Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
Bay Ridge, Brooklyn
Bay Ridge is a predominantly middle-class residential neighborhood in the southwest corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded by Sunset Park on the north, Dyker Heights on the east, the Narrows and the Belt Parkway on the west, Fort Hamilton Army Base and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge on the south; the section of Bay Ridge south of 86th Street is sometimes considered part of a sub-neighborhood called Fort Hamilton. Bay Ridge is part of Brooklyn Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11209 and 11220, it is patrolled by the 68th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 43rd District; the first Dutch settlers began farming here in the 17th century. Well into the 19th century, what is now considered Bay Ridge consisted of two sister villages: Yellow Hook to the north, named for the color of the soil, Fort Hamilton to the south, named for the military installation at its center; the latter began to develop in the 1830s as a resort destination.
The former began to develop after 1850, when a group of artists moved to the area and founded a colony called Ovington Village. In the 1850s, the village changed the community’s name to avoid association with yellow fever. "Bay Ridge" was suggested by local horticulturist James Weir after the area’s most prominent geographic features: the high ridge that offered views of New York Bay. The natural beauty attracted the wealthy, who built country homes along Shore Road, overlooking the water. Suburban development in Bay Ridge continued through the 1890s. By World War II all of these large houses had been replaced with apartment buildings. Development accelerated once planning began for the Fourth Avenue subway, was well underway by the time the section of the subway in Bay Ridge opened in 1916. At the time, Bay Ridge extended northward to. Industrial developments were constructed along the waterfront north of present-day 65th Street, such as Bush Terminal, those were considered to be within Bay Ridge.
By the 1920s, the number of apartment buildings had increased fivefold, replacing old farms and houses. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many Norwegian and Danish sailors emigrated to Brooklyn, including Bay Ridge and neighboring Sunset Park. Construction of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, which connects Bay Ridge to Staten Island, was completed in 1964. Though now an iconic structure, it was opposed by residents because it would require the demolition of many homes and businesses. Eight hundred buildings were destroyed, displacing 7,000 people, to make room for the bridge and its approach. Destroyed was Fort Lafayette, part of New York City's defense system along with Fort Hamilton and Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island; the Senator Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. The Houses at 216-264 Ovington Ave. were listed in 2007. The 2007 Brooklyn tornado hit this area 68th Street and Bay Ridge Avenue between Third and Fourth Avenues.
Eleven houses had to be vacated after they suffered significant damage, many of the trees on the two blocks toppled, landing on cars and stoops. The 4th Avenue Presbyterian Church had its large stained glass window blown out; as the tornado lifted, it peeled the roof of a nearby Nissan dealership and deforested 40% of Leif Ericson Park. The tornado has been rated an EF-2 on the Enhanced Fujita scale, with winds between 111 and 135 MPH. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Bay Ridge was 79,371, a decrease of 1,168 from the 80,539 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,571.96 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 50.5 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 66.4% White, 1.8% Black, 0.1% Native American, 13.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.9% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 10 had 142,075 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.1 years.
This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 20% are between the ages of 0–17, 34% between 25–44, 25% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 7% and 15% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 10 was $68,679. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. One in twelve residents were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 49% in Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights is considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city. Bay Ridge is an affluent neighborhood. With its strong family presence, it is not uncommon to see third or fourth generation families living in the region.
Until the early 1990s, Bay Ridge was a Irish, Greek, Syrian and Norwegian neighborhood. Its Nordic heritage is still apparent in the annual Norwegian Constitution Day Parade known as the Syttende Mai
Law & Order
Law & Order is an American police procedural and legal drama television series created by Dick Wolf, launching the Law & Order franchise. Airing its entire run on NBC, Law & Order premiered on September 13, 1990 and completed its twentieth and final season on May 24, 2010. Set and filmed in New York City, the series follows a two-part approach: the first half-hour is the investigation of a crime and apprehension of a suspect by New York City Police Department detectives. Plots are based on real cases that made headlines, although the motivation for the crime and the perpetrator may be different; the show has had a revolving cast over the years. Among the longest-running main cast members were Steven Hill as District Attorney Adam Schiff, Jerry Orbach as Detective Lennie Briscoe, S. Epatha Merkerson as Lieutenant Anita Van Buren, Sam Waterston as Executive Assistant District Attorney Jack McCoy and Jesse L. Martin as Detective Ed Green. Law & Order's twenty seasons tie with Gunsmoke and spin-off Law & Order: Special Victims Unit for the longest-running live-action scripted American primetime series.
