Pesaro is a city and comune in the Italian region of Marche, capital of the Province of Pesaro e Urbino, on the Adriatic Sea. According to the 2011 census, its population was 95,011, making it the second most populous city in the Marche, after Ancona. Pesaro was dubbed "Cycling City" by Italian environmentalist association Legambiente in recognition of its extensive network of bicycle paths and promotion of cycling, it is known as "City of Music" as it is the birthplace of the composer Gioacchino Rossini. In 2015 the Italian Government applied for Pesaro to be declared a "Creative City" in UNESCO's World Heritage sites. In 2017 Pesaro received the European City of Sport award together with Aosta and Vicenza. Local industries include furniture making and tourism; the city was founded as Pisaurum by the Romans in 184 BC as colony in the territory of the Picentes, the people who lived on the northeast coast during the Iron Age. However, in 1737, 13 ancient votive stones were unearthed in a local farm field, each bearing the inscription of a Roman god.
A settlement of the Picentes tribe has been found at Novilara. The northern Picentes were invaded in the 4th century BC by the Gallic Senones, earlier by the Etruscans, when the Romans reached the area the population was an ethnic mixture. Within it the Gauls at least were still distinct, as the Romans separated them out and expelled them from the country. Under the Roman administration Pesaro, a hub across the Via Flaminia, became an important center of trading and craftmanship. After the fall of the Western Empire, Pesaro was occupied by the Ostrogoths, destroyed by Vitigis in the course of the Gothic War. Hastily rebuilt five years after the Byzantine reconquest, it formed the so-called Pentapolis, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna. After the Lombard and Frankish conquests of that city, Pesaro became part of the Papal States. During the Renaissance it was ruled successively by the houses of Malatesta and Della Rovere. Under the last family, who selected it as capital of their duchy, Pesaro saw its most flourishing age, with the construction of numerous public and private palaces, the erection of a new line of walls.
In 1475, a legendary wedding took place in Pesaro, when Costanzo Sforza and Camilla d'Aragona married. On 11 September 1860 Piedmontese troops entered the city, Pesaro was subsequently annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy. Ducal Palace: Commissioned by Alessandro Sforza, the façade has a portico with six arcades supported by six heavy pilasters and an upper floor with five windows crowned by coats of arms and puttoes. Rocca Costanza: Massive castle built by Costanzo I Sforza. Used as prison. Villa Imperiale of Pesaro: Suburban palace with gardens designed by Girolamo Genga for Duke Francesco Maria Della Rovere and his duchess Eleanora and built from c. 1530 onwards, stands atop the San Bartolo hill. Its sunken court is the direct precedent for the more famous one at the Roman Villa Giulia. Rooms are frescoed by prominent Mannerist painters Bronzino, Francesco Menzocchi, Girolamo Genga, Raffaellino del Colle. Mura Roveresche: "Della Rovere Walls", demolished in the early 20th century), only two gates, Porta del Ponte and Porta Rimini, a short section remain.
Birthplace of Gioachino Rossini: Now a museum dedicated to the composer, located at 34 Via Rossini. It has a museum with manifestoes, prints and his spinet. Conservatorio Statale di Musica Gioachino Rossini: Located in the 18th century Palazzo Olivieri–Machirelli on the Piazza Oliveri Musei Civici di Palazzo Mosca: Civic museum contains paintings and ceramics. Among the masterpieces is the Pesaro Altarpiece by Giovanni Bellini. Oliveriano Archeologic Museum and Oliveriana Library: Archaeological Collection and Manuscript Library. Cathedral of Pesaro Romanesque-Gothic Basilica built over remains of a late Roman edifice and dedicated to St Terence during the Middle Ages; the façade, in Romanesque-Gothic style, is unfinished: it has a simple ogival portal surmounted by a band of small arches. A recent restoration has brought to light floor mosaics; the Baroque Sanctuary of Beata Vergine del Carmelo. Church of the Maternità Santissima Annunziata Oratory of the Nome di Dio San Giacomo San Giovanni Battista Sant'Agostino Santa Lucia Santa Maria Maddalena Municipal Chapel of Sant'Ubaldo Church and Convent of the Girolimini Madonna del Porto Santa Maria delle Grazie Pieve di Ginestreto Pieve di Santo Stefano Santa Veneranda Sacred Grove of Lucus Pisaurensis, pre-Roman era sacerdotal lucus The Pesaro film festival has taken place in Pesaro since 1965.
Rossini Opera Festival has taken place every summer since 1980 in Pesaro, home as well as the Conservatorio Statale di Musica "Gioachino Rossini" founded with a legacy from the composer. Pesaro hosts the home games of Victoria Libertas basketball team, better known across Europe as Scavolini Pesaro. Adriatic Arena: third biggest Italian indoor arena behind Mediolanum Forum in Milan and PalaLottomatica in Rome. Among the town industries is the motocross and enduro brand of TM Racing, a small manufacturer of race-ready motorbikes based in the coastal town since 1978. Gioachino Antonio Rossini, composer Massimo Ambrosini, footballer Cristiano Mozzati, drummer for Lacuna Coil Angelo Romani, Olympic
Conservatorio Statale di Musica "Gioachino Rossini"
The Conservatorio Statale di Musica "Gioachino Rossini" is a music conservatory in Pesaro, Italy. Founded in 1869 with a legacy from the composer Gioachino Rossini, the conservatory opened in 1882 with 67 students and was known as the Liceo musicale Rossini. By 2010 it had an enrollment of 850 students studying for higher diplomas in singing, instrumental performance, musicology, choral conducting, jazz or electronic music; the conservatory trains music teachers for secondary schools and holds regular master classes. Its seat is the 18th century Palazzo Olivieri–Machirelli on the Piazza Oliveri in Pesaro. Amongst its past Directors are the composers Carlo Pedrotti, Pietro Mascagni, Riccardo Zandonai and Franco Alfano. Mascagni's opera Zanetto had its world premiere at the conservatory in 1896. In his will, Rossini left his entire estate to Pesaro, his native city, for the establishment of a free music school there with the provision that the legacy would only come to the city upon the death of his widow, Olympe Pélissier.
In 1869, the year following Rossini's death, the city set up the association which would become the "Liceo musicale Rossini". Olympe Pélissier died in 1878. Four years on 5 November 1882, the school opened the doors of its temporary home in the former Convent and Church of San Filippo Neri to the first cohort of 67 students, of whom 25 were enrolled in the choral school. Following the terms of Rossini's will, the school emphasised operatic and choral singing as well as composition, its first Director, Carlo Pedrotti, was the composer of 17 operas and had been the Director of Turin's opera house, the Teatro Regio. He was a noted voice teacher. Amongst his pupils were the tenors Francesco Tamagno and Alessandro Bonci. During Pedrotti's tenure, the conservatory moved to its permanent home in the Palazzo Olivieri–Machirelli and an auditorium was added which now bears his name. Following Pedrotti's retirement in 1893, the conservatory was without a director until the appointment two years of another opera composer, Pietro Mascagni.
Mascagni took up his post in December 1895. Thanks to Rossini's large legacy, the school was well endowed financially. Mascagni's annual salary was 12,000 lire, more than twice that of the much older Parma Conservatory, was supplemented with a lavish rent-free apartment in the Palazzo Olivieri–Machirelli. Despite its large endowment, the conservatory had made little progress in raising its prestige during the Pedrotti years and was overshadowed by the big conservatories of Milan and Naples and the smaller Parma Conservatory, it had yet to produce any musicians of note and its enrollment had only increased from the initial 67 students to 73. Its location in a small sea-side town made it less attractive to the more gifted students and distinguished teachers who tended to prefer the conservatories located in major cultural centres. Mascagni was eager to change the situation and to implement his own ideas about what conservatory education for young people should be, he was opposed to the methods used in many Italian conservatories at the time which taught music by rote memorization or as he put it, "like a catechism."
