Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Christ Church, Spitalfields
Christ Church Spitalfields is an Anglican church built between 1714 and 1729 to a design by Nicholas Hawksmoor. On Commercial Street in the East End and in today's Central London it is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, on its western border facing the City of London, it was one of the first of the so-called "Commissioners' Churches" built for the Commission for Building Fifty New Churches, established by an Act of Parliament in 1711; the purpose of the Commission was to acquire sites and build fifty new churches to serve London's new settlements. This parish was carved out of the circa 1 square mile medieval Stepney parish for an area dominated by Huguenots as a show of Anglican authority; some Huguenots used it for baptisms and burials but not for everyday worship, preferring their own chapels though they assimilated into English life and Anglican worship –, in the eighteenth century plain. The Commissioners for the new churches including Christopher Wren, Thomas Archer and John Vanbrugh appointed two surveyors, one of whom was Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Only twelve of the planned fifty churches were built. The architectural composition of Christ Church demonstrates Hawksmoor's usual abruptness: the plain rectangular box of the nave is surmounted at its western end by a broad tower of three stages topped by a steeple more Gothic than classical; the magnificent porch with its semi-circular pediment and Tuscan columns is attached bluntly to the western end: it may indeed be a late addition to the design intended to add further support to the tower. Like those of Hawksmoor's other London churches and many of Wren's, the central space of the nave is organised around two axes, the shorter emphasised by two entrances of which only that to the south remains, it is lit by a clerestory. The aisles are roofed with elliptical barrel-vaults carried on raised Composite order columns, the same order is used for the screens across the eastern and western ends; the Venetian window at the east may show the growing influence of the revival of Palladian architecture, or it may be a rhyme with the arched pediment of the entrance portico, repeated in the wide main stage of the tower.
The east window is a double window, one inside, one outside, the effect now obscured by the Victorian stained glass window between the two. In 1836, Wallen Son and Beatson, local architects and surveyors, provided a substantial estimate for repairs to the church following a fire; the church was altered in 1850 by Ewan Christian, who removed the side galleries, blocked in the windows at the corners of the central space, combined upper and lower aisle windows to make tall, thin windows. The organ in the church was inaugurated in 1735, the work of Richard Bridge, a most celebrated builder of the time. With over two thousand pipes it was, when built, the largest organ in England, a record it held for over a hundred years. In the nineteenth century work was done at various times and further changes were made in the 1920s; the organ was not heard in public from about 1960 onwards. The magnificent organ case of walnut, the completeness of the Georgian survivals, make this a historic instrument of national importance.
The involvement of local expert Michael Gillingham was largely responsible for the decision to have it restored to working condition. The organ parts were dismantled and removed for safe keeping and to protect them from damage during the restoration of the building. A scheme of conservative restoration was prepared by organ builder William Drake and the restored organ was installed in 2014. By 1960 Christ Church was nearly derelict and services were held in the Church Hall as the roof of Christ Church itself was declared unsafe; the Hawksmoor Committee staved off the threat of wholesale demolition of the empty building—proposed by the Bishop of Stepney, Trevor Huddleston—and ensured that the roof was rebuilt with funds from the sale of the bombed out shell of St John's, Smith Square, now a concert hall. A rehabilitation centre for homeless alcoholic men was housed in part of the crypt from the 1960s until 2000 when it relocated to purpose built accommodation above ground. In 1976 the Friends of Christ Church Spitalfields, an independent charity, was formed to raise money and project manage the restoration of this Grade I listed building so it could be brought back into use.
