John Hawkins (author)
Sir John Hawkins was an English author and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson and Horace Walpole. He was part of Johnson's various clubs but left The Literary Club after a disagreement with some of Johnson's other friends, his friendship with Johnson continued and he was made one of the executors of Johnson's will. During his life, he wrote many works, including A General History of the Science and Practice of Music and his Life of Samuel Johnson in memory of his friend, he was appointed as a magistrate and became Chairman of the Quarter Session for Middlesex. He was knighted in 1772 for his services. Hawkins first was brought up to follow in the footsteps of his father to become an architect. However, before the age of 30 he established a successful business as a solicitor, he married Sidney Storer in 1753 and retired from all professional vocations in 1759 after his wife had received a large inheritance due to the death of her brother. In 1760 the family moved to Twickenham, near Horace Walpole, where Hawkins published an edition of Walton's The Complete Angler.
In 1763, he published a document on the state of the Highways, considered to be the basis for the Highway Act 1835. Following the commission of the peace in 1771 he acted as a magistrate for the county of Middlesex. Hawkins was knighted in 1772, served as Chairman of the Middlesex Quarter Session. In 1773, he provided the notes for a new Shakespeare edition, it took Hawkins 16 years to write A General History of the Science and Practice of Music, published in 1776. Although this publication was somewhat respected, it soon was overshadowed, with the help of the likes such as Dr Callcott who composed a mocking song against Hawkins, by Charles Burney's General History of Music. However, in years to come Hawkins's music history was considered to be superior to Burney's music history. Burney's discourse on Handel and Bach was viewed as being inadequate. Within hours of Johnson's death, Thomas Cadell and William Strahan asked Hawkins to write a biography and an edition of works for Johnson, he soon produced the first full-length biography of the Life of Samuel Johnson.
This has been eclipsed, except for specialists, by the far longer and more colourful work published by James Boswell four years later. But Hawkins had known Johnson about twice as long as Boswell, since the 1740s, his work, from which Boswell pillaged, covers some aspects of Johnson much better. Hawkins was more attuned to Johnson's religious nature, was with Johnson when he died, unlike Boswell, in Scotland for some months. Hawkins married in 1753 the heiress Sidney Storer, second daughter of the attorney Peter Storer. With two daughters who died in infancy, their children were two sons, John Sidney Hawkins and Henry, a daughter, the novelist Laetitia Hawkins. Davis, Bertram. "Introduction" in The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. D. ed. Betram H. Davis, pp. vii-xxx. New York: Macmillan Company, 1961. John Hawkins Percy A. Scholes, The Life and Activities of Sir John Hawkins: Musician and Friend of Johnson, Oxford University Press, 1953. Stevenson, Robert, "Review: The Life and Activities of Sir John Hawkins: Musician and Friend of Johnson by Percy A. Scholes", Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol.
7, no. 1, 1954, pp. 82–84. On his life & works the Life of Johnson
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It is a Grade I listed building, its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren, its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London. The cathedral building destroyed in the Great Fire, now referred to as Old St Paul's Cathedral, was a central focus for medieval and early modern London, including Paul's walk and St. Paul's Churchyard being the site of St. Paul's Cross; the cathedral is one of the most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, has dominated the skyline for over 300 years. At 365 feet high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967; the dome is among the highest in the world.
St Paul's is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral. Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Sir Winston Churchill and Baroness Thatcher. St Paul's Cathedral is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz; the cathedral is a working church with daily services. The tourist entry fee at the door is £ 20 for adults. A list of the 16 "archbishops" of London was recorded by Jocelyn of Furness in the 12th century, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian and Medwin. None of, considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium; the location of Londinium's original cathedral is unknown.
Bede records that in AD 604 Augustine of Canterbury consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although not proved, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his pagan sons expelled Mellitus from London, the East Saxons reverted to paganism; the fate of the first cathedral building is unknown. Christianity was restored among the East Saxons in the late 7th century and it is presumed that either the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was restored or a new building erected as the seat of bishops such as Cedd and Earconwald, the last of whom was buried in the cathedral in 693; this building, or a successor, was rebuilt in the same year. King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016.
The cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire of London in 1666, it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium, medieval legends tie it to the city's earliest Christian community. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th-century building on Tower Hill was excavated, which might have been the city's cathedral; the Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Paul's Cathedral. Wren reported that he had found no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire, Camden's hypothesis is no longer accepted by modern archaeologists; the fourth St Paul's referred to as Old St Paul's, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire. A further fire in 1136 disrupted the work, the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240.
During the period of construction, the style of architecture had changed from Romanesque to Gothic and this was reflected in the pointed arches and larger windows of the upper parts and East End of the building. The Gothic ribbed vault was constructed, like that of York Minster, of wood rather than stone, which affected the ultimate fate of the building. An enlargement programme commenced in 1256. This'New Work' was consecrated in 1300 but not complete until 1314. During the Medieval period St Paul's was exceeded in length only by the Abbey Church of Cluny and in the height of its spire only by Lincoln Cathedral and St. Mary's Church, Stralsund. Excavations by Francis Penrose in 1878 showed that it was 100 feet wide; the spire was about 489 feet in height. By the 16th century the building was starting to decay. After the Protestant Reformation under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries Acts led to the destruction of interior ornamentation and the cloisters, crypts, shrines and other buildings in St Paul's Churchyard.
Many of these former Catholic
A music director, musical director, or director of music is the person responsible for the musical aspects of a performance, production, or organization, for example the artistic director and chief conductor of an orchestra or concert band, the director of music of a film, the director of music at a radio station, the person in charge of musical activities or the head of the music department in a school, the coordinator of the musical ensembles in a university, college, or institution, the head bandmaster of a military band, the head organist and choirmaster of a church, or an organist and master of the choristers. The title of "music director" or "musical director" is used by many symphony orchestras to designate the primary conductor and artistic leader of the orchestra; the term "music director" is most common for orchestras in the United States. With European orchestras, the titles of "principal conductor" or "chief conductor" are more common, which designate the conductor who directs the majority of a given orchestra's concerts in a season.
In musical theatre and opera, the music director is in charge of the overall musical performance, including ensuring that the cast knows the music supervising the musical interpretation of the performers and pit orchestra, conducting the orchestra. In the 20th century, the title and position brought with it an unlimited influence over the particular orchestra's affairs; as implied by the name, the music director not only conducts concerts, but controls what music the orchestra will perform or record, has much authority regarding hiring and other personnel decisions over an orchestra's musicians. Such authoritarian rule, once expected and thought necessary for a symphonic ensemble to function properly, has loosened somewhat in the closing decades of the 20th century with the advent and encouragement of more power sharing and cooperative management styles; the music director in American lingo assists with fund-raising, is the primary focus of publicity for the orchestra, as what is called its "public face".
The term "music director" or "musical director" became common in the United States in the middle of the 20th century, following an evolution of titles. Early leaders of orchestras were designated as the "conductor." In the 1920s and 1930s, the term musical director began to be used, in order to delineate the fact that the person in this position was doing much more than just conducting, to differentiate them from guest conductors who led one particular program or concert. George Szell, for instance, was appointed as "musical director" of the Cleveland Orchestra in 1946, his position was so named until his death in 1970, his successor, Lorin Maazel, was given the title "music director." Other major American orchestras kept more current with the times and began using the simpler term in the 1950s and 1960s. The term can refer to the person who directs a school band or heads the music program. Alternatively, the term "music director" used to appear in the film credits for a professional hired to supervise and direct the music selected for a film or music documentary, but today the more common designation is music supervisor.
In India, where a large number of films are produced as musicals, the term'music director' is used for the composer and music producer of the songs and score used in the film. Their roles entail arranging, mastering and supervising recording of film music with conducting and orchestration. Another artist will receive the credit for the lyrics of the songs. Further information: Music of Bollywood § Production; the "music director" for a theatrical production or Broadway or West End musical serves as rehearsal pianist and conductor. Brass bands, wind bands, opera companies and other ensembles may have musical directors. A music director of a radio station is responsible for interacting with record company representatives, auditioning new music, offering commentary, making decisions as to which songs get airplay, how much and when. In college radio, there may be more than one music director, as students volunteer only a few hours each per week, most stations have a diverse and extensive library of several different music genres.
In the British Armed Forces, a director of music is a commissioned officer, always a musician commissioned from the ranks, who leads a military band. A non-commissioned officer or warrant officer who leads a band is called a bandmaster. In pop music, a musical director or "MD" is responsible for supervising the musical arrangements and personnel for a touring artist; this can include festivals and televised performances as well as those at traditional on-stage venues. In the modern era, the sound of a studio recording is impossible or impractical to reproduce on stage, it is the music director's job to assemble musicians and arrangements to adapt that material to a live setting; the music director leads rehearsals as well as each performance, allowing the lead artist to focus on performing. Bandmaster Generalmusikdirektor Kapellmeister Music directors Organist and Master of the Choristers Media related to Music directors at Wikimedia Commons
John Blow was an English Baroque composer and organist, appointed to Westminster Abbey in 1669. His pupils included William Croft, Jeremiah Clarke and Henry Purcell. In 1685 he was named a private musician to James II, his only stage composition and Adonis, is thought to have influenced Henry Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas. In 1687 he became choirmaster at St Paul's Cathedral, where many of his pieces were performed. In 1699 he was appointed to the newly created post of Composer to the Chapel Royal. Blow was born in the village of Collingham in Nottinghamshire; the parish registers at Newark record the baptisms of Blow and of his brother and sister, the marriage of his parents, the burial of his father. The register of Lambeth degrees notes that in 1677, on taking his doctorate, Blow said that his birthplace was'the faithful borough of Newark'; as he was baptised on 23 February 1649, he was born only a short while before. As a boy, he was selected as a chorister of the Chapel Royal, distinguished himself by his proficiency in music.
Blow composed several anthems at an unusually early age, including Lord, Thou hast been our refuge, rebuke me not and the so-called "club anthem", I will always give thanks, the last in collaboration with Pelham Humfrey and William Turner, either in honour of a victory over the Dutch in 1665, or more simply to commemorate the friendly intercourse of the three choristers. In 1668, he was an organist at Westminster Abbey, he composed a two-part setting of Robert Herrick's "Goe, perjur'd man", written at the request of Charles II to imitate Giacomo Carissimi's "Dite, o cieli". In 1674 he was made a gentleman of the Chapel Royal and Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal. In September 1673, Blow married Elizabeth Braddock, they had offspring and she died in childbirth ten years later. Blow, who by 1678 was a doctor of music, was named in 1685 one of the private musicians of James II. Between 1680 and 1687, he wrote his only stage composition of which any record survives, the Masque for the entertainment of the King and Adonis.
In this, Mary Davis played the part of Venus. Lady Mary Tudor, her daughter by Charles II, appeared as Cupid. In 1687, Blow became choirmaster at St Paul's Cathedral. In 1695 he was elected organist of St Margaret's, is said to have resumed his post as organist of Westminster Abbey, from which in 1679 he had retired or been dismissed to make way for Purcell. In 1700, he was appointed to the newly created post of Composer to the Chapel Royal. Blow died on 1 October 1708 at his house in Broad Sanctuary, he was buried in the north choir aisle of Westminster Abbey. The tercentenary of his death was marked by BBC Radio 3 and Westminster Abbey: the weekly broadcast of choral evensong was made by the choir of Westminster Abbey, live from the Abbey, consisted of music by him, by his near contemporaries. Blow wrote fourteen services and 30 odes for royal celebrations, 50 secular song-like pieces and more than a hundred anthems. In addition to purely ecclesiastical music and his well-known masque Venus and Adonis, Blow's works include Great sir, the joy of all our hearts, an ode for New Year's Day 1682, similar compositions for 1683, 1686, 1687, 1688, 1689, 1693, 1694 and 1700.
In 1700 he published his Amphion Anglicus, a collection of pieces of music for one, two and four voices, with a figured bass accompaniment. This includes a setting for voice and continuo of the poem The Self Banished by Edmund Waller; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Blow, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. John Blow at Encyclopædia Britannica Free scores by John Blow in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores by John Blow at the International Music Score Library Project John Blow MIDI file "Fair Celia" Tony Catalano's Classical Guitar MIDI Page