Louie Welch was an American politician who served from 1964 to 1973 as the mayor of Houston, Texas. Welch was born on December 1918 in Lockney in Floyd County in West Texas, and grew up in Slaton. His father, Gilford Edgar Welch, was an automobile mechanic, his mother, the former Nora Shackleford, taught a Bible study at the Church of Christ which the family attended. He was the president of his senior class. Devoted to literature and poetry, he learned the passages. Memorizing these classic lines may have contributed to his quick wit and brash one-liners. During his political career, Welch was known for his quick quips. Sometimes this'saltiness' got the diminutive man in trouble, he studied in Abilene, Texas, at Abilene Christian College, now Abilene Christian University, where he was a varsity cheerleader and a member of Phi Delta Psi social club. In 1940, he received his Bachelor of Arts in history, he was married on December 17, 1940 to his first wife, Iola Faye Cure, in a ceremony performed by Homer Hailey.
At the coaxing of fellow Lions International members, Welch was elected to the Houston City Council and served four two-year terms from 1950 to 1952 and 1956 to 1962. After losing three times in bids for mayor, he was elected in 1963, he served for five consecutive two-year terms. Houston grew immensely. In 1963, Houston's population reached over one million people, yet was still considered a "small" city in the eyes of the national media. Under Welch, several events put Houston prominently on the U. S. and world maps, including the opening of the Astrodome in 1965 and the Houston Intercontinental Airport in 1969. NASA at nearby Mission Control sent a man to the moon. Lake Conroe and Lake Livingston opened to provide water for Houston. Welch closed forty inefficient sewage treatment plants, began cleaning up the Houston Ship Channel, focused on bayou beautification, it should be noted that Welch was the first Houston mayor to win all precincts during one of his reelections, including predominantly African American areas with which some claim he had trouble.
By the time that Welch left office in 1973, Houston was within two years of supplanting Detroit to become the fifth largest city in the United States in 1975, in the fall of 1980, the fourth. Welch was mayor in 1967 when two days of battles erupted between police and students at predominantly black Texas Southern University. A police officer was killed by sniper fire from the top of a student building, a number of Texas Southern students were arrested; the events created many of Houston's African Americans. In 1968, Welch's last term was marred by controversy, being that his second mayoral bid was financed by questionable sources, it was rumored that his campaign was associated with organized crime with a handful of his cabinet coming under suspicion and indicted as a result of this link. Welch's reputation came under fire because of his friendships with well known crime leaders. In early 1985, Welch was a leader in the opposition to the extension of job protection rights to homosexuals employed by the city government.
Welch came back that year to run against incumbent Mayor Kathy Whitmire, who had served since 1982, in the Houston Mayoral Elections. Some of his comments upset the city's gay community; the Houston GLBT Political Caucus supported his opponent in the race. She went on remaining the city's mayor until the early 1990s. Welch served as President of the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1972–73 and as Vice President of the National League of Cities from 1970 until 1973. In 1973, Louie Welch decided not to run again. In 1974, he became President of the Houston Chamber of Commerce, his company was Louie Associates. Welch died at the age of 89 from lung cancer on January 27, 2008 in his north Harris County residence, he was survived by his wife, five children, seventeen grandchildren, four stepchildren and four step-grandchildren. His first wife, Iola Faye Cure, died in 1991. Louie Welch Middle School in Fondren Southwest, Southwest Houston is named after him. Welch, Louie. Louie Welch Oral History, Houston Oral History Project, October 20, 2007
Neal Shaw Blaisdell served as Mayor of Honolulu from 1955 to 1969 as a member of the Hawaii Republican Party. As chief executive of City and County of Honolulu, Blaisdell oversaw one of the largest construction booms in city and county history, working with Governor John A. Burns. Blaisdell had European and Hawaiian ancestry, his father was William Wallace Blaisdell II, mother was Maliaka "Malie" Alaneao Merseberg. A maternal great-grandfather was John Adams Cummins. A paternal great-grandfather John Blaisdell came from Maine to the Hawaiian Islands in 1849. Known as "Rusty", Blaisdell played basketball and baseball at Saint Louis School, he attended the University of Hawaii and transferred to Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania where he was quarterback of the school's football team, graduating in 1927. He received Bucknell's Alumni Award for Meritorious Achievement in 1968. Although Blaisdell played both basketball and baseball, he was inducted into the Bucknell Athletic Hall of Fame in 1988 under the category of football.
He was a golfer who started his day with push ups. Blaisdell returned to Honolulu to become high school coach and athletic director, he was elected as representative of the 4th district to the legislature of the Territory of Hawaii in 1945, the territorial senate in 1947 and 1949. In 1950 he withdrew after suffering from tuberculosis. Blaisdell ran against Frank Fasi and was elected mayor in 1954, taking office in 1955; as mayor, Blaisdell saw the construction of the John H. Wilson Tunnels through the Koʻolau Range from Kalihi Valley, erected the Hawaii International Center, a multi-purpose complex with concert hall, convention center, exhibition hall and sports arena. After Blaisdell's death, his successor Fasi renamed the complex in his honor, it is now known as the Neal S. Blaisdell Center. From 1965 to 1966, Blaisdell was president of the United States Conference of Mayors. Blaisdell married Lucy Thurston on October 23, 1926. Daughter Velma Blaisdell Clark married James Kalaeone Clark and was a teacher for the Hawai`i State Department of Education.
Daughter Marilyn Blaisdell Ane married another football coach and taught at Punahou School for 28 years. Blaisdell suffered a stroke while doing yard work and died November 5, 1975, he was buried at Oahu Cemetery. A park of 25.9 acres located on the shore of Pearl Harbor at 21°23′11″N 157°57′17″W was named for him. Neal Blaisdell at Find a Grave
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Terrence Doyle Schrunk was an American politician who served as the mayor for the city of Portland, Oregon, 1957–1973, a length tying with George Luis Baker, who served 16 years. Before becoming mayor, he was sheriff of Multnomah County since 1949. In his 1956 campaign for mayor, he advocated for urban renewal. Schrunk beat incumbent Fred L. Peterson by 17,000 votes in a nine-person primary, but did not get an absolute majority, beat Peterson in the fall run-off election, he took office at midnight on January 1, 1957. In mid-twentieth-century Portland, gambling dens and unlicensed bars operated uninhibited by police as long as vice racketeers paid scheduled kickbacks to key city law enforcement officials. Schrunk was elected mayor with Teamsters union support in part because the incumbent Republican mayor, Fred Peterson, offended the union when he wouldn't oust Police chief J. Bardell Purcell; the Teamsters felt. In 1957 he appeared as himself in the CBS documentary film A Day Called X. An allegation against Mayor Schrunk soon landed him before the special Senate committee headed by Arkansas Democrat John McClellan investigating U.
S. labor racketeering in March 1957. While still sheriff in September 1955, Schrunk and his deputies had raided the 8212 Club, a gambling and after-hours drinking joint financed by Portland Racketeer James B. Elkins. Elkins testified that the manager, Clifford Bennett, told him he had paid Schrunk $500, the sheriff had gone away without causing any more trouble—except for arresting a few drunks. Although Bennett refused to testify, several others confirmed pieces of the story. Schrunk flatly denied having taken bribes from Bennett, but he did admit that his deputies had raided the 8212 Club, seen liquor being illegally served after hours, spotted gambling equipment all over the place—and that he had gone away without taking further action. Robert Kennedy the lead attorney for the Senate committee, came to Portland to testify against him. Jurors acquitted Schrunk in less than two hours. Three years Kennedy was managing his brother, Senator John F. Kennedy's, presidential campaign, with Oregon one of seven primaries that JFK entered.
Kennedy's pursuit of Schrunk had angered enough Oregon Democrats that some of JFK's key supporters persuaded Kennedy operative Joseph S. Miller to ask Senator Kennedy to keep his younger brother out of Oregon. Although JFK accepted the advice, Miller's bluntness angered both brothers. Continued resentment by Schrunk and his supporters was seen as a contributing factor to Robert Kennedy losing the Oregon Democratic Primary to Eugene McCarthy in May 1968. Schrunk suffered a heart attack in October 1972 while at City Hall and was taken to the hospital where he survived. Schrunk died after suffering another heart attack in 1975, less than a week before his 62nd birthday. Government of Portland, Oregon List of mayors of Portland, Oregon Schrunk Riverview Tower Cogswell, Philip. "Terry Schrunk". The Oregon Encyclopedia
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Richard J. Daley
Richard Joseph Daley was an American politician who served as the 48th Mayor of Chicago for a total of 21 years beginning on April 20, 1955, until his death on December 20, 1976. Daley was the chairman of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee for 23 years, holding both positions until his death in office in 1976. Daley was Chicago's third consecutive mayor from the working-class Irish American Bridgeport neighborhood on Chicago's South Side, where he lived his entire life. Daley is remembered for doing much to avoid the declines that some other "rust belt" cities—like Cleveland and Detroit—experienced during the same period, he had a strong base of support in Chicago's Irish Catholic community, he was treated by national politicians such as Lyndon B. Johnson as a pre-eminent Irish American, with special connections to the Kennedy family. Daley played a major role in the history of the Democratic Party with his support of John F. Kennedy in 1960 and of Hubert Humphrey in 1968. Daley is the father of Richard M. Daley a former mayor of Chicago, William M. Daley, a former United States Secretary of Commerce, John P. Daley, a member of the Cook County Board of Commissioners.
While many members of Daley's administration were charged with corruption and convicted, Daley himself was never charged with corruption. Richard J. Daley was born in a working-class neighborhood of Chicago, he was the only child of Michael and Lillian Daley, whose families had both arrived from the Old Parish area, near Dungarvan, County Waterford, during the Great Famine. Daley would state that his wellsprings were his religion, his family, his neighborhood, the Democratic Party, his love of the city, his father was a sheet metal worker with a reserved demeanor. Michael's father, James E. Daley, was a butcher born in New York, while his mother, Delia Gallagher Daley, was an Irish immigrant. Richard's mother was outspoken. Before women obtained the right to vote in 1920, Lillian Daley was an active Suffragette, participating in marches. Mrs. Daley brought her son to them, she hoped. Prior to his mother's death, Daley had won the Democratic nomination for Cook County sheriff. Lillian Daley wanted more than this for her son, telling a friend, "I didn't raise my son to be a policeman."
Daley attended the elementary school of his parish, Nativity of Our Lord, De La Salle Institute and took night classes at DePaul University College of Law to earn a Bachelor of Laws in 1933. As a young man, his jobs included selling newspapers and making deliveries for a door to door peddler, he spent his free time at the Hamburg Athletic Club, an athletic and political organization near his home. Hamburg and similar clubs were funded, at least in part, by Democratic politicians. Daley made his mark there, not in organization as the club manager. At age 22, he was elected president of the club and served in that office until 1939. Although he practiced law with partner William J. Lynch, he dedicated the majority of his time to his political career. Daley's career in politics began; this was a matter of political opportunism and the peculiar setup for legislative elections in Illinois at the time, which allowed Daley to take the place on the ballot of the deceased Republican candidate David Shanahan.
After his election, Daley moved back to the Democratic side of the aisle in 1938, when he was elected to the Illinois State Senate. In 1939, Illinois State Senator William "Botchy" Connors remarked "You couldn't give that guy a nickel, that's how honest he is." Daley was appointed by Governor Adlai Stevenson as head of the Illinois Department of Finance. Daley suffered his only political defeat in 1946. Daley made a successful run for Cook County Clerk and held that position prior to being elected Chicago's mayor. In the late 1940s, Daley became Democratic Ward Committeeman of the 11th Ward, a post he retained until his death. Daley became chairman of the Central Committee of the Cook County Democratic Party, i.e. boss of the political machine in 1953. Holding this position along with the mayoralty in years enhanced Daley's power. Daley was first elected mayor in 1955. Daley was re-elected to that office five times and had been mayor for 21 years at the time of his death. Through those 21 years, the Illinois license plate on his car remained "708 222".
During his administration, Daley ruled the city with an iron hand and dominated the political arena of the city and, to a lesser extent, that of the entire state. Chicago has a "weak-mayor" system, in which most of the power is vested in the city council. However, his post as de facto leader of the Chicago Democratic Party gave him great influence over the city's ward organizations, which in turn allowed him a considerable voice in Democratic primary contests—in most cases, the real contest in this Democratic city. After watching the first 1960 presidential debate, Daley said Republican-nominee Vice President Richard Nixon looked "embalmed". Daley met Eleanor "Sis" Guilfoyle at a local ball game, he courted "Sis" for six years, during which time he finished law school and was established in his legal profession. They were married on June 17, 1936, lived in a modest brick bungalow at 3536 South L
Edward Joseph Kelly
Edward Joseph Kelly was an American politician who served as the 46th Mayor of Chicago from April 17, 1933 until April 15, 1947. Prior to being mayor of Chicago, Kelly served as chief engineer of the Chicago Sanitary District during the 1920s. Kelly was a Democrat. Born to Stephen, a police officer and Helen Kelly, he was the first of five Chicago mayors from Bridgeport of Chicago's South Side, he entered the labor force at age ten. Kelly was the chief engineer of the Chicago Sanitary District in the 1920s, he was sponsored by Patrick Nash, the owner of a sewer-contracting company that did millions of dollars of business with the city. In March 1924, Kelly became president of the South Park Commission. Upon his election he declared the end to an era of "Deenen Republicans", a faction of South Side Republicans allied with Robert R. McCormick which had lost control of the South Park Commission in the March 1924 municipal elections, he presided over the completion and opening of Soldier Field, built and operated by the South Park Commission.
Kelly organized many public events hosted by the venue. He made the venue the site of fundraisers and other events for charities and organizations which were supported by the Democratic Party. Following the assassination of Mayor Anton Cermak, Kelly was hand-picked by his friend, Patrick Nash, Chairman of the Cook County Democratic Party, to be the Democratic-backed candidate in the City Council's vote on a successor for Cermak. Together and Nash built one of the most powerful, most corrupt, big city political organizations, called the "Kelly-Nash Machine". Kelly was Mayor of Chicago during the 1933–34 Chicago World's Fair which took place during the Great Depression which included the successful playing of the first official Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Kelly was famous for banning Nelson Algren's 1942 book Never Come Morning, a novel, from the Chicago Public Library. In 1947, Kelly acquiesced to the Cook County Democratic Party's decision to slate a candidate with reform credentials for mayor of Chicago and was succeeded by Martin H. Kennelly.
Kelly was interred in Calvary Cemetery in Evanston, Illinois. Timeline of Chicago, 1930s-1940s