Within three years, Mascagni had started the Liceo Symphony Orchestra, which included both students and faculty and was the first permanent orchestra to be established in an Italian conservatory. Mascagni himself conducted their concerts; the orchestra played in the world premiere of his opera Zanetto, which he had completed shortly before taking up his post. Two students from the conservatory sang the leading roles, went with Mascagni when he took the opera to La Scala, he established the first conservatory-published music journal in Italy, La cronaca musicale, as well as the first conservatory course devoted to sacred music. Within four years, the faculty had grown and the enrollment had doubled, as had the number of diplomas awarded. However, by 1900 Mascagni's relationship with the governing board of the school had begun to sour due to his frequent absences for conducting tours and the preparations for the premiere of his opera Le maschere, due to his abrasive treatment of local dignitaries.
He had run up large deficits in the previous two years, the board had taken over the financial management of the conservatory. Budget cuts in 1902 led to a student rebellion in support of Mascagni. In turn, the board sent the students home. On 20 January 1903, Mascagni was dismissed from his post, it was another two years. In a 1903 address, the President of the governing board recommended that the next Director not be an opera composer because an opera composer "in addition to being steeped in liberties, has his mind always focused on his own compositions and all of the interests that flow from them."In 1905, Amilcare Zanella, a pianist and composer of instrumental music was appointed as Mascagni's successor, a post he was to hold for the next 35 years. With the appointment of Riccardo Zandonai as Director in 1940, the school was once again led by an opera composer. Under Zandonai, the governance of the Liceo passed from the city of Pesaro to the Italian Ministry of Education. Zandonai was followed by another opera composer, Franco Alfano, who held the Directorship from 1947 to 1950.
The conservatory produced or participated in a number of opera productions during the 20th century, including Il barbiere di Siviglia, La gazza ladra, Le Comte Ory and Orfeo ed Euridice, Suor Angelica, Gianni Schicchi, Il Sign
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to claim/reclaim and occupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" territory from their nation's past. Many states formalize their irredentist claims by including them in their constitutional documents, or through other means of legal enshrinement; such territorial claims are justified on the basis of real or imagined national notions of historic territorial, religious or ethnic affiliations. Irredentist policies may be advocated by nationalist and pan-nationalist movements and have been a feature of identity politics, of cultural, political geography. Irredentism may operate as a device for a government to redirect their citizens' discontent against outsiders; the word was coined in Italy from the phrase Italia irredenta. This referred to rule by Austria-Hungary over territories or inhabited by ethnic Italians, such as Trentino, Gorizia, Istria and Dalmatia during the 19th and early 20th centuries. An area that may be subjected to a potential claim is sometimes called an "irredenta".
A common way to express a claim to adjacent territories on the grounds of historical or ethnic association is by using the adjective "Greater" as a prefix to the country name. This conveys the image of national territory at its maximum conceivable extent with the country "proper" at its core; the use of "Greater" does not always convey an irredentistic meaning. The Afghan border with Pakistan, known as the Durand Line, was agreed to by Afghanistan and British India in 1893; the Pashtun tribes inhabiting the border areas were divided between. All Afghan governments of the past century have declared, with varying intensity, a long-term goal of re-uniting all Pashtun-dominated areas under Afghan rule; the Argentine government has intermittently maintained a claim over the Falkland Islands since 1833, renewed it as as January 2013. It considers the archipelago part of the Tierra del Fuego Province, along with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the Argentine claim is included in the transitional provisions of the Constitution of Argentina as amended in 1994: The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and non-prescribing sovereignty over the Malvinas, Georgias del Sur and Sandwich del Sur Islands and over the corresponding maritime and insular zones, as they are an integral part of the National territory.
The recovery of these territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respecting the way of life for its inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, constitute a permanent and unwavering goal of the Argentine people. United Bengal is a political ideology of a Unified Bengali-speaking Nation in South Asia; the ideology was developed by Bengali Nationalists after the First Partition of Bengal in 1905. The British-ruled Bengal Presidency was divided into Western Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam to weaken the Independence Movement; the second attempt by British to partition the Bengal along communal lines was in 1947. The United Bengal proposal was the bid made by Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Bengali Nationalist Leader Sarat Chandra Bose to found a united and independent nation-state of Bengal; the proposal was floated as an alternative to the partition of Bengal on communal lines. The initiative failed due to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Bengali Muslims and Bengali Hindus that led to the Second Partition of Bengal.
The 2009 constitution of Bolivia states that the country has an "unrenounceable right over the territory that gives it access to the Pacific Ocean and its maritime space". This is understood as territory that Bolivia and Peru ceded to Chile after the War of the Pacific, which left Bolivia as a landlocked country; the preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China states, "Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China. It is the lofty duty of the entire Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland." The PRC claim to sovereignty over Taiwan is based on the theory of the succession of states, with the PRC claiming that it is the successor state to the Republic of China. However, the Communist Party of China has never controlled Taiwan; the Government of the Republic of China administered both mainland China and Taiwan but has been administering Taiwan only since the Chinese Civil War in which it fought the armed forces of the Communist Party of China.
While the official name of the state remains'Republic of China', the country is called'Taiwan', as Taiwan makes up 99% of the controlled territory of the ROC. In fact, the ruling Qing Dynasty of China ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to Japan in perpetuity in the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, along with the Liaodong Peninsula; the Republic of Formosa or Democratic State of Taiwan was a short-lived republic that existed on the island of Taiwan for about five months in 1895 in the period between the formal cession of Taiwan to the Empire of Japan and'de facto' Japanese occupation and control. Japan established a colony on Taiwan that existed until control of Taiwan was ceded to the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China in 1945. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China stated that "he territory of the Republic of China within its existing national
The Divine Comedy is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature and one of the greatest works of world literature; the poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language, it is divided into three parts: Inferno and Paradiso. The narrative describes Dante's travels through Hell and Paradise or Heaven, while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God. Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy Thomistic philosophy and the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas; the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse". In Dante's work, Virgil is presented as human reason and Beatrice is presented as divine knowledge; the work was simply titled Comedìa, Tuscan for "Comedy" adjusted to the modern Italian Commedia.
The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce, published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari. The Divine Comedy is composed of 14,233 lines that are divided into three cantiche – Inferno and Paradiso – each consisting of 33 cantos. An initial canto, serving as an introduction to the poem and considered to be part of the first cantica, brings the total number of cantos to 100, it is accepted, that the first two cantos serve as a unitary prologue to the entire epic, that the opening two cantos of each cantica serve as prologues to each of the three cantiche. The number "three" is prominent in the work, represented in part by the number of cantiche and their lengths. Additionally, the verse scheme used, terza rima, is hendecasyllabic, with the lines composing tercets according to the rhyme scheme aba, cdc, ded.... Written in the first person, the poem tells of Dante's journey through the three realms of the dead, lasting from the night before Good Friday to the Wednesday after Easter in the spring of 1300.
The Roman poet Virgil guides him through Purgatory. Beatrice was a Florentine woman whom he had met in childhood and admired from afar in the mode of the then-fashionable courtly love tradition, highlighted in Dante's earlier work La Vita Nuova; the structure of the three realms follows a common numerical pattern of 9 plus 1, for a total of 10: 9 circles of the Inferno, followed by Lucifer contained at its bottom. Within each group of 9, 7 elements correspond to a specific moral scheme, subdivided into three subcategories, while 2 others of greater particularity are added to total nine. For example, the seven deadly sins of the Catholic Church that are cleansed in Purgatory are joined by special realms for the Late repentant and the excommunicated by the church; the core seven sins within Purgatory correspond to a moral scheme of love perverted, subdivided into three groups corresponding to excessive love, deficient love, malicious love. In central Italy's political struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, Dante was part of the Guelphs, who in general favored the Papacy over the Holy Roman Emperor.
Florence's Guelphs split into factions around 1300—the White Guelphs and the Black Guelphs. Dante was among the White Guelphs who were exiled in 1302 by the Lord-Mayor Cante de' Gabrielli di Gubbio, after troops under Charles of Valois entered the city, at the request of Pope Boniface VIII, who supported the Black Guelphs; this exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics, to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents. The last word in each of the three cantiche is stelle; the poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year 1300, "halfway along our life's path". Dante is thirty-five years old, half of the biblical lifespan of 70, lost in a dark wood, assailed by beasts he cannot evade and unable to find the "straight way" – translatable as "right way" – to salvation. Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a "low place" where the sun is silent, Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, the two of them begin their journey to the underworld.
Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a symbolic instance of poetic justice. These three types of sin provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: Upper Hell, outside the city of Dis, for the four sins o
Turandot is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, completed by Franco Alfano, set to a libretto in Italian by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni. Though Puccini's first interest in the subject was based on his reading of Friedrich Schiller's 1801 adaptation of the play, his work is most nearly based on the earlier text Turandot by Count Carlo Gozzi; the original story is based on one of the seven stories in the epic Haft Peykar, a work of 12th-century Persian poet Nizami. Nizami aligned the seven stories with the seven days of the week, the seven colors and the seven corresponding planets; this particular story is the story of Tuesday, being told to King Bahram by his companion of the red dome, associated with Mars. In the first line of this story, the protagonist is identified as a Russian princess; the name of the opera is based on Turan-Dokht, a common name used in Persian poetry for Central Asian princesses. The opera's version of the story is set in China and involves Prince Calaf, who falls in love with the cold Princess Turandot.
To obtain permission to marry her, a suitor has to solve three riddles. Calaf passes the test, he offers her a way out: if she is able to learn his name before dawn the next day at daybreak he will die. In the original story by Nizami, the princess sets four conditions; the first is "a good name and good deeds", the three challenges. The opera was unfinished at the time of Puccini's death in 1924, was completed by Franco Alfano in 1926; the first performance was held at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan on 25 April 1926 and conducted by Arturo Toscanini. This performance included not Alfano's additions; the first performance of the opera as completed by Alfano was the following night, 26 April, although it is disputed whether this was conducted by Toscanini again or by Ettore Panizza. Turandot is a Persian word and name that means "the daughter of Turan", Turan being a region of Central Asia part of the Persian Empire; the name of the opera is taken with dokht being a contraction of dokhtar. However, note that the original protagonist in Nizami's story is identified in the first line of the Persian poem as being from Russia.
The story is known as the story of the "Red Dome" among the "Seven Domes" stories in Nizami's Haft Peykar. According to Puccini scholar Patrick Vincent Casali, the final t is silent in the opera's and title character's name, making it sound. Soprano Rosa Raisa, who created the title role, says. Eva Turner, a prominent Turandot, did not pronounce the final t, as television interviews with her attest. Casali maintains that the musical setting of many of Calaf's utterances of the name makes sounding the final t all but impossible. On the other hand, Simonetta Puccini, the composer's granddaughter and keeper of the Villa Puccini and Mausoleum, has said that the final t must be pronounced. Italo Marchini questioned her about this in 2002. Ms. Puccini said. In the Venetian dialect of Carlo Gozzi the final syllables are dropped and words end in a consonant, ergo Turandott, as the name has been made Venetian; the story of Turandot was taken from a Persian collection of stories called The Book of One Thousand and One Days – where the character of "Turandokht" as a cold princess was found.
The story of Turandokht is one of the best known from de la Croix's translation. The plot respects the classical unities of time and action. Puccini first began working on Turandot in March 1920 after meeting with librettists Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni. In his impatience he began composition in January 1921 before Adami and Simoni had produced the text for the libretto. Baron Fassini Camossi, the former Italian diplomat to China, gave Puccini as a gift a music box which played a number of Chinese melodies. Puccini used three of these in the opera, including the national anthem and, most memorably, the folk melody "Mo Li Hua", first heard sung by the children's chorus after the invocation to the moon in act 1, becomes a sort of'leitmotif' for the princess throughout the opera. Puccini commissioned a set of 13 gongs constructed by the Tronci family for Turandot. Decades percussionist Howard Van Hyning of the New York City Opera had been searching for a proper set of gongs and obtained the original set from the Stivanello Costume Company, which had acquired the gongs as the result of winning a bet.
In 1987 he bought the gongs for his collection, paying thousands of dollars for the set, which he described as having "colorful, intense and perfumed" sound qualities. By March 1924 Puccini had completed the opera up to the final duet. However, he was unsatisfied with the text of the final duet, did not continue until 8 October, when he chose Adami's fourth version of the duet text. On 10 October he was diagnosed with throat cancer and on 24 November went to Brussels, for treatment. There he underwent a experimental radiation therapy treatment. Puccini and his wife never knew how serious the cancer was, as the news was revealed only to his son. Puccini, seems to have had some inkling of the possible seriousness of his condition since, before leaving for Brussels