The success of the series has led to the creation of additional shows, making Law & Order a franchise, with a television film, several video games, international adaptations of the series. It has won and has been nominated for numerous awards over the years, including a number of Emmy Awards. On May 14, 2010, NBC announced that it had canceled Law & Order and would air its final episode on May 24, 2010. Following the show's cancellation, Wolf attempted to find a new home for the series; those attempts failed, in July 2010, Wolf declared that the series had now "moved to the history books". In 1988, Dick Wolf developed a concept for a new television series that would depict a optimistic picture of the American criminal justice system, he toyed with the idea of calling it Night & Day but hit upon the title Law & Order. The first half of each episode would follow two detectives and their commanding officer as they investigate a violent crime; the second half of the episode would follow the District Attorney's Office and the courts as two prosecutors, with advice from the District Attorney himself, attempt to convict the accused.
Through this, Law & Order would be able to investigate some of the larger issues of the day by focusing on stories that were based on real cases making headlines. Wolf took the idea to then-president of Universal Television Kerry McCluggage, who pointed out the similarity to a 1963 series titled Arrest and Trial, which lasted one season; the two watched the pilot of that series, in which a police officer arrested a man for armed robbery in the first half, the defense attorney, played by Chuck Connors gets the perpetrator off as the wrong guy in the second half. Wolf decided that, while his detectives would also be fallible, he wanted a fresh approach to the genre, to go from police procedural to prosecution with a greater degree of realism. In addition, the prosecution would be a reversal of the usual formula in lawyer dramas. Fox ordered thirteen episodes based on the concept alone, with no pilot. Then-network head Barry Diller reversed the decision. Although he loved the idea, he didn't believe it was a "Fox show".
Wolf went to CBS, which ordered a pilot, "Everybody's Favorite Bagman", written by Wolf about corrupt city officials involved with the mob. The network did not order it because there were no breakout stars. In the summer of 1989, NBC's top executives, Brandon Tartikoff and Warren Littlefield, screened the pilot and liked it. However, by 1990, NBC executives had enough confidence that the innovative show could appeal to a wide audience that they ordered the series for a full season; the series is known for its extensive use of local color. In seasons, New York City mayors Rudy Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg, attorney William Kunstler and Bronx Congressman José Serrano all appeared on the show as themselves. Local personalities had recurring cameos as fictional characters, such as Donna Hanover and Fran Lebowitz as judges. On September 14, 2004, in New York City, a road leading to Pier 62 at Chelsea Piers was renamed "Law & Order Way" in tribute to the series; the music for Law & Order was composed by veteran composer Mike Post, was deliberately designed to be minimal to match the abbreviated style of the series.
Post wrote the theme song using electric piano and clarinet. In addition, scene changes were accompanied by a tone generated by Post, he refers to the tone as "The Clang", while Entertainment Weekly critic Ken Tucker has referred to the sound as the "ominous chung CHUNG", actor Dann Florek as the "doink doink", Richard Belzer as "the Dick Wolf Cash Register Sound". The tone moves the viewer from scene to scene, jumping forward in time with all the importance and immediacy of a judge's gavel –, what Post was aiming for when he created it. While reminiscent of a jail door slamming, it is an amalgamation of "six or seven" sounds, including the sound made by five hundred Japanese men walking across a hardwood floor; the sound has become so associated with the Law & Order brand that it was carried over to other series of the franchise. The UK-aired Channel Five versions of
Michael McClure is an American poet, playwright and novelist. After moving to San Francisco as a young man, he found fame as one of the five poets who read at the famous San Francisco Six Gallery reading in 1955 rendered in fictionalized terms in Jack Kerouac's The Dharma Bums, he soon became a key member of the Beat Generation and is immortalized as "Pat McLear" in Kerouac's Big Sur. Educated at the University of Wichita, the University of Arizona, San Francisco State College McClure's first book of poetry, was published in 1956 by small press publisher Jonathan Williams, his poetry is infused with an awareness of nature in the animal consciousness that lies dormant in mankind. Not only an awareness of nature, but the poems are organized in an organic fashion, continuing with his appreciation of nature's purity. Stan Brakhage, friend of McClure, stated in Chicago Review that: "McClure always, more and more as he grows older, gives his reader access to the verbal impulses of his whole body's thought.
