The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. UFRJ is the largest federal university in the country and is one of the Brazilian centers of excellence in teaching and research. In terms of scientific and cultural productions it is recognized nationally and internationally due to the great teachers, researchers and assessments made by international agencies. In 2017 QS World University Rankings ranked UFRJ as the best Brazilian federal university, as well as the third best university in the country occupying the seventh position among institutions of Latin America. In 2016 and 2017 the Ranking Universitário Folha ranked UFRJ as the best university in Brazil and the best Federal University in the country; the Center for World University Rankings published in 2017 UFRJ as the second best university in the world in Zoology field. Brazil's first official higher education institution, it has operated continuously since 1792, when the "Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho" was founded, served as basis for the country's college system since its officialization in 1920.
Besides its 157 undergraduate and 580 postgraduate courses, the UFRJ is responsible for seven museums, most notably the National Museum, nine hospitals, hundreds of laboratories and research facilities and forty-three libraries. Its history and identity are tied to the Brazilian ambitions of forging a modern and just society; the university is located in Rio de Janeiro, with ramifications spreading to other ten cities. Its main campuses are the historical campus of "Praia Vermelha" and the newer "Cidade Universitária", which houses the "Parque Tecnológico do Rio" - a science and innovation development cluster. There are several off-campus units scattered in Rio de Janeiro: the School of Music, the College of Law Studies, the Institute of Philosophy and Social Sciences and the Institute of History, in downtown Rio. To the city of Macaé, located in the State's northern region, was dedicated a research and learning center focused on environmental issues and oil-related matters, the city of Duque de Caxias, in partnership with the National Institute of Metrics and Industrial Quality, saw the implementation of "Pólo Avançado de Xerém", aimed at boosting research in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology.
UFRJ is one of the main culprits in the formation of the Brazilian intellectual elite, contributing to build not only the history of Rio de Janeiro but of Brazil. Some of its former students include renowned economists Mario Henrique Simonsen; the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro is direct descendent of Brazil's first higher education courses. Created on September 7, 1920 by president Epitácio Pessoa through the Law Decree 14343, the institution was named "University of Rio de Janeiro", its history, however, is much vaster and parallel to that of the country's cultural and social development. In its inception, the university was composed by the "Escola Politécnica", the "Faculdade Nacional de Medicina" and by the "Faculdade Nacional de Direito". To these initial units many others were progressively added, such as the "Escola Nacional de Belas Artes" and the "Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia". Thanks to such achievements, the UFRJ toke crucial role in the implantation of Brazilian higher education, in fact an aspiration from Brazilian intellectual elite since the country's colonial era.
Due to the longstanding tradition of its pioneering courses, the university functioned as the "scholar mill" upon which most of Brazil's subsequent higher education institutions were molded. In 1937, Getúlio Vargas's minister of education, Gustavo Capanema, announced a reform of the education system, under which the institution changed its name to the "University of Brazil"; the change reflected the government's aim of controlling the quality of the national higher education system - by setting a standard by which all other universities would have to conform. Such decision was influenced by the French concept of university - that in which component schools are isolated in order to assume a specific professionalizing teaching method under strong state control -, which contrasted to the German model seen, for example, in the University of São Paulo, founded in 1934; the early
New University of Lisbon
NOVA University Lisbon or just NOVA is a Portuguese university whose Rectorate is located in Campolide, Lisbon. Founded in 1973, it is the youngest of the public universities in the Portuguese capital city, earning its name as the "New" University Lisbon; the institution has more than 19,000 students, 1,668 professors and 664 staff members distributed through five faculties, three institutes and one school, providing a variety of courses in several fields of knowledge. In 2014, THE-QS World University Rankings has evaluated NOVA as one of the world's best universities being ranked number 312 in the world. NOVA is the only Portuguese university in the QS Top 50 under 50 ranking, having reached this position for the third year in a row; the Times Higher Education 100 Under 50 Rankings 2015 placed NOVA as the 89th best university in the world under 50 years old. The results achieved in the main rankings of universities under 50 years have granted NOVA the inclusion in Yerun network; the Nova School of Business and Economics which has expanded and internationalized itself as a global business school, is the only business school in Portugal to have achieved Eduniversal's 5 palmes distinction.
It was classified as #23rd in Europe by the Financial Times ranking for the best Business Schools in Europe in 2015. NOVA was highlighted for 100% of its professors having a PhD and its gender and international diversity, with 40% women in the faculty and 29% professors of a foreign nationality. Nova SBE's Masters of Finance is the #19th best in the world by the Financial Times, the Masters in Economics is the 5th best in the world by Eduniversal rankings, the 17th best Masters in Management in the world by the Financial Times; the NOVA University Lisbon was founded in 1973 and is the youngest public University in Lisbon metropolitan area, with teaching units in Lisbon, Almada and soon in Cascais. It was founded as a response to ever-increasing demand for higher education in Portugal and in Lisbon in particular. While its early years focussed on graduate and specialist programs, Nova started expanding its teaching and research from 1977 onwards; the structure of NOVA was organized according to a departmental and interdisciplinary model, where each of the Academic Units enjoy a great deal of autonomy.
NOVA is divided into nine academic units. These are the following. Sciences and technology: FCT NOVA - Faculty of Science and Technology Social Sciences and Humanities: FCSH - Faculty of Social and Human Sciences Economics and Management: NOVA SBE - Nova School of Business and Economics Medical sciences: NMS|FCM - NOVA Medical School Law: FD - Faculty of Law Statistics and information management: NOVA IMS - NOVA Information Management School Chemical and biological technology: ITQB - António Xavier Institute of Chemical and Biological Technology Hygiene and tropical medicine: IHMT - Institute of Tropical Hygiene and Medicine Public health: ENSP - National School of Public Health The NOVA University Lisbon hosts 42 research and Ddevelopment Units, 15 of which are research partnerships between NOVA and other national institutions. In 2013, the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology evaluated 75% of NOVA R&D Units with "Exceptional", "Excellent" or "Very Good". NOVA is responsible for 10% of the national research papers indexed to the Web of Science.
Since the launch of the European Research Council grants programme in 2009, NOVA's researchers were awarded a total of 10 grants, placing NOVA as one of the top national institutions in this field. The Lisbon MBA is a partnership between Catholic University of Portugal and NOVA; the partnership includes a full-time 1-year MBA, in partnership with MIT Sloan School of Management and a Part Time MBA. The two Universities that offer this MBA program hold the triple crown accreditation namely AMBA, EQUIS and AACSB. NOVA is actively involved in cooperation actions promoted by the Portuguese Government, in particular with North-American universities such as the University of Texas at Austin, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University, namely in master's courses and doctoral and research programmes. Universidade Nova de Lisboa Courses Guide Brochure A degree of influence - The financial Times
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys