Sarah Angelina Acland
Sarah Angelina Acland was an English amateur photographer, known for her portraiture and as a pioneer of colour photography. She was credited by her contemporaries with inaugurating colour photography "as a process for the travelling amateur", by virtue of the photographs she took during two visits to Gibraltar in 1903 and 1904. Sarah Acland was the daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth Acland, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University, Sarah Acland, after whom the Acland Hospital in Oxford was named, she lived with her parents at 40 -- central Oxford. As a child, Sarah Acland was photographed by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson with her friend Ina Liddell, the sister of Alice Liddell. At the age of 5, on 20 June 1855, she and one of her brothers presented a trowel to Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Chancellor of Oxford University, at the laying of the foundation stone for the Oxford University Museum; the art critic John Ruskin taught her art and she knew a number of the Pre-Raphaelites.
She assisted Dante Gabriel Rossetti when he was painting murals at the Oxford Union. At the age of 19, Acland was influenced by photographer Julia Margaret Cameron. Ackland took landscapes. For example, she took a portrait photograph of the Prime Minister William Gladstone during a visit by him to Oxford. On the death of her mother in 1878, Sarah became her father's housekeeper at the family home in Broad Street until his death in 1900. In 1885, she instigated a cabmen's shelter in the middle of Broad Street, which stood there until 1912. Acland started to experiment with colour photography in 1899, her earliest work was accomplished using the Ives Kromskop and Sanger Shepherd colour processes, in which three separate photographs were taken through red and blue filters. In 1903 Acland visited her brother Admiral Acland at his home in Gibraltar. Acland took photographs of Europa Point looking out from Europe to Africa, pictures of flora in the Admiral's residence, The Mount, the author and ornithologist Colonel William Willoughby Cole Verner.
In 1904, she exhibited at the Annual Exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain with 33 three-colour prints under the title The Home of the Osprey, Gibraltar. She used the Autochrome process of the Lumiere brothers, introduced in 1907. In her life after the death of her father, until her death in 1930, Sarah Acland lived in Park Town, North Oxford, taking many colour photographs there, she visited and photographed on the Atlantic island of Madeira, staying at Reid's Hotel to the west of central Funchal. Sarah Acland was the Royal Society of Arts, she never married, in 1901, the year after her father's death, she moved to Clevedon House, now 10 Park Town, where she died in 1930. A blue plaque was dedicated to her on this house on 24 July 2016. A collection of Acland's photographs is housed at the Museum of the History of Science in Oxford; the Bodleian Library in Oxford has catalogues of her photograph albums and papers, dating from the late 19th century. E. J. Bowen, who lived in the same house as Sarah Acland in Park Town, Oxford List of women photographers Media related to Autochromes by Sarah Angelina Acland at Wikimedia Commons Sarah Angelina Acland photographs in Google Images Photograph of Sarah Angelina Acland at the National Portrait Gallery
John Johnson (inventor)
John Johnson was an instrument maker of dental supplies. He was an inventor, he made with Alexander S. Wolcott the world's first commercial portrait studio. Johnson was born in Saco, Maine on May 28, 1813, his father was William Short Johnson. Johnson got his initial schooling in Pembroke, New Hampshire. After high school when a young man he worked for a watchmaker in New York City for a few years, he went into a business with Alexander Simon Wolcott, an instrument maker, they formed a partnership with their photography firm in New York City. Johnson took to Wolcott on October 6, 1839, a detailed copy of the specifications on Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre's method of capturing a likeness of a person. Wolcott was familiar with the mechanics of optics and experimented on improving Daguerre's basic methods of using lenses. Wolcott came up with the concept that exposure time could be reduced by an improvement on the mechanical arrangement of the image focusing process; this was by using a concave reflector of a 3 -- 4 inch diameter.
The focused image was formed onto a chemically treated silver surface, sensitive to light. The image stored on this chemically treated plate of about 2 by 2.5 inches could hold the picture indefinitely. Wolcott made a camera that day with improvements on Daguerre's method; the camera was a wooden box 15 inches long, 8.5 inches high, 8 inches wide. There was a 7-inch concave mirror in the back of the camera; the camera was constructed so that it had a large opening in front where the light rays of the person of the portrait passed through an aperture. The photo-sensitive 2 inch exposure plate was in a detachable frame in the center of this aperture opening, just inside the box; the operator of the camera would set up the focusing of the portrait picture on an unsensitized plate first. Once the camera was focused with all of the mechanical items involved the camera operator would replace the focusing plate with the sensitized plate to take the picture. Photography historians Dr. Robert Taft and Patrick Robertson stated that Wolcott took a picture of Johnson as the first portrait in the world on October 7, 1839.
On March 4, 1840, they opened the first studio in the world as a commercial enterprise for taking pictures of people. The customer would sit for their likeness to be captured on a permanent medium for future viewing; the commercial photography studio was located in New York City at Chamber Street. Johnson with Wolcott created the world's first photography portrait studio as a business, they opened their commercial daguerreotype photography portrait studio in March 1840. Wolcott's camera technology was taken to London by Johnson's father, William S. Johnson, in February 1840. A European franchise financial arrangement was worked out by W. S. Johnson with Richard Beard, a coal merchant and entrepreneur, they hired a chemist and lecturer in optics. Goddard came up a chemistry formula to make the image plate sensitive to light so that an image would develop on it much faster than the daguerreotype cameras of the time; the image plate used iodine chloride to make the plates sensitive to light, which helped to shorten the camera exposure time.
The concave mirror reflector improvement and the photo-sensitive plate were the key innovative features Wolcott based his 1840 camera invention on that made portraits a possibility. This made exposure time to as low as a few minutes in bright sunlight, since a person could be still for that long it make portraits possible using this state-of-the-art photography. Beard opened the first public portrait studio of Europe in London in March 1841, the Daguerrean gallery at the Polytechnic Institute. Beard developed franchises of portrait studios throughout England. Johnson died on May 1871, in Saco, Maine. Chaudhuri, Arun. Indian Advertising:1780-1950. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-060461-2. In March 1840 Alexander S. Wolcott and John Johnson opened the first public portrait studio in New York. In 1841 Richard Beard having acquired the exclusive rights for Wolcott's camera in Britain opened the first public studio in Europe. Coe, Brian. Cameras: Daguerreotypes to Instant. Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-517-53381-9.
Gernsheim, Helmut & Alison. The history of photography. Oxford University Press. Being able to take portraits in as'short' a time as from hours to 5 minutes and Johnson had opened the world's first'Daguerrean Parlor' in New York City at the beginning of March 1840. Glenner, Richard A.. The American dentist. Pictorial Histories Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-929521-05-3, he developed a system of photographic studio lighting in February 1840 and on March 13, 1840 opened the world's first commercial photographic studio. Wolcott made dental equipment with his partner, John Johnson. Heathcote, Bernard & Pauline. A faithful likeness. B. & P. Heathcote. ISBN 978-0-9541934-0-9. Kane, Joseph Nathan. Famous first facts. H. W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0-8242-0930-8. #5813. The first commercial photography studio in the world was opened on March 4, 1840, in New York City by Alexander S. Wolcott and John Johnson. On May 8, 1840, Wolcott received the first photography patent, for “a method of taking likenesses by means of a concave reflector and plates so prepared that luminous or other rays will act thereon.”
The photographs, 2 by 2.5 inches, were not reversed. Karad, Ashok. Clinical Orthodontics. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-81-312-3168-5. KodakMuseum; the Story of popular photography. Trafalgar Square Pub. ISBN 978-0-943955-15-5. Martin, Elizabeth. Preserving Old Photog
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, it was a much anticipated event; the Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and by Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria. Famous people of the time attended, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, Alfred Tennyson and William Makepeace Thackeray; the Exposition des produits de l'industrie française organized in Paris, from 1798 to 1849 were precursors to the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design.
It was arguably a response to the effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader". Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority; the British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in every field where strength, durability and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology its own, was the key to a better future. Sophie Forgan says of the Exhibition that "Large, piled-up ‘trophy’ exhibits in the central avenue revealed the organisers’ priorities.
Technology and moving machinery were popular working exhibits." She notes that visitors "could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments were found in class X, included electric telegraphs, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical and surgical instruments."A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar", was built to house the show. It was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months; the building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with statues.
The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area, renamed Crystal Palace, it was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936. Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition; the average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000, used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum, they were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; the Exhibition caused controversy. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob, whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of a capitalist fetishism of commodities.
King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, shortly before his death, wrote to Lord Strangford about it: The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea... must shock every well-meaning Englishman. But it seems. In modern times, the Great Exhibition is a symbol of the Victorian Age, its thick catalogue, illustrated with steel engravings, is a primary source for High Victorian design. A memorial to the exhibition, crowned with a statue of Prince Albert, is locate
Alexander S. Wolcott
Alexander Simon Wolcott was a maker of medical supplies. He was inventor, he made with John Johnson the world's first commercial photography portrait studio and patented the first US camera that made photographs. Wolcott was born on June 1804, in New London, Connecticut, he was the son of Alexander Sr. and Joanne Wolcott. Wolcott made dental supplies for a living, he worked in the mechanics of designing instruments. In 1839 he became an associated with a jeweler and watchmaker's assistant. Johnson took to Wolcott on October 6, 1839, a copy of the specifications on Daguerre's method of capturing a likeness of a person and storing on a permanent plate that would hold the picture indefinitely, they started experimenting with it. Wolcott improved on Daguerre's lens camera by making a camera. On October 7, 1839, Wolcott made the first portrait in the world with a prototype of his daguerreotype camera when he took a picture of his partner Johnson. Wolcott patented it on May 8, 1840, it became known as "Wolcott's camera" and referred to as the "mirror camera."
It was the first US patent in photography. Wolcott and Johnson started using their camera on March 4, 1840, in a New York City business on Broadway called the "Daguerreian Parlor" that made commercial portraits in a studio, it was in the Granite Building. They had opened a portrait photography studio. By June they had a branch studio in Washington D. C., operated by John G. Stevenson. Wolcott's patented camera used a polished concave mirror to reflect the focused light onto a photosensitive plate, less than a half inch square; the pictures were not a negative image of reverse colors, but a correct positive image that did not require reversion of the image. The size of the photo-sensitive plate was increased to just over two square inches that they could make a likeness image, because of their refined mechanical lighting techniques. Wolcott and Johnson continued to improve their photography techniques. Wolcott improved his photo-sensitive plate and came up with a chemical "accelerator", a mix of bromide and chloride.
This along with improved polished silver plates earned them a second U. S. patent in photography in December 1841, designated #2,391. They came up with new innovative studio lighting by designing special outdoor mirrors that provided more light to the inside studio itself for faster better quality portrait pictures. Wolcott died on November 1844, in Stamford, Connecticut. APHA. Photographica Journal. American Photographic Historical Association. Baird, Joseph Armstrong. Images of El Dorado. Alexander S. Volcott and John Johnson opened the first Daguerreian Parlor in New York in March 1840. Daguerreian Society; the Daguerreian Annual. The Society. Falk, Peter H.. Who was who in American Art. Sound View Press. ISBN 978-0-932087-55-3. Gernsheim, Helmut. Concise History of Photography. Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-25128-8; this shortened the exposure to 3–5 minutes, allowed Wolcott and Johnson to open the world's first Daguerreian Parlor in New York at the beginning of March 1840. Gillespie, Sarah Kate; the Early American Daguerreotype: Cross-Currents in Art and Technology.
MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03410-4. Glenner, Richard A.. The American dentist. Pictorial Histories Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-929521-05-3, he developed a system of photographic studio lighting in February 1840 and on March 13, 1840 opened the world's first commercial photographic studio. Wolcott made dental equipment with his partner, John Johnson. Hannavy, John. Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-87327-1. Heathcote, Bernard & Pauline. A faithful likeness. B. & P. Heathcote. ISBN 978-0-9541934-0-9. Hirsch, Robert. Seizing the Light. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-37183-0. Alexander S. Wolcott and John Johnson opened what the March 4, 1840, New York Sun exclaimed was “the first daguerreotype gallery for portraits,” which started before the daguerreotype system had evolved. Ikenson, Ben. Patents: Ingenious Inventions. Hachette Books. ISBN 978-1-60376-272-4. In 1840, Alexander S. Wolcott became the first US person to receive a patent for a camera that took photographs. Wolcott and a partner opened the world's first photo portrait studio in New York just two months before this patent was issued.
Kane, Joseph Nathan. Famous first facts. H. W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0-8242-0930-8; the first commercial photography studio in the world was opened on March 4, 1840, in New York City by Alexander S. Wolcott and John Johnson. On May 8, 1840, Wolcott received the first photography patent, for'a method of taking likenesses by means of a concave reflector and plates so prepared that luminous or other rays will act thereon.' KodakMuseum. The Story of popular photography. Trafalgar Square Pub. ISBN 978-0-943955-15-5. Macintosh. Repertory of patent inventions. Macintosh. McDarrah, Gloria S. & Fred W & Timothy S.. The Photography Encyclopedia. Schirmer Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865025-8. Wolcott and a partner opened the first professional daguerreotypist studio in America when they set up shop in New York City in 1840; the inventor of numerous devices for improving the daguerrotype process, he is considered the first to make a portrait, in October 1839. McGraw-Hill. Focal Encyclopedia of Photography. McGraw-Hill. Newhall, Beaumont (1976
Richard Keene was an early Derbyshire photographer. He was a founding member of The Derby Photographic Society in 1884 and the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom in 1886 as well as being an early member of The Linked Ring. Keene was the son of Richard Keene and Priscilla Kimpton, born in London on 15 May 1825. At the age of three, Keene moved with his family to Derby when his father became the manager of Frost's Silk Mill, he was educated at Thomas Swanwick's Academy and at Matthew Spencer's Academy in Derby before becoming an apprentice to Thomas Richardson & Sons, printers in Ashbourne, Derbyshire. He subsequently went to work in their London offices before working for Simpkin Marshall & Co publishers and booksellers, he married Mary Barrow in 1851 and had eight children in total, five sons and 3 daughters, living in Radbourne Street, Derby. He died at his home in Derby in December 1894. In 1851 Keene returned to Derby from London to set up as a printer and bookseller in Irongate under the name Richard Keene and Co.
He had an early interest in photography and began taking and selling photographs of Derby and Derbyshire and before long photography became the mainstay of his business. He was a friend of the Rev Edward Abney and his sons William de Wiveleslie Abney and Charles Edward Abney - all of whom were early photographic experimenters. Keene established a portrait studio and'Repository of Arts' selling photographs prints and stereoscopic viewers. Keene was a founder member of the Derby Photographic Society in 1884, he was a founding member of the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom which held its inaugural convention in Derby in 1886. He was a skilled stereoscopic photographer and worked with his friend and fellow Derby photographer John Warwick on an acclaimed series ‘Derbyshire Stereographs’ published in the late 1850s; these are credited as ‘By John Warwick, Published by Richard Keene’. Keene gave an account of his early photographic work with Warwick in a lecture, reprinted in Maxwell Craven's biography of Keene.
In this he makes clear. He was invited to become a member of The Linked Ring, an exclusive group of photographers committed to promoting artistic principles in photography. Fellow members included Frank Sutcliffe and Alfred Stieglitz. Through this organisation and the Photographic Convention he had regular contact with some of the most prominent and successful photographers of the day
Alfred Horsley Hinton
Alfred Horsley Hinton was an English landscape photographer, best known for his work in the pictorialist movement in the 1890s and early 1900s. As an original member of the Linked Ring and editor of The Amateur Photographer, he was one of the movement's staunchest advocates. Hinton wrote nearly a dozen books on photographic technique, his photographs were exhibited at expositions throughout Europe and North America. Hinton was born in London in 1863, he attended art school with the hopes of becoming a painter, became proficient in oil and black-and-white drawing. By 1882, he had discovered photography, was hired as editor of the Photographic Art Journal in 1887. Hinton worked for a company in Blackfriars selling photographic equipment before taking over a branch portrait studio of Ralph W. Robinson in Guildford in 1891. In 1893, he was hired as editor of The Amateur Photographer, a position he retained for the rest of his life. During the late 1880s, Hinton became one of a growing number of photographers who believed that photography should be considered a form of high art, a movement that became known as pictorialism.
Pictorialism, according to Hinton, employed "the image of concrete things to create abstract ideas." He exhibited several photographs at an early-1890s Leeds exposition described by his contemporary, Alexander Keighley, as the first pictorialist exposition, was one of the original members of the Linked Ring, an organisation formed in 1892 to promote photography as a fine art. Hinton helped organise the Photographic Salon in 1893, became the primary English correspondent for the Bulletin of the French pictorialist group, the Photo Club of Paris. A poll conducted by Photographic Life in 1897 found Hinton to be the most popular photographer-exhibiter. Hinton's staunch defence of pictorialism gained him numerous enemies, his attempt to join the Royal Photographic Society touched off a fierce debate among the readers of the British Journal of Photography, with numerous letters written both in support of his membership and against it. Hinton was a member of the Royal Photographic Society between 1889 and 1893.
He continued his defence of pictorialism into the following century, was unimpressed with the rise of the "American School," which included photographers such as Edward Steichen. During the early 1900s, Hinton was a regular contributor to the London Times, the Daily Telegraph, the Daily Graphic, the Yorkshire Post, was called upon to judge photo contests. In 1904, he oversaw the British photographic exhibit at the St. Louis World's Fair, he spent his last years writing manuals to teach photographers basic techniques. In February 1908, he fell ill while returning from a trip to the Scottish Photographic Salon in Aberdeen, died at his home in Woodford Green; the Royal Photographic Society held an exclusive exhibit of Hinton's work in April 1908. Hinton's landscape photographs tend to be characterised by prominent foregrounds and dramatic cloud formations in a vertical format, he used sepia platinotype and gum bichromate printing processes. Unlike many pictorialists, Hinton preferred sharp focus to soft focus lenses.
He cropped and mixed cloud scenes and foregrounds from different photographs, was known to rearrange the foregrounds of his subjects to make them more pleasing. His favourite topic was the English countryside the Essex mud flats and Yorkshire moors. Hinton's photograph, "Requiem," was used as the frontispiece of the first issue of Alfred Stieglitz's magazine, Camera Notes, in 1897, his photograph, "Day's Decline," appeared in Volume 3, Issue 1 of Camera Notes two years later. "Reed Harvesting," was exhibited at the first London Salon in 1894, his "Salt Marshes" was exhibited at the first Paris Salon that same year. Hinton photographs that garnered considerable attention at the Photographic Salon in subsequent years included "Recessional", "Weeds and Rushes", "Fleeting and Far", "The White Mill". In a 1907 issue of The Photographic News, Hinton described "Melton Meadows" as his best photograph. Hinton's "Melton Meadows," "Beyond," "Recessional," "Woods and Rushes," "Fleeting Far," and "Niagara," are now part of the National Media Museum's Royal Photographic Society collection.
"Fleeting Shadows" is part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's collections. AuthorThe Handbook of Illustration Artistic Landscape Photography Platinotype Printing Practical Pictorial Photography P. O. P: A Simple Book of Instruction in the Use of Silver Printing Out Paper Sure and Easy Development of Plates and Films Home Portraiture Made Easy How to Ensure Correct Exposure To Make Bad Negatives Into Good: Elementary Lessons for Beginners in Photography Simply Told Contributor"Negative-Making: Exposure and After-Treatment," in The Barnet Book of Photography Introduction to The Use of the Hand Camera by Clive Holland "In Austria and Germany," in Art in Photography Photographic Art, editor, 1887–1889 The Amateur Photographer, editor, 1893–1908 Constant Puyo Works by Alfred Horsley Hinton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alfred Horsley Hinton at Internet Archive Practical Pictorial Photography – Google Books A. Horsley Hinton – Luminous-Lint
William England was a successful Victorian photographer specialising in stereoscopic photographs. Sources disagree with dates from 1816 to 1830 quoted by different authors. In the 1840s England ran a London daguerreotype portrait studio. In 1854 he joined the London Stereoscopic Company, where another eminent stereoscopic photographer Thomas Richard Williams was active at that time. In due course England became the LSC's principal photographer. In 1859 he traveled to America for the LSC and brought back a series of stereoviews of USA and Canada which provided European audiences with some of their first stereoscopic views of North America. In 1862 the LSC paid 3,000 guineas for the exclusive rights to photograph the International Exhibition to be held in South Kensington, London. William England led a team of LSC stereographers, which included William Russell Sedgfield and Stephen Thompson, to produce a series of 350 stereoviews of the exhibition In 1863 England photographed the Dublin International Exhibition, but that year he left the LSC to work independently.
He subsequently traveled around Germany and Italy, producing regarded series of views including a much collected series of Alpine views'published under the auspices of the Alpine Club'. In years he was active in several photographic organizations including the London Photographic Society and the Photographic Society of Great Britain. In 1886, he was a founding member of the Photographic Convention of the United Kingdom, he died in London in 1896. Media related to William England at Wikimedia Commons