter and philanthropist, he was legendary Spanish poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's patron and benefactor, he supported his brother painter Valeriano Bécquer. In his youth he was the playwright of the play Intrigar para morir. In 1835 he and Eugenio Moreno wrote the historical novel in four volumes Ramir Sanchez de Guzman, Año de 1072, he was a member of the Ateneo de Madrid since its foundation, member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. He became a "C seat" Member of the Real Academia Española de la Lengua in 1863.
Luis González Bravo is considered one of the best Spanish public speakers and orators of all time
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism; the Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of José Sanjurjo; the government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña.
The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, including both the opposing sides of Alfonsists and the religious conservative Carlists, the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists; the coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, Málaga—did not gain control, those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided; the Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico.
Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict, they fought in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937, they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime; the war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans; the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain; those in favour of reforming Spain's government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain and to establish a liberal state.
The reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874; until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was based on agriculture. There was little development of a bourgeois commercial class; the land-based oligarchy remained powerful. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. Two distinct factors led to the uprisings: a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing political pressure, the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was acute.
Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Spain was neutral in World War I. Following the war, the working class, industrial class, military united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuc
Isidro de Alaix Fábregas
Isidro de Alaix Fábregas, Count of Vergara and Viscount of Villarrobledo, was a Spanish general of the First Carlist War, supporting the cause of the Liberals, who backed Isabella II of Spain and her regent mother Maria Christina. Born at Ceuta, Alaix fought during the Spanish War of Independence and participated in the campaigns in South America against the independence movements there, he inflicted a serious defeat on the Carlist general Miguel Gómez Damas at the Battle of Villarrobledo, which led to his promotion to the rank of general and the earning of the title of Viscount of Villarrobledo, as well as the Cross of Saint Ferdinand. He served as a senator-for-life, Minister of War, served as interim president of the Council of Ministers from December 9, 1838 to February 3, 1839 –in effect, serving as head of the Spanish government; as Minister of War, he signed the Vergara Embrace, which ended the First Carlist War, thereby earned the title of Count of Vergara. He died at Madrid. Spain: Heads of Government: 1834-1868 Ficha histórica como senador Notas biográficas