All Souls College, Oxford
All Souls College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically become fellows, it has no undergraduate members, but each year recent graduate and postgraduate students at Oxford are eligible to apply for examination fellowships through a competitive examination and, for the several shortlisted after the examinations, an interview. All Souls is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £420.2 million. However, since the college's principal source of revenue is its endowment, as of 2007 it only ranked 19th among Oxford colleges in total income. All Souls is a registered charity under English law; the college is located on the north side of the High Street adjoining Radcliffe Square to the west. To the east is The Queen's College with Hertford College to the north; the current warden is a graduate of Oriel College, Oxford. The college was founded by Henry VI of England and Henry Chichele, in 1438, to commemorate the victims of the Hundred Years' War.
The Statutes provided for a forty fellows. The college's Codrington Library was completed in 1751 through the bequest in 1710 of Christopher Codrington, a wealthy slave and plantation owner from Barbados, who attended Oxford and became colonial governor of the Leeward Islands. Today the college is a graduate research institution, with no undergraduate members. All Souls did have undergraduates: Robert Hovenden introduced undergraduates to provide the fellows with servientes, but this was abandoned by the end of the Commonwealth. Four Bible Clerks remained on the foundation until 1924. For over five hundred years All Souls College admitted only men; the All Souls Library was founded through a bequest from Christopher Codrington, a fellow of the college. Christopher Codrington bequeathed books in addition to £ 10,000 in currency; this bequest allowed the library to be endowed. Christopher Codrington was born in Barbados, amassed his fortune from his sugar plantation in the West Indies; the library was completed in 1751, has been in continuous use since then.
The modern library comprises some 185,000 items, about a third of which were published before 1800. The collections are strong in law and history. Built between 1438 and 1442, the chapel remained unchanged until the Commonwealth. Oxford, having been a Royalist stronghold, suffered under the Puritans' wrath; the 42 misericords date from the Chapel's building, show a resemblance to the misericords at Higham Ferrers. Both may have been carved by Richard Tyllock. Christopher Wren was a fellow from 1653, in 1658 produced a sundial for the college; this was placed on the south wall of the Chapel, until it was moved to the quadrangle in 1877. During the 1660s a screen was installed in the Chapel, based on a design by Wren. However, this screen needed to be rebuilt by 1713. By the mid-19th century the Chapel was in great need of renovation, so the current structure is influenced by Victorian design ideals. All services at the chapel are according to the Book of Common Prayer. In the three years following the award of their bachelor's degrees, students graduating from Oxford and current Oxford postgraduate students having graduated elsewhere are eligible to apply for examination fellowships of seven years each.
While tutors may advise their students to sit for the All Souls examination fellowship, the examination is open to anybody who fulfils the eligibility criteria and the college does not issue invitations to candidates to sit. Every year in early March, the college hosts an open evening for women, offering women interested in the examination fellowship an opportunity to find out more about the exam process and to meet members of the college; each year several dozen candidates sit the examination. Two examination fellows are elected each year, although the college has awarded a single place or three places in some years, on rare occasions made no award; the competition, offered since 1878 and open to women since 1979, is held over two days in late September, with two papers of three hours each per day. It has been described in the past as "the hardest exam in the world". Two papers are on a single subject of the candidate's choice. Candidates may sit their two specialist papers in different specialist subjects, provided each paper is in one subject only.
Candidates who choose Classics have an additional translation examination on a third day. Two papers are on general subjects. For each general examination, candidates choose three questions from a list. Past questions have included: "'If a man could say nothing against a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (S
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style. It is both a Royal Peculiar, a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch, the Chapel of the Order of the Garter. Seating 800, it is located in the Lower Ward of the castle. St. George's castle chapel was established in the 14th century by King Edward III and began extensive enlargement in the late 15th century, it has been the location of many royal ceremonies and burials. Windsor Castle is a principal residence for Queen Elizabeth II; the day-to-day running of the Chapel is the responsibility of the Dean and Canons of Windsor who make up the religious College of St George, directed by a Chapter of the Dean and four Canons, assisted by a Clerk and other staff. The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, a registered charity, was established in 1931 to assist the College in maintaining the Chapel. In 1348, King Edward III founded two new religious colleges: St Stephen's at Westminster and St George's at Windsor.
The new college at Windsor was attached to the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, constructed by Henry III in the early thirteenth century. The chapel was rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, George the Martyr and Edward the Confessor, but soon after became known only by the dedication to St. George. Edward III built the Aerary Porch in 1353–54, it was used as the entrance to the new college. St George's Chapel became the Mother Church of the Order of the Garter, a special service is still held in the chapel every June and is attended by the members of the order, their heraldic banners hang above the upper stalls of the choir. The period 1475–1528 saw a radical redevelopment of St George's Chapel under the designs of King Henry VII's most prized counsellor Sir Reginald Bray, set in motion by Edward IV and continued by Henry VII and Henry VIII; the thirteenth-century Chapel of Edward the Confessor was expanded into a huge new Cathedral-like chapel under the supervision of Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, the direction of the master mason Henry Janyns.
The Horseshoe Cloister was constructed for the new community of 45 junior members: 16 vicars, a deacon gospeller, 13 lay clerks, 2 clerks epistoler and 13 choristers. The choristers of St George's Chapel are still in existence to this day, although the total number is not fixed and is nearer to 20; the choristers are educated at Windsor Castle. They are full boarders at the school. In term time they attend practice in the castle every morning and sing Matins and Eucharist on Sundays and sing Evensong throughout the entire week, with the exception of Wednesdays. St George's Chapel was a popular destination for pilgrims during the late medieval period; the chapel was purported to contain several important relics: the bodies of John Schorne and Henry VI and a fragment of the True Cross held in a reliquary called the Cross of Gneth. It was taken from the Welsh by Edward II after his conquest along with other sacred relics; these relics all appear to have been displayed at the east end of the south choir aisle.
The Chapel suffered a great deal of destruction during the English Civil War. Parliamentary forces broke into and plundered the chapel and treasury on 23 October 1642. Further pillaging occurred in 1643 when the fifteenth-century chapter house was destroyed, lead was stripped off the chapel roofs, elements of Henry VIII's unfinished funeral monument were stolen. Following his execution in 1649, Charles I was buried in a small vault in the centre of the choir at St George's Chapel which contained the coffins of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. A programme of repair was undertaken at St George's Chapel following the Restoration of the monarchy; the reign of Queen Victoria saw further changes made to the architecture of the chapel. The east end of the choir was reworked in devotion to Prince Albert. In the 21st century, St George's accommodates 800 persons for services and events. On the roof of the chapel, standing on the pinnacles, on pinnacles on the sides, are seventy-six heraldic statues representing the Queen's Beasts, showing the Royal supporters of England.
They represent fourteen of the heraldic animals: the lion of England, the red dragon of Wales, the panther of Jane Seymour, the falcon of York, the black bull of Clarence, the yale of Beaufort, the white lion of Mortimer, the greyhound of Richmond, the white hart of Richard II, the collared silver antelope of Bohun, the black dragon of Ulster, the white swan of Hereford, the unicorn of Edward III and the golden hind of Kent. The original beasts dated from the sixteenth century, but were removed in 1682 on the advice of Sir Christopher Wren. Wren had condemned the calcareous sandstone of which they were constructed; the present statues date from 1925. Members of the Order of the Garter meet at Windsor Castle every June for the annual Garter Service. After lunch in the State Apartments in the Upper Ward of the Castle they process on foot, wearing their robes and insignia, down to St George's Chapel where the service is held. If any new members have been admitted to the Order they are installed at the service.
After the service, the members of the order return to the Upper Ward by car. The Order had frequent services at the chapel, after becoming infrequent in the 18
Dean of York
The Dean of York is the member of the clergy, responsible for the running of the York Minster cathedral. As well as being the head of the cathedral church of the diocese and the metropolitical church of the province, the Dean of York holds preeminence as the Vicar of the Northern Province; the following is a list of the deans from 11th century to the present day