He invents a form for the cellular messages of his, a form which will feel as if it were organic on the page. McClure has since published eight books of plays and four collections of essays, including essays on Bob Dylan and the environment, his fourteen books of poetry include Jaguar Skies, Dark Brown, Huge Dreams, Rebel Lions, Rain Mirror and Plum Stones. McClure famously read selections of his Ghost Tantra poetry series to the caged lions in the San Francisco Zoo, his work as a novelist includes the autobiographical The Adept. On January 14, 1967, McClure read at the epochal Human Be-In event in Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and transcended his Beat label to become an important member of the 1960s Hippie counterculture. Barry Miles famously referred to McClure as "the Prince of the San Francisco Scene". McClure would court controversy as a playwright with his play The Beard; the play tells of a fictional encounter in the blue velvet of eternity between Billy the Kid and Jean Harlow and is a theatrical exploration of his "Meat Politics" theory, in which all human beings are "bags of meat".
Other plays include Josephine The Mouse Singer and VKTMS. He had an eleven-year run as playwright-in-residence with San Francisco's Magic Theatre where his operetta "Minnie Mouse and the Tap-Dancing Buddha" had an extended run, he has made two television documentaries – The Maze and September Blackberries – and is featured in several films including The Last Waltz where he recites from The Canterbury Tales. McClure was a close friend of The Doors lead singer Jim Morrison and is acknowledged as having been responsible for promoting Morrison as a poet. McClure performed spoken word poetry concerts with Doors keyboard player Ray Manzarek up until Ray's death and several CDs of their work have been released. McClure is the author of the Afterword in Jerry Hopkins's and Danny Sugerman's seminal Doors biography, No One Here Gets Out Alive. McClure has released CDs of his work with minimalist composer Terry Riley. McClure's songs include "Mercedes Benz", popularized by Janis Joplin, new songs which were performed by Riders on the Storm, a band that consisted of original Doors members Ray Manzarek and Robbie Krieger.
McClure's journalism has been featured in Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, the Los Angeles Times and the San Francisco Chronicle. He has received numerous awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, an Obie Award for Best Play, an NEA grant, the Alfred Jarry Award and a Rockefeller grant for playwriting. In addition, he was inducted into the San Francisco State University Alumni Hall of Fame in 2014. McClure is still active as a poet and playwright and lives with his second wife, Amy, in the San Francisco Bay Area, he has one daughter from his first marriage to Joanna McClure. The Beard is a notably controversial modern play, that explores the nature of seduction and attraction, as it portrays an explosive confrontation between two legendary figures, Jean Harlow, the platinum blonde movie star, Billy the Kid, the baby-faced outlaw with a hair trigger, they are attracted to each other. She mocks his masculinity, he tells her she is envious of his beauty; this battle diminishes as they realize that since they are alone together they are free to shuck their burdening facades, give in to what they're feeling.
The torrent of their unleashed passions leads to a final scene of great controversy, as the play comes to a climax with an act of explicit sexual intimacy between the cowboy and the starlet. McLure says that he was inspired to write the play by a vision that came to him of a poster advertising a boxing match between Jean Harlow and Billy the Kid. Before he began to write, he went to the printer that created boxing posters in San Francisco, had the poster of his vision printed up, he says "I put the poster up on fences, in liquor stores where boxing posters would be, put one up behind my head in the room I worked in at the time, which overlooked the bridge and the ocean. I could feel the presence of Billy the Kid and Jean Harlow broadcasting from the beautiful poster to the back of my head out towards the ocean, they began enacting the play and I began typing it up. They'd say a few pages, I just typed it. I thought it was a nature poem about mammal mammal love, it could have been a tantric ritual."
McLure happened to meet British playwright, Harold Pin
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Thomas Hagen is a fictional character in Mario Puzo's novel The Godfather and Francis Ford Coppola's films The Godfather and The Godfather Part II. He is portrayed by Robert Duvall in the films, he appears in the Mark Winegardner sequel novels, The Godfather Returns and The Godfather's Revenge, as well as Ed Falco's novel, The Family Corleone. He operates as the consigliere and as a lawyer for the Corleone family, is an informally adopted member of the family. Hagen is the informally adopted son of the mafia Don Vito Corleone, he is the consigliere to the Corleone American mafia family. Mild-mannered and soft-spoken, he serves as the voice of reason within the family; the novel and first film establish. Sonny Corleone befriends 11-year-old Tom, living on the street after running away from an orphanage; when Sonny brings Tom home and demands he be taken in, the Corleone family allows him to stay. Hagen considers Vito his true father, although Vito never formally adopts him, believing it would be disrespectful to Hagen's deceased parents.
After law school, Hagen goes to work in the Corleone "family business". His non-Italian ancestry precludes his formal membership in the mafia family, but when the consigliere Genco Abbandando dies, Hagen is given his position; the other New York families deride the Corleones as "The Irish Gang". Though Hagen immerses himself in the Sicilian-American lifestyle and speaks Sicilian, he does not look Italian. In fact, his Northern European physical appearance is advantageous to his work, allowing him to travel and conduct family business without potential witnesses remembering him. While Hagen loves all the Corleones, he blames himself for Sonny's murder; when Vito semi-retires in 1954 and his youngest son Michael Corleone succeeds him as the head of the family, Michael removes Hagen as consigliere, preferring his father informally assume the role. Hagen is thus restricted to handling the family's legitimate business; the novel and first film portray Hagen aiding Vito and Michael Corleone in warring against the other ruling New York Mafia families.
In The Godfather Part II, set in 1958-59, Hagen serves as Michael's right-hand man during his power struggle with Hyman Roth. In The Godfather Part III, set in 1979-1980, he is said to have died some years before in an unspecified manner, his role in the story between the second and third films, including his death, is portrayed in Mark Winegardner's sequel novels, The Godfather Returns and The Godfather's Revenge. In both the novel and film, Hagen is introduced as an important member of the Corleone family; as a child he grew up in the son of an abusive alcoholic. Sonny Corleone finds the orphaned Hagen living on the street and suffering from a bad eye infection, takes him home, demands he live with the Corleone family. Vito Corleone becomes a surrogate father to Hagen, but never adopts him out of respect for the boy's father. In the novel, Hagen asks to work for Vito after graduating from law school, knowing full well that his adoptive father is the most powerful Mafia chief in the nation. Vito is more than willing to take Hagen into his employ, having said that lawyers can steal more than a phalanx of gangsters.
Hagen marries an Italian woman, with whom he has two sons and Andrew, a daughter, Gianna. After Vito's longtime consigliere Genco Abbandando is diagnosed with terminal cancer, Hagen becomes acting consigliere and succeeds to the post formally after Abbandando's death. Vito is reluctant to give Hagen the post full-time, considering Hagen is not a Sicilian; when famous singer/actor Johnny Fontane seeks his godfather Vito's help in securing a movie role that could revitalize his sagging career, Vito dispatches Hagen to Hollywood to persuade Jack Woltz, a big-time movie producer, to cast Johnny in his new war film. Hagen offers his benefactor's help with Woltz's union problems and informs him that one of his actors has graduated from marijuana to heroin. Woltz rebuffs becomes cordial after learning he works for the Corleones. Woltz still refuses to cast Fontane, who slept with one of Woltz's protégées, but offers to do any other favor for Vito Corleone. Hagen declines, soon afterward, Woltz awakens in bed with his prized racing stallion's severed head planted under the covers, intimidating him into casting Fontane in the film.
Tom arranges a meeting between Vito and drug kingpin Virgil Sollozzo. Sollozzo wants Vito to help finance his narcotics business and provide legal protection and political influence. Sollozzo commends Hagen for discovering that Sollozzo is collaborating with the Tattaglia Family, a rival to the Corleones. Vito rejects the deal, however, on the grounds that Vito would lose his influence over the judges and police if they knew he was in the drug trade. Sollozzo has Luca Brasi murdered, Vito shot, Hagen kidnapped off the street. Sollozzo informs Hagen that Vito has been shot and killed outside his office and tasks Hagen to persuade Sonny to make peace and accept his narcotics deal. Hagen says he'll do his best but warns Sollozzo that Luca Brasi, the Don's fanatically loyal bodyguard and hitman, will launch a violent reprisal. Unbeknownst to Hagen and Bruno Tattaglia have murdered Brasi; the meeting is interrupted when Sollozzo receives word that Vito has survived the shooting, ruining Sollozzo's original plan.
It's a testament to Hagen's persuasive abilities that he manages to convince Sollozzo to allow him to leave unharmed, having convinced Sollozzo that he'll still make the narcotics deal for him