Church services returned to the restored building in 1987 and the restoration of the building was complete in 2004, enabling a wide range of uses to run alongside its primary function as a place of worship. As part of the restoration process, the burial vaults beneath the church had to be cleared. Instead of hiring a commercial undertaker for this job, the Friends of Christ Church raised funds for the employment of an archaeological team, who excavated nearly 1,000 interments between 1984 and 1986. Of these, about 390 were identifiable from coffin name plates. Archaeologists and physical anthropologists took this opportunity to study Victorian mortuary practices and anthropology, including health and causes of death of the local population; the project was written up as a two-volume landmark study. The portico at the west end was repaired and cleaned in 1986
Lothbury is a short street in the City of London. It runs east-west with traffic flow in both directions, from Gresham Street's junction with Moorgate to the west, Bartholomew Lane's junction with Throgmorton Street to the east; the area was populated with coppersmiths in the Middle Ages before becoming home to a number of merchants and bankers. Lothbury borders the Bank of England on the building's northern side, some of Sir John Soane's work dating from 1788 can still be seen there today. Opposite the Bank is the Christopher Wren church St Margaret Lothbury. Lothbury was the location of the Whalebone Tavern, the meeting place for the radical Leveller movement in the mid seventeenth-century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Great Northern & City Railway planned an underground railway station at Lothbury, but this was abandoned because of financial constraints. Today the nearest London Underground station is a short way to the south; the nearest mainline railway station is Liverpool Street, with National Rail services towards East Anglia.
41 Lothbury is a noteworthy office building, designed by architects Mewes and Davis, with interior columns, marble walls and floor. It was for many years the head office of National Westminster Bank; the Grade II* listed building was completed in 1932 and replaced a nineteenth-century building designed by Charles Robert Cockerell. Having retired as Governor of the Bank of England, Mervyn King was made a life peer and now has the title Baron King of Lothbury. Media related to Lothbury at Wikimedia Commons
The Queen's College, Oxford
The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault, it is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor. In 2018, the college had an endowment of £ 291 million; the college was founded in 1341 as "Hall of the Queen's scholars of Oxford" by Robert de Eglesfield, chaplain to Queen Philippa of Hainault, after whom the hall was named. Robert's aim was where he lived in Westmorland. In addition, the college was to provide charity for the poor; the college's coat of arms is that of the founder. The current coat of arms was adopted by d'Eglesfield because he was unable to use his family's arms, being the younger son. D'Eglesfield had grand plans for the college, with a provost, twelve fellows studying theology, up to thirteen chaplains, seventy-two poor boys. However, the college did not have the funding to support such numbers, had just two fellows.
The college gained land and patronage in the mid-15th century, giving it a good endowment and allowing it to expand to 10 fellows by the end of the century. By 1500, the college had started to take paying undergraduates sons of the gentry and middle class, who paid the fellows for teaching. There were 14 of these in 1535; the college added lectureships in philosophy. Provost Henry Robinson obtained an Act of Parliament incorporating the college as'The Queen's College' in 1585, so Robinson is known as the second founder. Following the new foundation, the college flourished until the 1750s. Joseph Williamson, admitted as a poor boy and went on to become a fellow, rose to Secretary of State and amassed a fortune, he funded a new range on Queen's Lane built in 1671–72. Following a bequest of books from Thomas Barlow, a new library was built between 1693 and 1696 by master builder John Townesend. A further bequest from Williamson of £6,000, along with purchase of the buildings along the High Street, allowed a new front quad to be built and for the remaining medieval buildings to be replaced.
This was completed by 1759 by John's son William Townesend. The college gained a large number of benefactions during this time, which helped to pay for the buildings and bring in more scholars from other northern, towns. From the 1750s, as with other Oxford colleges, standards dropped; the Oxford commission of 1850–1859 revised the statues and removed the northern preference for fellows and most of the students. Over the coming years, requirements for fellows to be unmarried were relaxed, the number of fellows required to have taken orders and studied theology was reduced, in 1871 the Universities Tests Act allowed non-conformists and Catholics. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Queen's admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than six centuries as an institution for men only; the college is named for Queen Philippa of Hainault. Established in January 1341'under the name of the Hall of the Queen's scholars of Oxford', the college was subsequently called the'Queen's Hall','Queenhall' and'Queen's College'.
An Act of 1585 sought to end this confusion by providing that it should be called by the one name'the Queen's College'. The full name of the College, as indicated in its annual reports, is The Provost and Scholars of The Queen’s College in the University of Oxford. Queens' College in Cambridge positions its apostrophe differently and has no article, as it was named for multiple Queens. In April 2012, as part of the celebrations of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, a series of commemorative stamps was released featuring A-Z pictures of famous British landmarks; the Queen's College's front quad was used on the Q stamp, alongside other landmarks such as the Angel of the North on A and the Old Bailey on O. One of the most famous feasts of the College is the Boar's Head Gaudy, the Christmas dinner for members of the College who were unable to return home to the north of England over the Christmas break between terms, but is now a feast for old members of the College on the Saturday before Christmas.
The main entrance on the High Street leads to the front quad, built between 1709 and 1759. There are symmetrical ranges on the east and west sides, while at the back of the quad is a building containing the chapel and the hall. Nicholas Hawksmoor provided a number of designs that were not used directly but that influenced the final design. Above the college entrance is a statue of Caroline of Ansbach by the sculptor Henry Cheere; the chapel is noted for its Frobenius organ in the west gallery. It was installed in 1965, replacing a Rushworth and Dreaper organ from 1931; the earliest mention of an organ is 1826. The Chapel Choir has been described as "Oxford's finest mixed-voice choir" and continues to perform termly concerts, recent examples of which inclu
Thornton is a village in Leicestershire, England. The village is within the civil parish of Thornton, it is a linear village lying along a scarp overlooking Thornton Reservoir. The Church of England parish church of St Peter was built in the 13th century; the church door was at Ulverscroft Priory. The priory door is inside the church and not its main external door, it is believed that the door was the only compensation received for the loss of tithes due to the Reformation of Henry VIII. It was reported in November 2011; the first historical notice of Thornton, otherwise called "Torinton" is that in the Doomesday Book completed in 1085 AD. In it Thornton, or Torentum, comes under the manor of Bagworde. Benefactions. There were many in the parish but the following 2 are most significant. 1. In 1630 Luke Jackson gave by will one third of the tithes of Stanton Under Bardon in the parish of Thornton to the poor of the parish for ever; this benefitted the vicar of Thornton to the tune of £2 for preaching 2 sermons on 28 July each year in remembrance of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 and on 5 November in commemoration of deliverance from the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
This benefaction comes from the fact that Mr Jackson acquired the tithes at the time of the Reformation when in fact they were rightly belonging to the Church. 2. William Grundy of Thornton, gave by will, a house and garden in Thornton to the poor forever. Railway From 1832 until 1871 Thornton was served by Merry Lees railway station on the Leicester and Swannington Railway; the Stag and Castle Inn built in 1832 served as a station in Thornton Hollow, part way between Thornton and Bagworth until 1865. On 4 May 1833 an accident occurred at Thornton Lane level crossing; the gates had been left open and a train ran into a horse and cart, the driver of which had not heard the engine driver's bugle. The Company had to pay for a new horse and cart along with fifty pounds of butter and eighty dozen eggs. George Stephenson, the line being laid out by Robert Stephenson in 1832, devised the steam whistle, it was constructed by a Leicester musical instrument maker and of course it became standard equipment on most steam trains afterwards.
Thornton Reservoir has an area of 75 acres. It was constructed during excavation traces of a presumed Roman road were seen, it is no longer used as a source of drinking water and was opened for trout fishing in the mid 1970s. Severn Trent Water opened it to the public for walking in 1997. There are 2 public houses here, The Bricklayers Arms and the Reservoir Inn along with a Working Men's Club; the Bulls Head, now Reservoir Inn was once the site of a slaughter house though it is unclear whether this was at the same time that it was a drinking establishment. It was a farming village but, with the coming of the collieries in Bagworth and the Coalville area, many miners lived in Thornton too. There was no colliery or mine workings in Thornton and it is understood that underground faults made any coal under Thornton unworkable; some believe that the collieries of Desford and Bagworth failed to mine below Thornton and thus deny it the ravages of subsidence as it may have caused severe damage to the railway or drained the reservoir, this is hearsay.
Bagworth Heath Woods now stands on the site of Desford colliery. Nearby is Brown's Wood Manor Farm Woodland, planted in part due to the heavy metal group Iron Maiden liaising with The Carbon Neutral Company to plant enough saplings to offset the carbon dioxide generated by the production and distribution of their 2003 album Dance of Death. There is a pub, it was a farming and mining village, but the mine was closed in February 1984. Lemuel Abbott was vicar here 1773 to his death in 1776, a poet and clergyman
William Wilberforce was a British politician, a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade. A native of Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, he began his political career in 1780 becoming a Member of Parliament for Yorkshire, he was independent of party. In 1785, he became an evangelical Christian, which resulted in major changes to his lifestyle and a lifelong concern for social reform and progress, he was educated at Cambridge. In 1787, he came into contact with Thomas Clarkson and a group of anti-slave-trade activists, including Granville Sharp, Hannah More and Charles Middleton, they persuaded Wilberforce to take on the cause of abolition, he soon became one of the leading English abolitionists. He headed the parliamentary campaign against the British slave trade for twenty years until the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Wilberforce was convinced of the importance of religion and education, he championed causes and campaigns such as the Society for the Suppression of Vice, British missionary work in India, the creation of a free colony in Sierra Leone, the foundation of the Church Mission Society, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
His underlying conservatism led him to support politically and controversial legislation, resulted in criticism that he was ignoring injustices at home while campaigning for the enslaved abroad. In years, Wilberforce supported the campaign for the complete abolition of slavery, continued his involvement after 1826, when he resigned from Parliament because of his failing health; that campaign led to the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, which abolished slavery in most of the British Empire. Wilberforce died just three days after hearing that the passage of the Act through Parliament was assured, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to his friend William Pitt the Younger. Wilberforce was born in a house on the High Street of Hull, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, on 24 August 1759, the only son of Robert Wilberforce, a wealthy merchant, his wife, Elizabeth Bird, his grandfather, had made the family fortune in the maritime trade with Baltic countries, had twice been elected mayor of Hull.
Wilberforce was a small and delicate child with poor eyesight. In 1767, he began attending Hull Grammar School, at the time headed by a young, dynamic headmaster, Joseph Milner, to become a lifelong friend. Wilberforce profited from the supportive atmosphere at the school, until the death of his father in 1768 caused changes in his living arrangements. With his mother struggling to cope, the nine-year-old Wilberforce was sent to a prosperous uncle and aunt with houses in both St James' Place and Wimbledon, at that time a village 7 miles south-west of London, he attended an "indifferent" boarding school in Putney for two years. He spent his holidays in Wimbledon, where he grew fond of his relatives, he became interested in evangelical Christianity due to his relatives' influence that of his aunt Hannah, sister of the wealthy Christian merchant John Thornton, a philanthropist and a supporter of the leading Methodist preacher George Whitefield. Wilberforce's staunchly Church of England mother and grandfather, alarmed at these nonconformist influences and at his leanings towards evangelicalism, brought the 12-year-old boy back to Hull in 1771.
Wilberforce was heartbroken at being separated from his uncle. His family opposed a return to Hull Grammar School because the headmaster had become a Methodist, Wilberforce therefore continued his education at nearby Pocklington School from 1771 to 1776. Influenced by Methodist scruples, he resisted Hull's lively social life, but, as his religious fervour diminished, he embraced theatre-going, attended balls, played cards. In October 1776, at the age of 17, Wilberforce went up to Cambridge; the deaths of his grandfather and uncle in 1777 had left him independently wealthy and as a result he had little inclination or need to apply himself to serious study. Instead he immersed himself in the social round of student life and pursued a hedonistic lifestyle, enjoying cards and late-night drinking sessions – although he found the excesses of some of his fellow students distasteful. Witty, generous and an excellent conversationalist, Wilberforce was a popular figure, he made many friends including the more studious future Prime Minister William Pitt.
Despite his lifestyle and lack of interest in studying, he managed to pass his examinations and was awarded a B. A. in 1781 and an M. A. in 1788. Wilberforce began to consider a political career while still at university, during the winter of 1779–1780, he and Pitt watched House of Commons debates from the gallery. Pitt set on a political career, encouraged Wilberforce to join him in obtaining a parliamentary seat. In September 1780, at the age of twenty-one and while still a student, Wilberforce was elected Member of Parliament for Kingston upon Hull, spending over £8,000, as was the custom of the time, to ensure he received the necessary votes. Free from financial pressures, Wilberforce sat as an independent, resolving to be "no party man". Criticised at times for inconsistency, he supported both Tory and Whig governments according to his conscience, working with the party in power, voting on specific measures according to their merits. Wilberforce attended Parliament but he maintained a lively social life, becoming an habitué of gentlemen's gambling clubs such as Goostree's and Boodle's in Pall Mall, London.
The writer and socialite Madame de Staël described him as the "wittiest man in England" and, acco
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC